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errat ad obscuros pallida turba lacus.
quam potius laudandus hic est quem prole parata

occupat in parva pigra senecta casa !
ipse suas sectatur oves, at filius agnos,

et calidam fesso conparat uxor aquam.
sic ego sim, liceatque caput candescere canis,

temporis et prisci facta referre senem.
interea Pax arva colat. Pax candida primum

duxit araturos sub iuga curva boves,
Pax aluit vites et sucos condidit uvae,

funderet ut nato testa paterna merum :
pace bidens vomerque nitent — at tristia duri

militis in tenebris occupat arma situs —


39. quam GP quin AV. 40. occupat O occulit P. 46. curva AV panda P. 49. bidens PV nitens A. vomerque PV vomer A. nitent Guyetus nitet P vident A viderit V vigent sec, man. V w.

funeral pyre. Cf. 2, 6, 39-40. the poet recurs to the main wish, Hence the idea of shades with viz. to avoid war and enjoy peace. smitten cheeks and singed locks' - candescere : cf. Prop. 2, 18, 5: (.sunken chaps,' --Cranst.).

quid mea si canis aetas candesceret 38. lacus : the rivers of the annis. -- canis : sc. capillis. lower world are continually repre- 44. temporis ... prisci: cf. Hor. sented as sluggish, like standing Ep. 2, 3, 173: laudator temporis water; cf. 3, 5, 24; Prop. 4, II, acti, a tendency characteristic of 15; Verg. Aen. 6, 323: Cocyti old age. stagna alta vides Stygiamque pa- 45. interea : i.e. till I reach old ludem.

age. Cf. I, 1, 69. 39. laudandus: “to be deemed 46. araturos : A. 499, 2. Cf. 1, happy.'— hic: rare quantity

7, 29. -- curva: cf. Ovid, Ex P. 40. occupat: “overtakes.' - 1, 8, 54: ducam ruricolas sub inga pigra : cf. 1, 1, 58.

curva boves. 42. aquam : for bathing. Cf. 48. testa : i.e. amphora; cf. Hor. Epod. 2, 43 : exstruat lignis note on 2, 5, 85. — merum: see focum lassi sub adventum viri. B. G., p. 128, n. 7.

43. sic ego sim : cf. the close 49. nitent: cf. Ovid, Fast. 4, of the previous paragraph, v. 29; 927: sarcula nunc diurusque bidens

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rusticus e lucoque vehit, male sobrius ipse,

uxorem plaustro progeniemque domum.
sed Veneris tum bella calent, scissosque capillos

femina perfractas conqueriturque fores :
flet teneras subtusa genas, sed victor et ipse

flet sibi dementes tam valuisse manus.
at lascivus Amor rixae mala verba ministrat,

inter et iratum lentus utrumque sedet.
ah lapis est ferrumque, suam quicumque puellam

verberat: e caelo deripit ille deos.
sit satis e membris tenuem rescindere vestem,

sit satis ornatus dissoluisse comae,
sit lacrimas movisse satis : quater ille beatus

51. Haupt conjectured the loss of a distich before this v. O obtusa Némethy. 61. rescindere w perscindere AV.

55. subtusa

et vomer aduncus, ruris opes, ni 53. scissosque capillos : with teant; inquinet arma situs. this passage cf. Prop. 2, 5, 21 sqq.;

51. lucoque: the sacred grove Hor. Car. I, 17, 26–28. where the religious rites of a rural 56. flet : cf. 2, 5, 103. holiday would be celebrated, fol 58. iratum ... utrumque : “the lowed by the festive amusements angry pair' (Cranst.). — lentus : of the day. Cf. Prop. 4, 6, 71; •calınly?; cf. Ovid, Am. 3, 6, 59Ovid, Fast. 3, 525 sqq., Hor. Ep. 60: ille habet et silices et vivum 2, 1, 140-144. For the position of in pettore ferrum, qui tenere lacrithe que, cf. Intr. $ 28; Munro's mas lentus in ore videt. note on Lucr. 2, 1050; Ovid, Fast. 59. Cf. v. 2; 1, 1, 63. 2, 177, etc. — male = non : cf. 60. deripit : cf. 1, 2, 82: serOvid, Fast. 6, 785: ecce suburbana taque de sanctis deripuisse focis. rediens male sobrius aede; Her. The idea here is borrowed from 7, 27: ille quidem male gratus; the attack of the Giants upon Verg. Aen. 2, 23: statio male fida heaven. carinis. --- ipse: as distinguished 62. sit satis : cf. the repetition from the wife and children. Cf. in 1, 1, 43. — dissoluisse : for the for the customary indulgence 2, tense cf. 1, 1, 46, n. I, 29.

63. For another point of view 52. Cf. Livy, 5, 40, 10.

see I, I, 51. - quater : a variation

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quo tenera irato flere puella potest.
sed manibus qui saevus erit, scutumque sudemque

is gerat et miti sit procul a Venere.
at nobis, Pax alma, veni spicamque teneto,

perfluat et pomis candidus ante sinus.

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Quisquis adest, faveat: fruges lustramus et agros,

ritus ut a prisco traditus extat avo.

68. perfluat w prefluat AV profluat G. on the common formula, terque led editors to suppose the poet to quaterque ; cf. 3, 3, 26; Verg. Aen. refer to the Sementivae, or Paga1, 94.

nalia, celebrated in January ; cf. 65. scutumque ... gerat: i.e. Ovid, Fast. I, 657-680; Fowler, let him rather than me go to war. Rom. Fest., pp. 294 sqq. But the

67. Representations of Pax poet is more commonly supposed (found mostly on coins) commonly to be describing the Ambarvalia. have not only an olive branch and Cf. Fowler, Rom. Fest., pp. 124 sqq. a cornucopia, but also a bundle of Cf. also Fowler, Class. Rev., Vol. ears of corn in one hand. — teneto: 22 (1908), pp. 37-40. Besides the the colloquial impv. in -to without public festival of the Ambarvalia, special fut. force. Cf. PAPA., celebrated annually in May, every Vol. 26 (1895), p. Ixi.

