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dulce sonant tenui gutture carmen aves,
fert casiam non culta seges, totosque per agros

floret odoratis terra benigna rosis :
at iuvenum series teneris inmixta puellis

ludit, et adsidue proelia miscet Amor.
illic est, cuicumque rapax mors venit amanti,

et gerit insigni myrtea serta coma.
at scelerata iacet sedes in nocte profunda

abdita, quam circum Aumina nigra sonant :
Tisiphoneque inpexa feros pro crinibus angues

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61. casiam: not the common = sceleratorum ; cf. Verg. Aen. 6, casia of Italy referred to in Verg. 543 : inpia Tartaru; Ovid, Met. Ec. 2, 49; but the imported pro- 4, 456 sqq. duct, corresponding to our com- 68. circum: this preposition is mon cinnamon bark. - non culta : always postpositive in Tibullus;

A. 496, note 3; H. 636, 3. — seges : cf. 1, 1, 23. — flumina nigra : the for a similar use of the word cf. rivers that may properly be said 4, 2, 18.

to surround Tartarus are Phlege63. at: used often by Tibullus thon and Pyriphlegethon, the without any adversative force ; cf. rivers of fire; cf. Verg. Aen. 6, v. 87, n. ; also 1, 7, 7; 10, 41; in 550-551: quae rapidus flammis 2, 5, 7 sed is used in the same ambit torrentibus amnis, Tartasense.

reus Phlegethon, torquetque sonan64. proelia : cf. 1, 10, 53; Hor. tia saxa. The poets' conceptions Car. I, 6, 17: proelia virginum. of the details of the lower world With these military terms in con- were naturally vague and differed nection with lovers cf. the Eng- widely. Cf. Cat. 65, 6, n. lish “ conquest," “ win,” “lay 69. Tisiphone, with her wrigsiege," etc. The idea here is not gling locks of serpents, is a familiar that of a falling out.

figure in descriptions of the horrors 65. cuicumque : the antecedent of Tartarus; cf. Prop. 3, 5, 40 ; is amanti (= amatori).

Verg. Aen. 6, 570-572 ; Ovid, Met. 66. insigni belongs to the pred 4, 474-475; Hor. Car. 2, 13, 35icate. – myrtea : cf. Verg. Ec. 7, 36. The expression pro crinibus 61: gratissima ... formosae is a modifier of angues, equivalent myrtus Veneri.

to a relative clause. — angues : for 67. at: here used with its reg- the construction cf. capillos, v. 91. ular adversative force. — scelerata Serpents are particularly connected

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saevit at

saevit, et huc illuc inpia turba fugit :
tum niger in porta serpentum Cerberus ore

stridet, et aeratas excubat ante fores.
illic Iunonem temptare Ixionis ausi

versantur celeri noxia membra rota,
75 porrectusque novem Tityos per iugera terrae

adsiduas atro viscere pascit aves.
Tantalus est illic, et circum stagna, sed acrem

iam iam poturi deserit unda sitim : with earth gods and beings of the as to Cerberus. Hence the varylower world, eg. Furies, Giants, ing conceptions, perhaps. and Cerberus. Souls of the dead 73. illic belongs to the next were often represented as ser- distich as well as to this one; simpents.

ilarly the force of illic in v. 77 ex70. Cf. Culex, 219.

