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ipse triumphali devinctus tempora lauro,

dum cumulant aras, ad tua sacra veni. sed nitidus pulcherque veni: nunc indue vestem

sepositam, longas nunc bene pecte comas,
qualem te memorant Saturno rege fugato

victori laudes concinuisse Iovi.
tu procul eventura vides, tibi deditus augur

scit bene quid fati provida cantet avis,
tuque regis sortes, per te praesentit aruspex,

lubrica signavit cum deus exta notis : te duce Romanos numquam frustrata Sibylla,


poet with the prelude to the main cf. 1, 3, 63, n.— nitidus pulcherque : part of the song sung by the poet “in all thy radiant beauty.” (meas), cf. 3, 4, 39-42 : hanc 8. sepositam: kept laid aside primum veniens plectro modulatus for special occasions, and so = eburno felices cantus ore sonante • sumptuous.' — longas . . . comas : dedit: sed postquam fuerant digiti cf. Ovid, Am. I, I, II. cum voce locuti, edidit haec dulci

9-10: explanatory of tritristia verba modo; cf. Bell. U., umphali in v. 5; the reference is p. 163, Anm. – vocales ... chordas : to Apollo's triumphant strains on

eloquent strains.' inpellere : the occasion of Juppiter's vanthe inf. with precor is found no quishing the Titans. Cf. Sen. where else in Tibullus except here Agam. 332; Verg. Aen. 8, 319. (and in the next verse -- flectere) 11. tu: Apollo's personal conthough it occasionally occurs in trol is affirmed over each of the Ovid.

four well-known methods of seek4. flectere verba : “sing in well ing prophetic knowledge: (1) the modulated tones.'

characteristic Roman augury by 5. triumphali: Apollo would the fight of birds ; (2) sortes, appropriately wear the emblems • lots'; cf. 1, 3, II;

(3) the of his own triumphs (cf. vv. 9 Etruscan method of divination by 10, n.) when assisting in honor examining the entrails of newly ing the son of Messalla. For the slain animals; (4) the Sibylline father's triumph, cf. 1, 7; for the books. son's, yet to come, cf. vv. 115 sqq. 15. Sibylla :

the Cumaean - devinctus : cf. v. 117.

Sibyl, the prophetess from whom, veni: not only according to the tradition, came come, but come in festal attire'; the Sibylline books themselves.

7. sed


abdita quae senis fata canit pedibus. Phoebe, sacras Messalinum sine tangere chartas

vatis, et ipse precor quid canat illa doce. haec dedit Aeneae sortes, postquam ille parentem

dicitur et raptos sustinuisse lares.
nec fore credebat Romam, cum maestus ab alto

Ilion ardentes respiceretque deos.
Romulus aeternae nondum firmaverat urbis

moenia, consorti non habitanda Remo,
sed tum pascebant herbosa Palatia vaccae

et stabant humiles in Iovis arce casae. lacte madens illic suberat Pan ilicis umbrae

et facta agresti lignea falce Pales,
pendebatque vagi pastoris in arbore votum,

garrula silvestri fistula sacra deo,
fistula, cui semper decrescit arundinis ordo:



16. senis ... pedibus : dactylic Fast. 1, 509 sqq., 243; A. A. 3, hexameters in which the oracles 119. were expressed.

27. Cf. I, 1, 36. — Pan: cor18. illa = Sibylla vates.

responding in many ways to the 20. Cf. Verg. Aen. 1, 378. Italian Faunus. Cf. Hor. Car.

22. ardentes : 'in flames,' ap I, 17. plies to both llion and deos (i.e. 28. Cf. I, 1, 18; 1, 10, 20. the images of the gods).

29. votum :

a votive offering, 23. Cf. Verg. Aen. I, 278 : the fistula of v. 30. his ego nec metas rerum nec tem 30. silvestri . .. deo Silvapora pono, imperium sine fine nus, who was identified with Pan. dedi. aeternae urbis : "the 31. fistula : the pandean pipe eternal city' is no modern name for composed of several (usually 7-9) Rome: cf. F. G. Moore in TAPA., reeds of carefully graded lengths, Vol. 25 (1894), pp. 34-60.-- firma a prototype of the organ, common verat : cf. Prop. 3, 9, 50. With among shepherds.

Cf. Ovid, the description of Rome's site in Met. 2, 682. For its Greek prehistoric times (a favorite sub name (syrinx) and origin, cf. ject for Roman poets) cf. Prop. Ovid, Met. I, 705-712.

For its 4, 1; Verg. Aen. 8, 313-368; Ovid, form see Rich's Dict. s.v. arundo.


nam calamus cera iungitur usque minor. at qua Velabri regio patet, ire solebat

exiguus pulsa per vada linter aqua. illa saepe gregis diti placitura magistro

ad iuvenem festa est vecta puella die,
cum qua fecundi redierunt munera ruris,

caseus et niveae candidus agnus ovis.
'inpiger Aenea, volitantis frater Amoris,

Troica qui profugis sacra vehis ratibus,
iam tibi Laurentes adsignat Iuppiter agros,

iam vocat errantes hospita terra lares.




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It is described by Ovid, Met. 8, 34. pulsa . . aqua: cf. Cat. 189-195. Cf. Verg. Ec. 2, 36: 64, 58: iuvenis

pellit vada disparibus septem conpacta ci remis; Prop. 4, 2, 8: remorum cutis fistula ; Hor. Car. 4, 12, 10. auditos per vada pulsa sonos.