Roman possessor of a farm used 68. ante: adv. of place.

to perform similar rites of purification for his own fields and crops

about the last of April or first of 2, 1

May. The name of the festival As different Roman festivals is derived from the custom of leadhad certain features in common, it ing thrice around the estate (arva is not always easy to decide posi- and ambire) the sacrificial victim tively which occasion may be in or victims before slaying them. the mind of a poet like Vergil or At the greater celebration the vicTibullus. Some of the features tims were a boar, a ram, and a bull in the following description have (suovetaurilia); but private citi.

Bacche, veni, dulcisque tuis e cornibus uva

pendeat, et spicis tempora cinge, Ceres.
luce sacra requiescat humus, requiescat arator,

et grave suspenso vomere cesset opus.

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zens might employ the lesser suo- Cupid, too, they say, is a child of vetaurilia (pig, lamb, calf), or the fields. How skillful and bold offer only one of these. The di- he has grown! Neither old man, vinities especially worshiped were youth, nor maid is safe from his Mars (in early times), Ceres, and darts. Yet happy he who wins his Bacchus. This description of the favor! Come then, Cupid, to the Ambarvalia must have been writ- feast, but leave thy quiver behind. ten after 27 B.C. (cf. v. 33), per- Invoke, friends, the favor of this haps the next spring. Another God for the flocks; for yourself picture of the same festival may too, if you will. Make merry! for be seen in Verg. Georg. I, 338 night comes on apace. sqq. For a modern description 1. faveat: sc. lingua, i.e. let see Walter Pater's Marius the no inauspicious word fall. Cf. 2, 2, Epicurean, pp. 3 sqq.

1; Hor. Car. 3, 1, 2: favete lin1-14: Invitation to the feast: guis. — fruges lustramus: i.e. by • Keep silence all ! Come, Bac- anticipation. chus ! Come, Ceres! This is a 3. cornibus: Bacchus was somesacred day, a day of rest for man times represented with horns, as and beast. Come purified to the an emblem of power and abunsacred altars! 15-26: The sol- dance (cf. cornucopia); cf. Baum. emn procession advances. Gods Denk., p. 435; Prop. 3, 17, 19: of my father, accept this offering, per te et tua cornua, vivam ; Hor. defend field and flock, and grant Car. 2, 19, 29: te vidit insons prosperity to my estate. Lo! the Cerberus aureo cornu decorum ; prayer is heard. 27-36: Now let K. P. H. in AJA., Vol. 5 (1901), us enjoy the festal banquet, and p. 7. drink our fill; and while each 4. spicis ... cinge: the wreath pledges thy health, Messalla, come of ears of corn was a stated attrithyself and inspire my song of bute of Ceres ; cf. I, I, 15; 1, 10, praise. 37-66: My theme is agri- 22; Hor. Car. Saec. 30: spicea culture and its gods. They taught donet Cererem corona. Baum. men to lead a civilized life. How Denk., p. 417. delightful is rustic life, with its 5. luce = die. — 5 sqq.: cf. plenty and its joys! Hence came Ovid, Fast. 1,663-665. the drama, the forms of worship, 6. suspenso : so slight and simand the art of weaving. 67-90: ple an affair was the ancient plow

solvite vincla iugis: nunc ad praesepia debent

plena coronato stare boves capite.
omnia sint operata deo: non audeat ulla

lanificam pensis inposuisse manum.
vos quoque abesse procul iubeo, discedat ab aris,

cui tulit hesterna gaudia nocte Venus.
casta placent superis : pura cum veste venite

et manibus puris sumite fontis aquam.
cernite, fulgentes ut eat sacer agnus ad aras

vinctaque post olea candida turba comas.
di patrii, purgamus agros, purgamus agrestes :


(for a description see Verg. Georg. to ulla ; nullus is quite often di1, 169-175) that this word is liter- vided in poetry. — ulla : sc. puella; ally correct. The plow was often cf. 1, 3, 87. Woman's work is to hung on a limb in the same posi- stop, as well as man's. tion as that of a scythe to-day.

10. lanificam: a poetic adjec7. iugis : the team,' just as we tive, perhaps first found in this say, “a yoke of oxen." Best con- passage. sidered as a dat. ; for the connec- 11. vos : explained by the foltion shows that everything is to lowing clause, where the construcbe done on this occasion for the tion changes; for a similar change comfort and well-being of the from plural to singular, cf. I, 6, cattle, as well as that of their 39: tum procul absitis, quisquis owners. This does not prevent colit arte capillos. the emphasizing of the idea of 14. fontis: only living water separation in translation. Cf. A would do for purposes of purifi229; H. 427.

cation. 8. Wreathing of cattle was 15. agnus: the victim had been practiced not merely when the led three times around the farm, animals were to be sacrificed. and is now about to be sacrificed. One of the most familiar decora- 16. candida : cf. I, 1o, 27. tive features in art is garlanded turba : the whole familia, agrestes, ox skulls.

etc. 9. Operata : be performed in 17. di patrii: an indefinite honor of,' i.e. praise'; cf. v. 65; term, including doubtless Mars, 2, 5, 95; Prop. 2, 28, 45: Verg. Bacchus, and Ceres, and all others Georg. 1, 339. -- non : instead of under whose protection the anthe regular ne, because it belongs cestral estate had hitherto thrived.

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