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testis et Oceani litora Santonici,
testis Arar Rhodanusque celer magnusque Garumna,

Carnuti et flavi caerula lympha Liger.
an te, Cydne, canam, tacitis qui leniter undis

caeruleus placidis per vada serpis aquis,
quantus et aetherio contingens vertice nubes
frigidus intonsos Taurus alat Cilicas ?
12. Carnuti w Carnoti 0 Carnutis M. 13. an w at 0.

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paign. - Tarbella Pýrēnē: the ated upon it, and interesting beTarbelli were an Aquitanian tribe cause of the peculiarity possibly living close up under the Pyrenees, referred to in these verses and near the ocean.

described by Strabo, viz. that be10. Santonici: the Santones fore actually reaching the sea it occupied the territory on the coast flows into a kind of lake (payua). just north of the river Garonne. 14. placidis : “Thy placid

11. Arar: the modern Saône. stream, thine azure gleam, and

12. Carnuti ... flavi: gen. thy wavelet's noiseless flow' sing, used in the collective sense: (Cranstoun). Such tautologies

of the fair-haired Carnute.' The are not uncommon in the poets; Carnuti lived between the Seine cf. aestiva in v. 22 following the and the Loire. --et: the trajection same idea in V. 21; Sen. Herc. of this copula occurs more often in Fur. 680: placido quieta labitur this elegy than in any other of Lethe vado. vada : “course.' Tibullus ; cf. vv. 15, 21, 38, 39, 54. 15. quantus ... contingens ... Propertius is equally free in this Taurus alat = quantus sit Taurus respect ; Ovid, more cautious; no qui contingit et alit ; cf. qualis example occurs in Catullus. Cf. ... abundet (vv. 21-22). The Haupt, Opusc. I, p. 122. — caerula Taurus furnished support to the lympha : in apposition with Liger: Cilicians by its cultivated slopes the epithet must refer to the bay and its grazing grounds. at the mouth of the river, if it has 16. intonsos: here a sign of any meaning

rude barbarity: cf. Liv. 21, 32, 7: 13. an ... canam : the missing homines intonsi et inculti; Ovid, first member of this double ques- Ex P. 4, 2, 2: intonsis ... Getis. tion might be supplied thus: But the early Romans had not been utrum taceam quod non ipse vidi. so particular ; barbers first came to

-- Cydne: though not the largest Rome in the year 300 B C.; cf. F. river of Cilicia, the Cydnus was W. Nicolson's discussion of Greek important because Tarsus was situ- and Roman Barbers in Harvard quid referam, ut volitet crebras intacta per urbes

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alba Palaestino sancta columba Syro, utque maris vastum prospectet turribus aequor

prima ratem ventis credere docta Tyros, qualis et, arentes cum findit Sirius agros,

fertilis aestiva Nilus abundet aqua ? Nile pater, quanam possim te dicere causa

aut quibus in terris occuluisse caput ? te propter nullos tellus tua postulat imbres,

arida nec pluvio supplicat herba Iovi. te canit atque suum pubes miratur Osirim

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Stud. in Class. Philology, Vol. 2, pp. 41 sqq.; Varro, R. R. 2, 11, 10.

18. Palaestino: an adjective, used with no well-defined meaning by Tibullus. Palestine was a part of Syria, to be sure ; but the fact referred to here was no more characteristic of Palestine than of other parts of the general region.

- sancta : because the dove was sacred to Astarte, as well as to her Greek counterpart, Aphrodite. Syro : dat. of ref.: in the eyes of the Syrian.?

19. turribus : lofty palaces’; a vague word; cf. Prop. 3, 21, 15. The modern term is “skyscraper," at least in American cities.

21. qualis, etc. : cf. note on v. 15. — Sirius : cf. 1, 1, 27, n.

22. fertilis : active, ó fertilizing.' - abundet: the annual overflow. of the Nile begins about the time of the rising of Sirius.

