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60

candidaque antiquo detinet Alba lare. namque opibus congesta tuis hic glarea dura

sternitur, hic apta iungitur arte silex. te canit agricola, e magna cum venerit urbe

serus inoffensum rettuleritque pedem. at tu, natalis multos celebrande per annos,

candidior semper candidiorque veni.

Vio

Quis fuit, horrendos primus qui protulit enses?

quam ferus et vere ferreus ille fuit !

I, 10

58. candida : the reference is to optime Natalis ... candidus huc the same appearance in the lime venias. stone rock which had originally given the name Alba. Cf. Taylor, Words and Places, pp. 141-142. – This is generally considered lare : home.'

the earliest of Tibullus's elegies. 59. glarea : the broken rock

1. It contains no definite hints at and gravel used for foundation, any relations between the poet while the silex was the polygonal and either his patron, Messalla, or Aint (selce) regularly used for the his mistress, Delia, with both of surface, as still to-day in many whom they were established by Italian cities.

the latter part of the year 31 B.C. 60. apta . . arte: how neat 2. The reference to war in vv. 13 the joints were can still be seen and 14 can hardly be to any war from many extant examples on later than the Aquitanian expedivarious ancient Roman roads, e.g. tion in 31 B.C., and therefore, if the Via Praenestina.

not to an earlier one, expresses a 62. serus : “though late,' and vague premonition of the aptherefore presumably rather mel proaching conflict of which the low. Cf. Cic. Ad Fam. 7, 22: bene events of 31 B.C. were a part. potus seroque redieram.- inoffen 3. The simplicity of the form of sum: without stumbling.' composition, and the frequent re63. natalis : sc. dies.

currence of similar thoughts in 64. candidior semper candidior different connections, while beque : ‘more and more joyous.' Cf. longing to the genuine manner of 1, 10, 45; Ovid, Trist. 5, 5, 13: Tibullus, are so marked here as

tum caedes hominum generi, tum proelia nata,

tum brevior dirae mortis aperta viast.
an nihil ille miser meruit, nos ad mala nostra

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10. 5. an AV at G forsan et ille nihil P.

I.

·to suggest early work. Belling, All is gloom in Acheron ; how through a series of parallel pas

much better to lead a humble, sages in other elegies of this first peaceful life on a little farm ! 45book, has sought to show that this 68 : Let peace hold sway, under was written last, as a climax (Bell. whose rule happy home life flourp. 244 sqq.); but the examples ishes, and there are no battles may as easily be considered imita- save those of love, and even these tions of this, as imitated by this but playful contests! Come, Peace, elegy. The early part of B.C. 31, and bless us!' or possibly the end of B.c. 32, enses : the words lead up to is, therefore, the most probable the idea of ferreus, 'iron-hearted.' date when the poet fears that he 2. ferus . . . ferreus : alliterawill be drawn into the impending tion and assonance, which played conflict If the expectation is an important role in early Latin based on his liability to serve the poetry, survived in the classical usual campaign as a young man of period mainly in certain formulas seventeen years, this may be an or stereotyped expressions. This important poem in determining one, for example, occurs in Cic. the date of the author's birth. Ad Q. Fr. 1, 3, 3 ; quem ego ferus Cf. Intr. $ 21. The elegy forms a ac ferreus e complexu ; cf. Cat. fitting close to Bk. 1, from its 76, 20. The same process has striking similarity in theme and been gone through in other lanmany points of treatment to the guages; cf. Eng. “ weal and woe," opening poem of the book. ·

