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testis et Oceani litora Santonici,
testis Arar Rhodanusque celer magnusque Garumna,

Carnuti et flavi caerula lympha Liger.
an te, Cydne, canam, tacitis qui leniter undis

caeruleus placidis per vada serpis aquis,
quantus et aetherio contingens vertice nubes

frigidus intonsos Taurus alat Cilicas?


12. Carnuti w Carnoti O Carnutis M.

13. an w at 0.

paign. Tarbella Pýrēnē: the ated upon it, and interesting beTarbelli were an Aquitanian tribe cause of the peculiarity possibly living close up under the Pyrenees, referred to in these verses and near the ocean.

described by Strabo, viz. that be10. Santonici : the Santones fore actually reaching the sea it occupied the territory on the coast flows into a kind of lake (priyua). just north of the river Garonne. 14. placidis : *Thy placid

11. Arar: the modern Saône. stream, thine azure gleam, and 12. Carnuti ... flavi:

gen. thy wavelet's

noiseless flow' sing. used in the collective sense: (Cranstoun).

Such tautologies of the fair-haired Carnute.' The are not uncommon in the poets; Carnuti lived between the Seine cf. aestiva in v. 22 following the and the Loire. — et : the trajection same idea in v. 21 ; Sen. Herc. of this copula occurs more often in Fur. 680: placido quieta labitur this elegy than in any other of Lethe vado. vada : course.' Tibullus ; cf. vv. 15, 21, 38, 39, 54. 15. quantus ... contingens . Propertius is equally free in this Taurus alat = quantus sit Taurus respect; Ovid, more cautious; no qui contingit et alit; cf. qualis example occurs in Catullus. Cf. abundet (vv. 21-22). The Haupt, Opusc. I, p. 122. caerula Taurus furnished support to the lympha : in apposition with Liger : Cilicians by its cultivated slopes the epithet must refer to the bay and its grazing grounds. at the mouth of the river, if it has 16. intonsos: here a sign of any meaning

rude barbarity: cf. Liv. 21, 32, 7: 13. an ... canam : the missing homines intonsi et inculti; Ovid, first member of this double ques Ex P. 4, 2, 2: intonsis . . . Getis. tion might be supplied thus : But the early Romans had not been utrum taceam quod non ipse vidi. so particular; barbers first came to

- Cydne: though not the largest Rome in the year 300 B C.; cf. F. river of Cilicia, the Cydnus was W. Nicolson's discussion of Greek important because Tarsus was situ and Roman Barbers in Harvard


quid referam, ut volitet crebras intacta per urbes

alba Palaestino sancta columba Syro,
utque maris vastum prospectet turribus aequor

prima ratem ventis credere docta Tyros,
qualis et, arentes cum findit Sirius agros,

fertilis aestiva Nilus abundet aqua?
Nile pater, quanam possim te dicere causa

aut quibus in terris occuluisse caput ?
te propter nullos tellus tua postulat imbres,

arida nec pluvio supplicat herba Iovi.
te canit atque suum pubes miratur Osirim




Stud. in Class. Philology, Vol. 2, epithet is particularly appropriate pp. 41 sqq.; Varro, R. R.2, 11, 10. to the Nile, without which Egypt

18. Palaestino: an adjective, would not exist except as a part of used with no well-defined meaning the desert; it befits a Roman poet by Tibullus. Palestine was a part well, too, for Egypt was one of the of Syria, to be sure ; but the fact principal granaries of Rome. No referred to here was

doubt Tibullus was well acquainted characteristic of Palestine than of with the beautiful statue of father other parts of the general region. Nile, the type of which was imi

sancta : because the dove was tated in representations of the sacred to Astarte, as well as to her Tiber; cf. Baum. Denk., p. 1028. Greek counterpart, Aphrodite. causa : the question is answered Syro : dat. of ref. : “in the eyes by Ovid, Met. 2, 254-255: Nilus of the Syrian.'