23. pater: cf. Ennius, Ann. (Vahlen) 1, 54: teque pater Tiberine tuo cum flumine sancto. The

epithet is particularly appropriate to the Nile, without which Egypt would not exist except as a part of the desert; it befits a Roman poet well, too, for Egypt was one of the principal granaries of Rome. No doubt Tibullus was well acquainted with the beautiful statue of father Nile, the type of which was imitated in representations of the Tiber; cf. Baum. Denk., p. 1028. - causa : the question is answered by Ovid, Met. 2, 254-255: Nilus in extremum fugit perterritus orbem occuluitque caput, quod adhuc latet.

24. occuluisse caput: only in recent times has the source been discovered. The Nile problem was discussed by Herodotus in Bk. 2, by Seneca, Nat. Quaest. 4, 1 sqq. and elsewhere.

26. pluvio . . . Iovi: cf. H. & T. § 207.

27. Osirim : as the greatest male divinity of the Egyptians, Osiris, the representative of the

barbara, Memphiten plangere docta bovem. primus aratra manu sollerti fecit Osiris

et teneram ferro sollicitavit humum, primus inexpertae commisit semina terrae

pomaque non notis legit ab arboribus. hic docuit teneram palis adiungere vitem,

hic viridem dura caedere falce comam: illi iucundos primum matura sapores

expressa incultis uva dedit pedibus, ille liquor docuit voces inflectere cantu,

movit et ad certos nescia membra modos, Bacchus et agricolae magno confecta labore

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principle of fructification, was sup- attributed to Ceres. For another posed to be responsible for the point of view, cf. 1, 10, 45. annual overflow of the Nile, and 30. teneram : by way of conso his worship is here coupled ap- trast to ferro sollicitavit. - sollicipropriately with that of father tavit : cf. Ovid, Fast. 4, 396: quas Nile; cf. Fraser, donis, Attis, tellus nullo sollicitante dabat; and Osiris.

Verg. Georg. 2, 418: sollicitanda 28. Memphiten ... bovem : the tamen tellus pulvisque movendus. sacred bull, Apis, the incarnation 32. non notis: isl, those with of Osiris, kept at Memphis. - the edible qualities of whose fruit plangere : the method of mourning, men were as yet unacquainted. used for the general idea of mourn- 33. teneram : cf. I, I, 7; Cic. ing for one; rare with an object. Cat. Mai. 15, 52: vilis ... On the death of Apis the whole nisi fulta est, fertur ad terram. people went into mourning until a palis adiungere: the so-called alnew bull was found to take his ligatio and amputatio referred to place; cf. Plin. N. H. 8, 46; in these two verses were the most Cumont, Oriental Relig. in Roman important arts in connection with Paganism, pp. 97 sqq.

viticulture. 29. aratra : Osiris, in many re- 35. illi: Osiris. — sapores : cf. spects the counterpart of the v. 5, n. Greek Dionysus, was credited also 36. incultis : inexperienced.' with the invention of the plow, 37. ille : adjectival, .such.' and of the culture of various fruits 38. certos : regular.' — nescia : besides that of the vine. The in- unaccustomed.' vention of the plow was usually 39. Bacchus = vinum.

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pectora tristitiae dissoluenda dedit.
Bacchus et adflictis requiem mortalibus adfert,

crura licet dura compede pulsa sonent.
non tibi sunt tristes curae nec luctus, Osiri,

sed chorus et cantus et levis aptus amor, sed varii flores et frons redimita corymbis,

fusa sed ad teneros lutea palla pedes
et Tyriae vestes et dulcis tibia cantu

et levis occultis conscia cista sacris.
huc ades et genium ludo geniumque choreis