6 slow and sure,

fun and frolic,” 1-14: “War is a hateful thing, etc. Other instances of ferreus a child of avarice; the good old in this sense in Tibullus may be days knew it not. It would have seen: 1, 2, 65: ferreus ille fuit ; been pleasanter to live then! 15- 2, 3, 2 ; 3, 2, 2. 32 : Preserve me, Lares, as you 4. mortis

via : cf. 1, 3, 50; did in my childhood; things were Ovid, Met. II, 792 : letique viam better in the days of simplicity sine fine retemptat ; Prop. 3, 7, 2; which you represent; spare me, Hor. Car. I, 3, 32 : tarda necessitas and I will render you your due. leti corripuit gradum. Let another be a doughty warrior! 5. miser : “unfortunate' in be33-44 : What madness to covet a ing blamed rather than really reviolent death on the battlefield ! sponsible. Note the asyndeton

vertimus in saevas quod dedit ille feras ? divitis hoc vitium est auri, nec bella fuerunt,

faginus adstabat cum scyphus ante dapes.
non arces, non vallus erat, somnumque petebat

securus varias dux gregis inter oves.
tunc mihi vita foret, vulgi nec tristia nossem

arma nec audissem corde micante tubam :
nunc ad bella trahor, et iam quis forsitan hostis

IO

II. vulgi 0 dulcis Heinsius.

nos.

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in the contrast with the emphatic 10. varias: no effort was made

to separate sheep of different col6. in . . . feras: the prepo ors, but all were allowed to run in sition here expresses purpose; cf. the same flock. dux gregis = Prop. 1, 7, 6, n.

“the shepherd'; but in 2, 1, 58, 7. divitis:

precious'; cf. I, dux pecoris = “the ram’; cf. Ovid, 9, 31: non ullo divitis auri pon Am. 3, 13, 17: duxque gregis dere ; 3, 3, II: nam grave quid cornu per tempora dura recurvo. prodest pondus mihi divitis auri; 11. foret : for the more exact Prop. 3, 5, 4. -- vitium est auri : fuisset, i.e. O si tum vixissem! cf. 1, 1, 1; Prop. 3, 7, 1-2.

The tense makes the picture more 8. faginus : a token of primitive

vivid.

An unfulfilled wish in this simplicity in Rome, before the form is rare; cf. G. 261, N. 2. advent of cups made of silver and vulgi: it is an every day passion, gold, or precious stones; cf. Prop. fit for the rabble, to fight and win 3, 5, 4; Plin. N. H. 16, 38 : sordid gain ; Tibullus thinks his Manius Curius iuravit se nihil tastes purer and higher. ex praeda attigisse praeter guttum 13. nunc = vūv de, “as it is,' refaginum quo sacrificaret; Ovid, ferring to the actual state of affairs Met. 8, 669; Fast. 5, 522: by way of contrast to the previpocula fagus erant; Verg. Ec. 3, ous condition contrary to fact. 36. The same general idea is trahor: the syllable is lengthened brought out in Tib. 1, 1, 37-40, in this thesis before the following where the fictilia pocula (of com

caesura.

Cf. Intr. $ 43; Verg. mon pottery) are praised; cf. 1, Aen. II, 323: considant si tantus I, 38, n. scyphus : cf. Varro, amor, et moenia condant. — quis : apud Gell 3, 14, 3.

for the more usual aliquis, be9. vallus : the rarer masc. form cause taken closely with forsitan, for the sake of the meter.

a compound of an.

20

to

haesura in nostro tela gerit latere. 15 sed patrii servate lares: aluistis et idem,

cursarem vestros cum tener ante pedes.
neu pudeat prisco vos esse e stipite factos:

sic veteris sedes incoluistis avi.
tunc melius tenuere fidem, cum paupere cultu

stabat in exigua ligneus aede deus.
hic placatus erat, seu quis libaverat uvam

seu dederat sanctae spicea serta comae :
atque aliquis voti compos liba ipse ferebat
postque comes purum filia

parva

favum. 14. haesura : • destined

20. exigua ... aede : "humble rankle.'

shrine,' as contrasted with the 15. servate: i.e. from war, not more elaborate Lararia of later in war. et idem: pleonastic. times. — deus: the reference is