tends as far as v. 80. So the 71. tum : cf. Verg. Aen. 4, 250, examples of condemned wretches for similar use of the conj. to add in Tartarus are arranged in pairs. another detail. — in porta : of The first two, Ixion and Tityos, Tartarus, as in Verg. Georg. 4, were guilty of unbridled lust, and 483 ; but Cerberus is usually the Tibullus wishes vv. 71-82 to be keeper of the entrance to the lower taken as a parallel to these. Tanworld as a whole; cf. Verg. Aen. talus and the Danaides were pun6, 417. — serpentum . . . ore stri- ished for presumptuous ingratitude det : visage of hissing serpents'; and lack of appreciation of the cf. Ovid, Met. 11, 597 : non vigil good gifts of the gods, which in ales ibi cristati cantibus oris evocat the latter case were represented Auroram ; Plin. N. H. 10, 56, 77: by good husbands; these examore rubicundo (of a hen); the ex- ples are quoted rather as a warnpression gives us no definite infor- ing to Delia herself, and are to be mation as to whether Tibullus compared with vv. 83-84. conceived Cerberus as with one 77. circum: adverb; sc. sunt ; head or more, or with the snakes cf. Caes. B.C.2, 10: ubi ex ea turri on his head (Hor. Car. 3, 11, 18), quae circum essent opera tueri se around his neck (Culex, 221), or posse sunt confisi. composing his head, or heads. 78. iam iam: the repetition For the idea that Cerberus really makes more vivid the picture of was a snake cf. Paus. 3, 25, 5. the sufferer's palpitating hope ever Honey cakes were thrown to the just on the verge of realization. snakes of Trophonius in Boeotia, Cf. Verg. Aen. 6, 602.

et Danai proles, Veneris quod numina laesit, 80 in cava Lethaeas dolia portat aquas.

illic sit quicumque meos violavit amores,

optavit lentas et mihi militias.
at tu casta precor maneas, sanctique pudoris

adsideat custos sedula semper anus.
85 haec tibi fabellas referat positaque lucerna

deducat plena stamina longa colu. at circa gravibus pensis adfixa puella

paullatim somno fessa remittat opus.

tunc veniam subito, nec quisquam nuntiet ante, 90 sed videar caelo missus adesse tibi.

tunc mihi, qualis eris, longos turbata capillos,

obvia nudato, Delia, curre pede. 86. colu M colo OP. 87. at P ac 0. 89. tunc 0 tum w. 91. tunc GV nunc A.

· 80. cava = cavata = “perfo- indicates perhaps that this elegy rated'; cf. Ovid, A. A. 1, 432: was written in the fall of the elapsusque cava fingitur aure year. lapis ; Met. 12, 130: parmam 87. at = ac. Tibullus is pargladio galeamque cavari cernit. ticular not to use ac before a pala

81. quicumque : a comprehen- tal; cf. Haupt, Opusc. I, 109; cf. sive term for potential or actual v. 63, n. -- puella: the collective rivals.

use for puellae ; cf. Lachmann on 83. tu: the same as meos amores Prop. 3, 3, 29. . in v. 81, i.e. Delia.

go. caelo: Tibullus uses the 84. anus : either Delia's mother preposition in a similar phrase in (cf. I, 6, 57-66) or nurse (cf. 4, 13, 13. Prop. 4, 3, 41). For the picture 92. nudato: Delia, surprised at cf. Ter. Haut. 275 sqq.

her quiet evening's work, not only 85. fabellas referat: the older will leave her hair unconfined, but woman is to “spin yarns' to the also will not even stop to put on maidens while they all spin yarn, her sandals as she runs to meet her

— their evening's task. Cf. the lover. It is clear from this idyllic story of Lucretia's occupation in picture of Delia's modest home Livy, 1, 57, 9. — lucerna : the fact life that she was not a married that lights were necessary so early woman.

hoc precor, hunc illum nobis Aurora nitentem

Luciferum roseis candida portet equis.

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Hunc cecinere diem Parcae fatalia nentes

stamina non ulli dissoluenda deo;

93. hunc: (such as this.' – 23-42: Egypt! 'Tis to thee, illum . . . Luciferum : that happy father Nile, and to thee, great day.'

