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securo cara coniuge posse frui.
adsis et timidis faveas, Saturnia, votis,

et faveas concha, Cypria, vecta tua.
aut si fata negant reditum tristesque sorores

stamina quae ducunt quaeque futura neunt,
me vocet in vastos amnes nigramque paludem

dives in ignava luridus Orcus aqua.

Vos tenet Etruscis manat quae fontibus unda,

unda sub aestivum non adeunda canem,

3. 36. neunt o canunt Heinsius regunt Dissen. et w.

38. dives in 0 Ditis

33. Saturnia : Juno, the pa- springs, I am languishing at home, troness of wedlock.

near death. Spare me, Perseph34. concha : cf. Baum. Denk., one! I have done no crime, p. 94. – Cypria : Venus, who nor committed sacrilege, and I might aid the poet's suit for a am still a young man. 21return of Neaera's favor.

34: Spare me, all ye gods 35. sorores = Parcae.

of the nether world, till old age 36. Cf. 1, 7, 1.- quaeque : for shall ripen me for death! I hope the repetition cf. 3, 2, 4. — neunt my fears are groundless; but,

= nent; the form occurs only friends, while you enjoy yourselves here; cf. L. 837.

at the springs, do not forget to 37. vastos : desolate.'

offer sacrifices for my recovery.". 38. dives: the Latinized epithet 1. Vos : we have no clue to the of the Greek Hades (Plouton) is names of his friends here addressed. here applied to the more vague - Etruscis . . . fontibus : there are equivalent, Orcus; H. & T. $ 101. said to have been hot springs of a Translate in this order: dives considerable reputation at various Orius, luridus in ignava aqua. places in Etruria, e.g. Caere, Pisae,

and Centumcellae. — unda = aqua. 3, 5

2. non adeunda : on account of 1-20: “While you, my friends, the unhealthy climate, which is are seeking health at the Etruscan still notorious all along this coast.

10

nunc autem sacris Baiarum proxima lymphis,

cum se purpureo vere remittit humus:
5 at mihi Persephone nigram denuntiat horam :

in merito iuveni parce nocere, dea.
non ego temptavi nulli temeranda virorum

audax laudandae sacra docere deae,
nec mea mortiferis infecit pocula sucis

dextera nec cuiquam trita venena dedit, nec nos sacrilegos templis admovimus ignes,

nec cor sollicitant facta nefanda meum, nec nos insanae meditantes iurgia mentis

inpia in adversos solvimus ora deos: 15 et nondum cani nigros laesere capillos,

nec venit tardo curva senecta pede. natalem primo nostrum videre parentes, 5. 7. virorum w deorum O piorum Itali. 11. sacrilegos G sacrilegis AV sacrilegi w. 12. facta O furta Baehrens. 16. tardo ( tacito P.

3. nunc : at this time of year. 8. laudandae : i.e. bonae. - autem : the word is not used by docere : 'to divulge.' Tibullus, and occurs only here in 10. dextera ... dedit: mixthe whole Tibullus collection. - ing poison, and offering it to proxima : in popularity.

anybody, are distinguished. Both 4. remittit: i.e. from the frosts were far too common in this of winter.

age. Cf. Aristoph. Frogs, 123 5. nigram ... horam: i.e. of sqq. death; cf. 1, 3, 4-5; 3, 3, 25, n.; 15. cani: cf. 1, 8, 42: cum Prop. 2, 24, 34: non niger ille dies. vetus infecit cana senecta caput;

7. virorum : the presence of Prop. 3, 5, 24. For the close parany of the male sex at the rites of allels, to this and the following the Bona Dea was strictly for- vv., in Ovid cf. A. A. 2, 669; bidden. Cf. 1, 6, 22: sacra bonae Trist. 4, 10, 5; Am. 2, 14, 23. maribus non adeunda deae ; Ovid, For theories in explanation cf. A. A. 3, 637; Fast. 5, 153; Plut. Intr. $ 25. Cic. 19; Macr. I, 12, 26; Prop. 4, 16. tardo ... pede: to be taken 9, 25; Paus. 8, 31, 8. Men were with senecta. Cf. Ovid, A. A. 2, excluded from the temples of 670 : iam veniet tucito curva 'great goddesses.'

senecta pede.

20

25

cum cecidit fato consul uterque pari.
quid fraudare iuvat vitem crescentibus uvis

et modo nata mala vellere poma manu ?
parcite, pallentes undas quicumque tenetis

duraque sortiti tertia regna dei. Elysios olim liceat cognoscere campos

Lethaeamque ratem Cimmeriosque lacus, cum mea rugosa pallebunt ora senecta

et referam pueris tempora prisca senex. atque utinam vano nequiquam terrear aestu !

languent ter quinos sed mea membra dies. at vobis Tuscae celebrantur numina lymphae

et facilis lenta pellitur unda manu. vivite felices, memores et vivite nostri,

sive erimus seu nos fata fuisse velint.

30

18. consul uterque: the consuls Hirtius and Pansa both fell in battle at Mutina, B.C. 43. This verse occurs again in Ovid, Trist. 4, 10, 6. For a discussion of the chronological and other difficulties which thus arise cf. Intr. $$ 21, 25.

19. Cf. Ovid, Am. 2, 14, 23.

21. pallentes: cf. 3, 1, 28: pallida Ditis aqua.