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49. genium ludo Heyne centum ludos O ludis w. 40. tristitiae: the gen. after saffron robe was appropriate to the analogy of the Greek, instead Bacchus — the woman's garment of the regular abl. Cf. Hor. Car. being suggestive of his almost 3, 17, 16: cum famulis operum feminine beauty, and the color solutis ; Plaut. Rud. 247: me om- being suitable for festive occanium iam laborum levas. A reg- sions ; cf. Prop. 3, 17, 32 : et feries alar epithet of Bacchus is Lyaeus nudos veste fluente pedes; Sen. ( freer' from care). — dissolŭenda Oed. 422 : lutea vestem retinente dedit = fecit ut dissolverentur; cf. zona. The combination of such also v. 2, n.

an effeminate garment with the 42. compede: the idea of a insignia of Hercules is ridiculed chain gang' of workers is not in the Frogs of Aristophanes, modern; cf. 2, 6, 25–26.

v. 46. 43. sunt: sc. apti; as the ad- 47. Tyriae vestes : a cloak of jective is expressed only in v. 44, Tyrian purple. it agrees with the nearest noun. 48. cista : the box containing

45. corymbis : usually, as here, the mystic emblems of the god, of a cluster of ivy berries, the which was carried in the procesivy being especially sacred to sions of the festivals of Bacchus ; Bacchus and to Osiris ; cf. Ovid, cf. Cat. 64, 259: cavis celebrabant Fast. I, 393: festa corymbiferi orgia cistis. celebrabas Graecia Bacchi; Fraser, 49. huc ades: with consumAdonis, Attis, and Osiris, p. 279; mate skill the thought has been Creuzer, Symbolik u. Mythologie, developed from the Aquitanian Vol. 4, pp. Io sqq.

triumph to this summons to Osiris 46. sed : for the position cf. to be present on this festal day as V. 12, n. — lutea palla : a long the wine god whose worship (in a

ROM. EL. POETS — 10 145

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concelebra et multo tempora funde mero: illius et nitido stillent unguenta capillo,

et capite et collo mollia serta gerat. sic venias hodierne : tibi dem turis honores,

liba et Mopsopio dulcia melle feram. at tibi succrescat proles, quae facta parentis

augeat et circa stet veneranda senem. nec taceat monumenta viae, quem Tuscula tellus

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54. liba AV libem G. melle w mella 0.

feram AV favo G.

figurative sense) will necessarily be prominent. -genium : i.e. Messalla's. The Genius was the individual man's tutelary divinity (corresponding to the Juno of each woman; cf. H. & T. $ 188), presiding over his life from birth to death (cf. gigno). Each man had his own Genius, who was worshiped, especially on his birthday, with offerings of wine, cakes, perfumes, and garlands ; cf. 2, 2, 1, sqq.; B. G., p. 78, n. 15. For the form of the verse cf. 1, 10, 28.

50. Cf. 1, 2, 3: neu quisquam multo percussum tempora Baccho excitet.

51. illius : i.e. Genii. It was appropriate on such occasions to decorate the image of the divinity honored. In this case, however, we must not forget that the Genius is closely identified with the man himself. Evidently the poet is here not thinking of the serpent form of Genius representations. stillent: cf. 2, 2, 7.

53. hodierne: sc. deus; i.e. the Genius, who was the particular divinity of a birthday, and to whom the next word refers ; cf. 2, 2, 5; 5,5; 4, 5, 9.

54. Mopsopio: honey from Mt. Hymettus. Mopsopus was a mythical king of Attica, in which Hymettus stands.

55. tibi: Messalla ; for the sudden change in meaning from the tibi in v. 53 cf. v. 3, n. — proles : Messalla had two sons and a daughter. Cf. 2, 5.

56. augeat: cf. 2, 5, 115-120, and especially v. 119, n. — veneranda: worthy of honor.' senem : sc. te.

57. taceat: sc. ille from the following relative clause. — monumenta: monumental work.' viae: the Via Latina, which Messalla had repaired, paying the expense from the spoils of war according to the command of Augustus. Citizens of Tusculum and Alba would reach Rome by this road. Cf. Burn, RL. and RA., p. 252.

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