Osiris, that she owes her preëmi

nence in agriculture, especially in 1,7

the fruit of the vine, which gladdens After Messalla's brief but vic- the heart of man and drives dull torious campaign in Aquitania, care away: 43-54: Yea, Osiris, probably in Bc. 31, he was sum- thou lovest the festal day, with moned by Augustus to help settle dance and song and beauty. affairs in the East (cf. 1, 3, Intr.), Come then, and join in the celeand his triumph over the Aquitani bration of this glad natal day! was therefore delayed until his Come thou, Genius of the day, return to Rome in B.C. 27, when and let me offer thee appropriate it was celebrated on Sept. 25. offerings! 55-64: And, Messalla, His birthday occurring a few days may thy sons live to emulate thy thereafter, he received from Ti- deeds and bring honor to thy bullus for the occasion this con- declining years! Let not men gratulatory poem. Belling (Un- forget thy blessings conferred upon tersuchung, pp. 174-175) has them ! And may this day many collected an interesting series of times return, with ever-increasing parallelisms from Vergil's Georgics. joy!

1-12: · The Fates decreed that 1. Hunc ... diem: Messalla's this should be the birthday of one birthday. -- Parcae : the three siswho should subdue proud Aqui- ters, Clotho (spinner'), Lachesis tania. That has come true, Mes ("allotter :), and Atropos ( inevitsalla ; the Romans have seen thyable"). — nentes: so the fates triumph; I was a witness of thy sang as they spun before the birth glorious deeds, as were the ocean, of Pollio's son in Verg. Ec. 4, 46– strange rivers, and people. 13- 47: talia saecla,' suis dixerunt, 22 : Witnesses, too, of thy victo- ócurrite' fusis concordes stabili rious progress are such eastern fatorum numine Parcae. In Cat. lands as Cilicia, Syria, and Egypt. 64, 323 sqq the prophecy is uttered

hunc fore, Aquitanas posset qui fundere gentes,

quem tremeret forti milite victus Atax. evenere: novos pubes Romana triumphos

vidit et evinctos bracchia capta duces : at te victrices lauros, Messalla, gerentem

portabat niveis currus eburnus equis. non sine me est tibi partus honos : Tarbella Pyrene

7. 8. niveis w nitidis 0. 9. Tarbella Scaliger tua bella 0.

at the wedding of the father and account of the victorious progress mother, with the oft-recurring re- of Messalla to the limits of Aquifrain, 'currite ducentes subtegmina, tania proper. As the Atax was currite, fusi.' In Tib. 4, 5, 3, the directly in the line of march from Parcae are represented as singing the Province' to Aquitania, very the fates at the time of birth : te likely it was the scene of the first nascente novum Parcae cecinere conflict between the armies. puellis servitium. In this case 5. evenere : i.e. the predictions the time is undefined. Ovid of the preceding verses. — triseems to have had this passage in umphos : like lauros (v.7), merely mind when he wrote (Trist. 5, 3, a poetic plural. Cf. 2, 5, 117. 25), scilicet hanc legem nentes fata- 6. capta : by hypallage for caplia Parcae stamina bis genito bis tos. -- duces : among the features cecinere tibi.

of Roman triumphal processions 2. dissolŭenda : cf. v. 40; Cat. was a selection of the noblest cap66, 38, n. — deo : emphatic; not tives led, bound, to death (comeven the gods can escape the de- monly inflicted at the Tullianum); crees of fate.

cf. Ovid, A. A. I, 215: ibunt 3. hunc: best taken as referring ante duces onerati colla catenis. to Messalla himself; for a simi- 8. portabat : descriptive imperlar ambiguity in pronouns cf. fect. — niveis: cf. Ovid, A. A. I, tibi (vv. 53 and 55) referring to 214: quattuor in niveis aureus different persons, and haec (Prop. ibis equis ! – currus eburnus: the 1, 13, 9, 11, 13); Prop. 3, 11, 37, triumphal car was richly adorned n.

with gold and ivory, and drawn by 4. milite : instrumental.—Atax: four horses, often, but not always, this river (the modern Aude) was white. For details of the Roman in Gallia Narbonensis ; but Roman triumph see Pohlmey's Der geography was notoriously in- mische Triumph. Cf. 2, 5, 120. exact; moreover vv. 9-12 show 9. non sine me: i.e. Tibullus that the poet is not confining the was present in the Aquitanian cam

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