in extremum fugit perterritus 19. turribus : ‘lofty palaces ’; orbem occuluitque caput, quod a vague word; cf. Prop. 3, 21, 15. adhuc latet. The modern term is “skyscraper," 24. occuluisse caput: only in at least in American cities.

recent times has the source been 21. qualis, etc. : cf. note on v. discovered. The Nile problem 15. — Sirius : cf. I, I, 27, n. was discussed by Herodotus in

22. fertilis : active, « fertilizing.' Bk. 2, by Seneca, Nat. Quaest. - abundet: the annual overflow. 4, I sqq. and elsewhere. of the Nile begins about the time 26. pluvio . . . Iovi: cf. H. & T. of the rising of Sirius. 23. pater: cf. Ennius, Ann.

27. Osirim :

the greatest (Vahlen) 1, 54: teque pater Ti male divinity of the Egyptians, berine tuo cum flumine sancto. The Osiris, the representative of the

§ 207



barbara, Memphiten plangere docta bovem. primus aratra manu sollerti fecit Osiris

et teneram ferro sollicitavit humum, primus inexpertae commisit semina terrae

pomaque non notis legit ab arboribus. hic docuit teneram palis adiungere vitem,

hic viridem dura caedere falce comam : illi iucundos primum matura sapores


expressa incultis uva dedit pedibus. ille liquor docuit voces inflectere cantu,

movit et ad certos nescia membra modos, Bacchus et agricolae magno confecta labore

principle of fructification, was sup attributed to Ceres. For another posed to be responsible for the point of view, cf. 1, 10, 45. annual overflow of the Nile, and 30. teneram : by way of conso his worship is here coupled ap trast to ferro sollicitavit. sollicipropriately with that of father tavit: cf. Ovid, Fast. 4, 396: quas Nile; cf. Fraser, Adonis, Attis, tellus nullo sollicitante dabat ; and Osiris.

Verg. Georg. 2, 418: sollicitanda 28. Memphiten ... bovem : the tamen tellus pulvisque movendus. sacred bull, Apis, the incarnation 32. non notis : i.e, those with of Osiris, kept at Memphis. the edible qualities of whose fruit plangere : the method of mourning, men were as yet unacquainted. used for the general idea of mourn 33. teneram : cf. 1, 1, 7; Cic. ing for one; rare with an object. Cat. Mai. 15, 52: vitis . On the death of Apis the whole nisi fulta est, fertur ad terram.people went into mourning until a palis adiungere: the so-called alnew bull was found to take his ligatio and amputatio referred to place; cf. Plin. N. H. 8, 46; in these two verses were the most Cumont, Oriental Relig. in Roman important arts in connection with Paganism, pp. 97 sqq.

viticulture. 29. aratra : Osiris, in many re 35. illi: Osiris.

sapores: cf. spects the counterpart of the V. 5, n. Greek Dionysus, was credited also 36. incultis : inexperienced.' with the invention of the plow, 37. ille : adjectival, “such.' and of the culture of various fruits 38. certos : «regular.' — nescia : besides that of the vine. The in "unaccustomed.' vention of the plow was usually

39. Bacchus = vinum.


pectora tristitiae dissoluenda dedit.
Bacchus et adflictis requiem mortalibus adfert,

crura licet dura compede pulsa sonent.
non tibi sunt tristes curae nec luctus, Osiri,

sed chorus et cantus et levis aptus amor, 45 sed varii flores et frons redimita corymbis,

fusa sed ad teneros lutea palla pedes
et Tyriae vestes et dulcis tibia cantu

et levis occultis conscia cista sacris.
huc ades et genium ludo geniumque choreis