32. usque minor : constantly 35. illa : i.e. aqua ( = via.) – decreasing.'

placitura : “to delight'; cf. R. 33. at: cf. 1, 3, 63, n. — Velabri : 1115, (3). the low, swampy valley between 36. iuvenem =

gregis ... mathe Capitoline, Palatine, and Aven gistro of the preceding verse. tine hills, bordering on the Tiber, festa ... die : probably the Pawhich was continually overflowing lilia (April 21); cf. v. 87. into it. One of the first great 39. The speech cf the Sibyl engineering enterprises at Rome here takes up the thread of was the draining of this valley, in thought broken off at v. cluding the Forum Romanum site, frater Amoris : Venus was the farther back from the river. This mother of Aeneas by Anchises, was accomplished by an early and of Cupid by Ares (as is ususewer along the general line of the ally assumed); cf. Verg. Aen. I, present Cloaca Maxima, which

667 : frater ut Aeneas. still performs its ancient functions


sacra: the and can be inspected at several Penates; cf. Verg. Aen. I, 68 : points. See Lanciani, Ancient portans victosque Penates. Rome, p. 54; cf. Prop. 4, 9, 5-6: 41. Aeneas landed near Lau- : qua Velabra suo stagnabant flu rentum, the ancient city near the mine quaque nauta per urbanas mouth of the Tiber, where he velificabat aquas ; Ovid, Fast. 6, was hospitably received by Lati405-406.



illic sanctus eris, cum te veneranda Numici

unda deum caelo miserit indigetem. ecce super fessas volitat Victoria puppes;

tandem ad Troianos diva superba venit. ecce mihi lucent Rutulis incendia castris :

iam tibi praedico, barbare Turne, necem. ante oculos Laurens castrum murusque Lavinist

Albaque ab Ascanio condita longa duce. te quoque iam video, Marti placitura sacerdos


Ilia, Vestales deseruisse focos,

43-44: The Numicius (or Nu art. The most celebrated of all micus) was the little stream (per her statues was the Nike of Samohaps the modern Rio Torto) near thrace, which stood on a ship's Lavinium, on whose banks Ae bow. Perhaps this familiar conneas was victorious over the Rutuli ception suggests to the poet this and their allies. The legend was expression, as if the goddess were that he immediately thereafter now at length hovering above the disappeared in its waters, and was ship of Aeneas and about to alight then deified as Juppiter Indiges, as on the prow and guide it into a Romulus afterwards similarly be haven of victory. Cf. Baum. came Quirinus. The local genii Denk., pp. 1019-1023. of places seem to have been rec 48. Turnus, his great enemy, ognized originally as their Indi was finally overcome by Aeneas in getes (indu + gigno). So the mortal combat. Pater Indiges or Deus Indiges of 49. The first home of the Trothis spot became identified with jan exiles in Italy was a permaAeneas. Cf. Preller 3, pp. 91-94. nent camp near Laurentum; then For the story cf. Ovid, Met. 14, Aeneas founded Lavinium ; Alba 581-608; Liv. 1, 2, 6. Vergil's Longa was built years later by version of the legend is different. Ascanius.

44. caelo: Madv. § 251. Cf. 52. Ilia: mother of Romulus Verg. Aen.9,785: tot miserit Orco. and Remus by Mars ; daughter of

45. fessas : cf. Aen. I, 168 : fes Aeneas and Lavinia according to sas non vincula naves ulla tenent. the older tradition ; later, in order

Victoria : referring to the con to weave in the Alban legends, said quest of the Rutuli. The goddess to be the daughter of Numitor, the Victoria (Gr. Nike) was a favorite Alban king, and, as such, a vestal at Rome, and often represented in virgin, usually called Rea Silvia.


concubitusque tuos furtim vittasque iacentes

et cupidi ad ripas arma relicta dei.
carpite nunc, tauri, de septem montibus herbas,

dum licet: hic magnae iam locus urbis erit.
Roma, tuum nomen terris fatale regendis,

qua sua de caelo prospicit arva Ceres,
quaque patent ortus et qua fuitantibus undis

Solis anhelantes abluit amnis equos.
Troia quidem tum se mirabitur et sibi dicet

vos bene tam longa consuluisse via.
vera cano : sic usque sacras innoxia laurus





53. furtim modifies the im and Roman writers with the Greek plied participle agreeing with con 'Póun (= strength '), and was cubitus (Heyne suggests peractos). therefore in itself fatale, “portenThe motive was a favorite one in tous.'— terris . . regendis : cf. Roman art, and has survived in

Madv. § 415. various mural paintings and bas 58. Cf. Ovid, Fast. 1, 85-86; reliefs. See Preller), Vol. 2, p. Juppiter arce sua totum cum spec347 ; Friedrichs-Wolters, Antike tet in orbem, nil nisi Romanum, Bildwerke, No. 2141; Baum. Denk., quod tueatur, habet. p. 886; Ovid, Fast. 3, 11 sqq.

59. quaque . . . et qua : ‘both 55. septem montibus : rather a where ... and where.' conventional than an exact de 60. amnis Oceanus, which, scription of the site of Rome. according to the generally accepted The seven principal elevations notion,

stream whose now reckoned in the list do not current never ceased to coincide with those of the origi around the earth. Cf. 3, 4, 17-18: nal “Septimontium,"

some of

iam Nox aetherium nigris emensa which were “hills” scarcely now quadrigis mundum caeruleo ladistinguishable such. Cf. verat amne rotas: Hom. N. 14, Richter?, Topog. von Rom., pp. 245. The river motion is implied 36–38; Enc. Brit., Vol. 23, p.589; also in Cat. 66, 69–70. Sandys, p. 35; Platner, pp. 39 sqq. 61. se: i.e. at her new and 56. iam : cf. 1, 1, 70, n.

greater self, reproduced in mightier 57. nomen : whatever be its Rome. true origin, the name Roma had 63. vera cano: sic: to make certainly long before this become the form of the adjuration comidentified in the minds of Greek plete an ut should be supplied at



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