22. duraque: the use of the two adjectives with regna is permissible in view of the fact that tertia regna is practically equivalent to Orcum. The three kingdoms were those of the three brothers, Zeus, Poseidon, and Hades.

23. olim : at some future time.'

24. Lethaeamque : cf. 3, 3, 10, n. — Cimmeriosque lacus: cf. 1, 10, 38, n. The Cimmerii were a

fabulous people whom Homer located only vaguely in the far west, where they were supposed to live in the midst of perpetual clouds and darkness. But later writers endeavored to localize them more definitely in different places, among others, in caves near Cumae, where they dwelt in perpetual darkness : cf. 4, 1, 64; Cic. Acad. 2, 19, 61. Hence “Cimmerian’darkness became proverbial, and the epithet was easily applied to the regions (here, lacus) of the lower world.

27. aestu = febri.

30. manu: i.e. of the swimmers.

32. fuisse : the well-known euphemism for death. Cf. Verg. Aen. 2, 325: fuimus Troes, fuit lium.

interea nigras pecudes promittite Diti

et nivei lactis pocula mixta mero.

LIBER QVARTVS

4, 2

Sulpicia est tibi culta tuis, Mars magne, kalendis :

spectatum e caelo, si sapis, ipse veni. hoc Venus ignoscet; at tu, violente, caveto 33. nigras : as the most appro- believes it was (Bell. U., p. 3), the priate sacrifices to the gods of the following group of poems (4, 3-6), lower world, to whom (e.g. Dis, or they may have accompanied Vejovis, and Manes) black sheep other gifts. On the personality of were offered. The same idea ap Cerinthus (whose name does not, pears in the folklore of other indeed, appear in this elegy) and nations.

of Sulpicia, cf. Intr. § 24, and 2, 34. lactis : cf. 3, 2, 20, n.

2, Intr.

1-14: « On thy festal day, great Mars, Sulpicia's native beauty is

so heightened by her adornment On the authorship of Book as to make her fit to be com4, see Intr. § 26.

pared with the divine Vertumnus, The old Roman year began on 15-24: She is the only maiden March 1, on which day it was cus- worthy to receive all costly gifts. tomary to give presents, even Therefore, ye Muses, sing of her after the reformation of the calen- your choicest praises.' dar in 46 B.C. by. Julius Caesar, 1. tibi culta : arrayed in thine which established Jan. I as New honor.' Year's day. As March I was the 2. ipse veni: cf. 2, 5, 5. festival of the Matronalia (the 3. Venus: the beloved of Mars. femineae kalendae of Juv. 9, 53), - ignoscet : on account of Sulpiit was especially appropriate for cia's remarkable beauty. Cf. Prop. husbands to give presents to their 2, 28, 33. For the quantity of the wives. This poem seems to have last syllable cf. 1, 10, 13, n. — been written to accompany such a caveto: the tense implies the usual gift made by Cerinthus to Sulpicia, colloquial familiarity: “You'd

- a lover to a prospective wife, – better look out.” Cf. PAPA., Vol. which may have been, as Belling 26 (1895), p. Ixi.

10

ne tibi miranti turpiter arma cadant. illius ex oculis, cum vult exurere divos,

accendit geminas lampadas acer Amor. illam, quidquid agit, quoquo vestigia movit,

conponit furtim subsequiturque Decor. seu solvit crines, fusis decet esse capillis ;

seu compsit, comptis est veneranda comis. urit, seu Tyria voluit procedere palla;

urit, seu nivea candida veste venit. talis in aeterno felix Vertumnus Olympo

mille habet ornatus, mille decenter habet. sola puellarum digna est, cui mollia caris

vellera det sucis bis madefacta Tyros,

15

4. miranti: as you gaze in admiration.' — arma cadant: several ancient works of art represent Mars thus forgetful of all but the amorous intentions of the moment. Cf. Baum. Denk., p. 886.

5. oculis : cf. Propertius, of Cynthia (2, 3, 14): oculi, geminae, sidera nostra, faces.

6. geminas lampadas : cf. 2, 6, 16; Prop. 3, 16, 16.

8. conponit = ornat.

9. solvit crines : as was often the case in the retirement of the home; cf. 1, 3, 91; Prop 2, 1, 7: vidi ad frontem sparsos errare capillos; Ter. Haut. 288 sq.: ornatam ita uti quae ornantur sibi, nulla mala re os expolitam muliebri.

10. compsit : as was more appropriate when she appeared in public places. - veneranda : «adorable,' in the slang use of the word.

11. Tyria : for outdoor wear. 12. candida : for indoor use.

13. Vertumnus: the changing (vertere) god of gardens and fruits exhibited varying phases of beauty as the seasons advanced. Cf. Prop. 4, 2, a poem devoted to this god, his origin, name, and statue.

14. Cf. Prop. 4, 2, 22: in quamcumque voles verte, decor us ero; Ovid, Am. 2, 5, 43 : spectabat terram : terram spectare decebat ; maesta erat in vultu : maesta decenter erat.

16. sucis bis madefacta : double-dyed. The most costly Tyrian purple was thus prepared (diba pha), first with scarlet, then with the purpura. Cf. Hor. Car. 2, 16, 35: te bis Afro murice tinctae vestiunt lanae; Pliny, N. H. 9, 39, 137: diba pha tunc diiebatur quae bis tincta esset.

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