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vos mala de nostris pellite limitibus,
neu seges eludat messem fallacibus herbis,

neu timeat celeres tardior agna lupos.
tum nitidus plenis confisus rusticus agris

ingeret ardenti grandia ligna foco, turbaque vernarum, saturi bona signa coloni,

ludet et ex virgis extruet ante casas.
eventura precor : viden ut felicibus extis

significet placidos nuntia fibra deos?
nunc mihi fumosos veteris proferte Falernos

25

18. pellite: avert': used in- ibus ; Ovid, Fast. 3, 528: e ramis stead of the obsolete averruncare frondea facta casa est; Class. of the ancient formula.

Rev., Vol. 22 (1908), p. 39. 19. eludat: originally a gladi- 25. extis : including theoretiatorial term, to 'parry' an enemy's cally the liver, heart, lungs, gall, thrust; hence to disappoint.? and caul of the victims; but we We should have expected mes need not suppose that a minute sorem; but the crop' is repre- examination was made, if there sented as disappointed because were signs of a propitious omen. it cannot fulfill i!s promise. - 26. fibra: here in the proper herbis : the green blades which signification of the filament termake only a fair show.

minating the exta ; often by syn21. tum : in that case,' i.e. if ecdoche for exta itself, as in 1, 8, my prayers are granted. — nitidus : 3: nec mihi sunt sortes nec conscia trim.'

fibra deorum. 22. Cf. Hor. Epod. 2, 43: 27. fumosos: wine was comsacrum vetustis exstruat lignis monly left in a fumarium, or focum.

smoke-chamber, where it gathered 24. ante: adverb, sc. fores. — a flavor much relished by the casas : leafy bowers such as were ancients; cf. Ovid, Fast. 5, 518: often woven together on festal oc- fumoso condita vina cado. B. G., casions, in which to enjoy the p. 489. - Falernos : sc. cados. luxuries of idleness and wine Falernian and Chian wines are drinking. Cf. 2, 5, 97; Pervigi- types of the choicest vintages, linm Ven. 6-7: inter umbras native and foreign. As the arborum in plicat casas virentis former was acid and the latter de flagello myrteo: Copa 8: et sweet, they were favorites for triclia umbrosis frigida harundin- mixing. Cf. Intr. $ 42, I (4).

consulis et Chio solvite vincla cado.

vina diem celebrent: non festa luce madere 30 est rubor, errantes et male ferre pedes.

sed 'bene Messallam' sua quisque ad pocula dicat,

nomen et absentis singula verba sonent. gentis Aquitanae celeber Messalla triumphis

· et magna intonsis gloria victor avis,
35 huc ades adspiraque mihi, dum carmine nostro

redditur agricolis gratia caelitibus.
rura cano rurisque deos. his vita magistris

desuevit querna pellere glande famem :

1. 29. celebrent AV celebrant P.

38. glande GP grande AV.

28. consulis : the age of the spoken, i.e. be. constantly on the wine was indicated by the name, lips of the banqueters! on the jar or the tag attached to 33. celeber: this may be the it, of the consul under whom it first instance of the use of the was made. Good Falernian, ac- word in the sense of 'famous.' cording to Plin. N. H. 23, 34, triumphis: for the plural cf. 1, 7, should be not less than 15 years 5; the occasion is the same there old. — vincla: both the stopper referred to. and the gypsum or pitch with 34. intonsis: a common epithet which it was sealed.

of the Romans of early times, be29. madere: sc. vino. Cf. 2, fore the tonsorial art was in vogue. 2, 8; 5, 87; Plaut. Most. 319: Cf. Hor. Car. 1, 12, 41: intonsis ecquid tibi videor ma-ma-ma- Curium capillis. Cf. 1, 7, 16, n. dere?

35 ades adspiraque : Messalla 30. errantes : “unsteady.' is invoked, as if he were one of

31. bene Messallam : sc. valere the Muses. So Vergil called upon iubeo; cf. our own abbreviated Maecenas in Georg. 2, 39 : tuque form of toasts, “ Here's to," etc. ades, inceptumque una decurre Cf. Ovid, Fast. 2, 637: bene vos, laborem, o decus . . . Maecenas. bene te, patriae pater, optime 36. agricolis : ‘patrons of husCaesar!!

bandry.' 32. absentis: sc. Messallae ; 38. glande: for acorns as a the participle has concessive force. staple of food in the Golden Age, - singula : a hyperbole: let his cf. Ovid, Met. 1, 106; Am. 3, 10, name recur at almost every word 9; Fast. I, 676; Tib. 2, 3, 68 :

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illi conpositis primum docuere tigillis

exiguam viridi fronde operire domum, illi etiam tauros primi docuisse feruntur

servitium et plaustro supposuisse rotam. tum victus abiere feri, tum consita pomus,

tum bibit inriguas fertilis hortus aquas, aurea tum pressos pedibus dedit uva liquores

mixtaque securo est sobria lympha mero.
rure terunt messes, calidi cum sideris aestu

deponit flavas annua terra comas.
rure levis verno flores apis ingerit alveo,

conpleat ut dulci sedula melle favos.
agricola adsiduo primum satiatus aratro

cantavit certo rustica verba pede

43. tum consita AG tunc consita V tunc insita w.

glans alat, et prisco more bibantur sidus might refer either to the sun, aquae. glans aluit veteres. or to Sirius; most editors refer this

41. Ovid, Am. 3, 10, 13: prima passage to the sun, but without iugis tauros supponere colla coegit any very good reason think Horet veterem curvo dente revellit ace is referring to the dog star in humum. — illi : for the elision Epod. 1, 27: ante sidus fervidum. cf. Intr. § 42.