49. genium ludo Heyne centum ludos O ludis w. 40. tristitiae : the gen. after saffron robe was appropriate to the analogy of the Greek, instead Bacchus — the woman's garment of the regular abl. Cf. Hor. Car. being suggestive of his almost 3, 17, 16: cum famulis operum feminine beauty, and the color solutis ; Plaut. Rud. 247 : me om- being suitable for festive occanium iam laborum levas. A reg- sions ; cf. Prop. 3, 17, 32 : et feries alar epithet of Bacchus is Lyaeus nudos veste fluente pedes; Sen. ( freer' from care). - dissolŭenda Oed. 422 : lutea vestem retinente dedit = fecit ut dissolverentur; cf. zona. The combination of such also v. 2, n.

an effeminate garment with the 42. compede: the idea of a insignia of Hercules is ridiculed .chain gang' of workers is not in the Frogs of Aristophanes, modern; cf. 2, 6, 25-26.

v. 46. 43. sunt: sc. apti; as the ad- 47. Tyriae vestes : a cloak of jective is expressed only in v. 44, Tyrian purple. it agrees with the nearest noun. 48. cista : the box containing

45. corymbis : usually, as here, the mystic emblems of the god, of a cluster of ivy berries, the which was carried in the procesivy being especially sacred to sions of the festivals of Bacchus ; Bacchus and to Osiris; cf. Ovid, cf. Cat. 64, 259: cavis celebrabant Fast. I, 393: festa corymbiferi orgia cistis. celebrabas Graecia Bacchi; Fraser, 49. huc ades: with consumAdonis, Attis, and Osiris, p. 279; mate skill the thought has been Creuzer, Symbolik u. Mythologie, developed from the Aquitanian Vol. 4, pp. 10 sqq.

triumph to this summons to Osiris 46. sed: for the position cf. to be present on this festal day as v. 12, n. — lutea palla : a long the wine god whose worship (in a

ROM. EL. POETS — 10 145


concelebra et multo tempora funde mero:
illius et nitido stillent unguenta capillo,

et capite et collo mollia serta gerat.
sic venias hodierne : tibi dem turis honores,

liba et Mopsopio dulcia melle feram.
at tibi succrescat proles, quae facta parentis

augeat et circa stet veneranda senem.
nec taceat monumenta viae, quem Tuscula tellus


54. liba AV libem G. melle w mella 0. feram AV favo G.

figurative sense) will necessarily 53. hodierne: sc. deus; i.e. be prominent. -genium : i.e. Mes the Genius, who was the particusalla's. The Genius was the indi lar divinity of a birthday, and to vidual man's tutelary divinity (cor whom the next word refers ; cf. 2, responding to the Juno of each

2, 5; 5; 5; 4, 5, 9. woman; cf. H. & T. § 188), pre 54. Mopsopio : honey from Mt. siding over his life from birth to Hymettus. Mopsopus was a mythdeath (cf. gigno). Each man had ical king of Attica, in which his own Genius, who was wor Hymettus stands. shiped, especially on his birthday, 55. tibi : Messalla ; for the sudwith offerings of wine, cakes, per den change in meaning from the fumes, and garlands; cf. 2, 2, tibi in v. 53 cf. v. 3, n. — proles : sqq.; B. G., p. 78, n. 15. For Messalla had two sons and a the form of the verse cf. I, 10, daughter. Cf. 2, 5.

56. augeat: cf. 2, 5, 115-120, 50. Cf. 1, 2, 3: neu quisquam and especially v. 119, n. — venemulto percussum tempora Baccho randa: “worthy of honor.' excitet.

senem: sc. te. 51. illius : i.e. Genii.

It was

57. taceat: sc. ille from the appropriate on such occasions to following relative clause. decorate the image of the divinity menta : monumental work.'honored. In this case, however, viae : the Via Latina, which Meswe must not forget that the Genius salla had repaired, paying the is closely identified with the man expense from the spoils of war achimself. Evidently the poet is cording to the command of Augushere not thinking of the serpent tus. Citizens of Tusculum and Alba form of Genius representations. – would reach Rome by this road. stillent: cf. 2, 2, 7.

Cf. Burn, RL. and RA., p. 252.




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