16. tener: «in tender youth.' here apparently to the Lares; but - ante pedes : because the little a similar simplicity prevailed in images of the Lares used to stand early times in the form of other in a shrine called the Lararium images of divinities; cf. Ovid, over the hearth; cf. 2, 2, 22. Fast. 1, 201-202: Iuppiter angusta

17. neu pudeat : cf. 1, 1, 38. vix totus stabat in aede inque Iovis prisco: • old-fashioned'; cf. v. dextra fictile fulmen erat; Verg. 15; I, 3, 34; 2, I, 60; 1, 7, 58. Aen. 7, 177 sqq.: veterum effgies The frequent use of such epithets ex ordine avorum antiqua e cedro, for the Lares implies a conscious Italusque paterque Sabinus . ness that they no longer enjoyed vestibulo adstabant. the universal veneration of former 21. placatus : gracious.' days. - stipite : in early times the

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vinum. images of the Lares were made of 22. spicea serta : cf. I, 1, 15. wood; later, of stone or metal, 23. aliquis si quis erat. often of silver. See Preller 3, 2, 24. filia parva : cf. Ovid, Fast. p. 108; Baum. Denk., Vol. 2, 2, 652: porrigit incisos filia parva p. 810; 1, p. 77, fig. 79.

favos. On the propitiatory power 18. sic: i.e. when your images of honey, especially for the souls were fashioned of such humble of the dead, cf. Porph. De Ant. material as wood.

Nymph. 16 and 28. Wissowa (Rel. 19. tenuere :

homines. u. Kult. d. Römer., p. 153) conpaupere cultu: óslight adorn siders the Lares to be the souls of ment.'

the dead.

uvam =

SC.

25

30

at nobis aerata, lares, depellite tela,

hostiaque e plena rustica porcus hara. hanc pura cum veste sequar myrtoque canistra

vincta geram, myrto vinctus et ipse caput. sic placeam vobis: alius sit fortis in armis,

sternat et adversos Marte favente duces, ut mihi potanti possit sua dicere facta

miles et in mensa pingere castra mero. quis furor est atram bellis arcessere mortem ?

inminet et tacito clam venit illa pede. non seges est infra, non vinea culta, sed audax

35

Cerberus et Stygiae navita turpis aquae : illic percussisque genis ustoque capillo

mero.

26. Pontanus conjectured a lacuna before this, and supplied 4 vv. hostiaque e O hostia erit w. 37. percussisque 0.perscissisque P pertusisque Livineius rescissisque Lachmann (parce !) ustisque Deutsch.

25. nobis : emphatic; but in sita monstrat fera proelin mensa my case 'the petition is, depellite pingit et exiguo Pergama tota tela!

26. porcus : and so an extraor 34. inminet : note the contrast dinary thankoffering is promised to arcessere. tacito . . . pede : instead of the usual trilling gifts cf. Ovid, A. A. 3, 712: ipsa nemus mentioned in vv. 21–24. Sc. erit. tacito clam pede fortis init. For similar omissions of the copula 35. non seges . . . culta : cf. cf. 1, 3, 49, 50; Prop. 3, 16, 8. 1, 3, 61. The whole description This verse is practically the con of the lower world following 1, clusion of the condition implied in 3, 61 is to be compared with this the impv. depellite; for the thought passage. cf. I, I, 22.

36. navita turpis : Charon : cf. 27. myrtoque : cf. Hor. Car.

Verg. Aen. 6, 315: navita sed - canistra: these con tristis ; 299:

terribili squalore tained sacrificial utensils and offer Charon ; Prop. 3, 18, 24. ings.

37. percussisque genis : the im. 29. sic: by such offerings. agination of the ancients pictured alius : cf. I, I, I.

the dead as continuing in the same 32. pingere ... mero: cf. Ovid, state as that in which they were Her. I, 31-32: atque aliquis po last seen in the flesh, i.e. on the

3, 23, 16.

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