So Ovid, Met. 1, 424, aetherioque 44. inriguas : in the active sense, recens exarsit sidere limus, is as in Ovid, Am. 2, 16, 2: inriguis quoted as referring to the sun; ora salubris aquis.

but Tibullus, 1, 7, 21, attributes the 46. securo: another poetical same result to Sirius as Vergil active instead of the ordinary pas- does in Aen. 3, 141 : tum steriles sive use; cf. Verg. Aen. 6, 715: exurere Sirius agros. securos latices et longa oblivia 48. annua = quotannis, an odd potant.

adverbial use, with such a noun 47. rure: abl. without a prepo- as terra. — comas : here used of sition for the more usual locative the grain itself. ruri. – terunt: the subject is in- 49. verno: agreeing with alveo, definite = agricolae. — sideris : ac- but used in the adverbial sense. cording to the usage of the Roman - alveo : synizesis. poets Tibullus can scarcely escape 52. certo . . . pede: regular here the charge of ambiguity, as rhythm.'

et satur arenti primum est modulatus avena

carmen, ut ornatos diceret ante deos, 55 agricola et minio suffusus, Bacche, rubenti

primus inexperta duxit ab arte choros. huic datus a pleno, memorabile munus, ovili

dux pecoris curtas auxerat hircus opes.

rure puer verno primum de flore coronam 60 fecit et antiquis in posuit laribus.

rure etiam teneris curam exhibitura puellis

molle gerit tergo lucida vellus ovis.
hinc et femineus labor est, hinc pensa colusque,

fusus et adposito pollice versat opus: 58. curtas auxerat hircus opes IVaardenburg yrcus hauxerat yrcus oves A hauserat VG hirtas duxerat hircus oves Heinsius.

53. satur : “after eating his fill. 57. huic: i.e. agricolae, in rec- avena : for a similar scene cf. ognition of his skill as leader of Verg. Ec. 1, 1-2.

the chorus. — ovili: we might 54. ornatos: with wreaths. have expected caprili; but this

55. minio: originally, doubt- word seems to have been little less, made of the lees of wine, the used and ovile elsewhere does most convenient substance on such duty for both sheep and goats; occasions. Cf. Hor. Ep. 2, 3, 277: cf. Ovid, Met. 13, 828: aliis quae canerent agerentque peruncti in ovilibus haedi. Cf. Bentley, faecibus ora. Later a prepared Horace, Vol. 2, p. 33. vermilion was used for both man 58. auxerat: for the tense cf. and god; cf. 1, 1, 17. From this Prop. 1, 12, 11 ; 2, 13, 38, n; Ovid, custom masks came to be used in Trist. 3, 11, 25: non sum ego quod the dramatic representations origi- fueram. nating in the same rustic festivals. 62. lucida : an unusual adjective - Bacche: it was at the festivals in the sense of white,' indicating of Dionysus that the Greek drama a glistening effect, and correspondbegan, just as such native Italian ing to our familiar expression, á as dramatic forms as the Fescenninae white as snow,' used of wool. and Saturae came from similar 63. hinc refers to the wool. celebrations in Etruria.

64. pollice: the thumb of the 56. ab: used to make it clear right hand, while the left hand that the idea is one of source here. holds the distaff; Cat. 64, 313: Cf. Prop. 2, 27, 11, n.

tum prono in pollice torquens

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atque aliqua adsiduae textrix operata Minervae ·

cantat, et adplauso tela sonat latere.
ipse quoque inter agros interque armenta Cupido

natus et indomitas dicitur inter equas.
illic indocto primum se exercuit arcu :

hei mihi, quam doctas nunc habet ille manus ! nec pecudes, velut ante, petit: fixisse puellas

gestit et audaces perdomuisse viros.
hic iuveni detraxit opes, hic dicere iussit

limen ad iratae verba pudenda senem :
hoc duce custodes furtim transgressa iacentes

ad iuvenem tenebris sola puella venit
et pedibus praetemptat iter suspensa timore,

explorat caecas cui manus ante vias.
ah miseri, quos hic graviter deus urget! at ille

felix, cui placidus leniter adflat Amor.

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67. quoque inter agros A quoque inter greges V interque greges G apros R. Klotz.

libratum tereti versabat turbine 67. Cf. Pervigilium Ven. 77: fusum; Ovid, Met. 6, 22: sive ipse Amor puer Dionae rure natus levi teretem versabat pollice fusum. dicitur. Tibullus is fond of using

65. aliqua : i.e. here and there ipse with the name of a divinity; one. — operata : engaged in the cf. e.g. 1, 3, 58; 2, 2, 5; 1, 8, 5. service of'; cf. note on v. 9. — 73. The perfect tenses express Minervae: the patroness of weav- customary action. ing; cf. H. & T. $39. This is best 74. iratae : sc. puellae. considered not a case of metonymy. 76. iuvenem : “her lover.'

66. latere: used collectively, 77. pedibus praetemptat iter: referring to the pieces of brick by “her way on tiptoe feels' which the threads of the warp were (Cranst.). weighted to keep them taut, and 78. ante: adverb. which would often strike together 80. adflat: cf. 2, 4, 57: ubi as the web was moved back and indomitis gregibus Venus adflat forth for the passage of the shuttle; amores. — Amor: the more com

rings the web beneath the driven mon name of this gợd in Tibullay' (Cranst.)..

lus. ROM. EL. POETS — IL 161

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