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abstineas, Mors atra, precor : non hic mihi mater

quae legat in maestos ossa perusta sinus,
non soror, Assyrios cineri quae dedat odores

et fleat effusis ante sepulcra comis,
Delia non usquam; quae me cum mitteret urbe,.

dicitur ante omnes consuluisse deos.
illa sacras pueri sortes ter sustulit, illi

rettulit e trinis omina certa puer. cuncta dabant reditus : tamen est deterrita numquam,

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12. trinis Muretus triviis O. omina over an erasure A omnia Y, apparently V.

5. For the repetition cf. 1, 1, 11. pueri sortes : little tablets 43, n. Similar chiastic repetition of wood or bronze which would be in Ovid, Ex P. 1, 2, 58. — non hic: managed by a puer sortilegus; cf. Ovid, Trist. I, 2, 53: est ali- they were inscribed with some quid . . . mandare suis aliqua et sentiment and drawn one at a time, sperare sepulcrum.

as a method of divination. All 6. For the details of the os- sorts of fortune tellers, astrologers, silegium, which it was the duty of and soothsayers flourished at the nearest relative to perform, cf. Rome, plying their trade especially 3, 2, 9-26 and nn.

in certain quarters of the city; cf. 7. Assyrios = Syrios, by a com- Hor. Sat. I, 6, 113: fallacem mon confusion due partly to the circum vespertinumque pererro similarity in sound, and partly saepe forum; adsisto divinis ; Cic. to the haziness of geographical De Div. 2, 41. — ter: to make the knowledge at Rome. All the matter sure. products of the East were fre 12. rettulit: “interpreted.' – quently called Syrios, because trinis : referring to ter in v. II; shipped to Rome from Antioch, the word is not a distributive here. or other Syrian ports. So “ Port” 13. cuncta: referring not only wine from Oporto; see Taylor, to omina in the preceding verse, but Words and Places, p. 282; cf. Cat. also to the omina implied in v. 1o. 68, 144; Prop. 2, 13, 30. — dedat: - dabant: “foretold.' — reditus : devote.'

the plural refers to the repeated 8. sepulcra : poetic plural. instances where a safe return was

9. cum mitteret: with conative prophesied ; cf. I, I, 4, n; Ovid, force : “when she was trying to fast. I, 279: ut populo reditus make up her mind to let me go.' pateant ad bella profecto.

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quin fleret nostras respiceretque vias.
ipse ego solator, cum iam mandata dedissem,

quaerebam tardas anxius usque moras;
aut ego sum causatus aves aut omina dira,

Saturnive sacram me tenuisse dien.
o quotiens ingressus iter mihi tristia dixi

offensum in porta signa dedisse pedem!
audeat invito nequis discedere Amore,

aut sciat egressum se prohibente deo.
quid tua nunc Isis mihi, Delia, quid mihi prosunt

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14. respiceretque o respueretque w despueretque Haupt. 17. aves aut w aves dant 0. 18. Saturnive accepted by Broukhusius from a certain scholar Saturni 0. 22. sciat 0 sciet Doering.

15. solator: the appositive is here equivalent to a concessive clause: though I tried to console her'; cf. Mady. 220. — mandata : 6 parting injunctions'; cf. Ovid, Trist. 1, 3, 59.

16. tardas : in the active sense ; cf. Hor. Sat. I, 9, 32: tarda podagra.

17. Cf. Ovid, Her. 5, 49-52; Met. 9, 767 ; Ter. Phorm. 705 sqq.

18. Saturnive ... diem: subject of tenuisse. The Jewish Sabbath (the seventh day of the week) was known to the Romans as Saturn's day (Saturday). Of this use of the term in literature this is one of the earliest instances, perhaps the earliest. Many pas sages show that Jewish customs had their share of respectful observance at Rome along with the host of foreign superstitions by this time introduced into Roman life; cf. Edwin Post in Meth. Rev.,

Vol. 79 (1897), p. 81; Ovid, A. A. I, 415: quaque die redeunt rebus minus apta gerendis culta Palaestino septima festa Syro; Rem. Am. 219; Hor. Sat. 1, 9, 69. — săcram: Tibullus's rule in regard to this word's quantity seems to be that when one syllable is long the other is short; cf. e.g. sācra in v. 25. But cf. BPW., Vol. 32 (1912), Sp. 394.

22. sciat: i.e. let him learn' from sad experience like my own. - deo = Amore: i.e. even if the gods seem propitious, here is a really opposing divinity.

23. tua ... Isis: the worship of the Egyptian goddess Isis had become common at Rome, and was especially popular among women. As the patroness of navigation there would have been particular appropriateness in her being besought by Delia to give Tibullus a safe return.

25

illa tua totiens aera repulsa manu,
quidve, pie dum sacra colis, pureque lavari

te (memini) et puro secubuisse toro?
nunc, dea, nunc succurre mihi (nam posse mederi

picta docet templis multa tabella tuis),
ut mea votivas persolvens Delia voces

ante sacras lino tecta fores sedeat
bisque die resoluta comas tibi dicere laudes

insignis turba debcat in Pharia,

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24. aera : the sistrum, a rattle 29. votivas ... voces = vota, composed commonly of several i.e. those of Tibullus himself, viz. pieces of metal (hence the plural), vv. 30-32. the usual accompaniment of Isis- 30. lino tecta : “clothed in worship; cf. Ovid, A. A. 3, 635. linen.' The priests and devotees

25. dum sacra colis : especially of Isis wore linen so much as to at the two more important annual have the standing epithet liniger, festivals of the goddess. — pureque like the goddess herself; cf. Ovid, lavari ... et ... secubuisse: sc. Met. I, 747 : linigera ... turba ; prosunt ; the two principal require. Ex P. I, I, 51 : linigerae ... ments of the devotees of Isis at Isiilis. Linen raiment was worn these festivals; cf. Prop. 2, 33, also by those consulting the sub1-4; also Tib. 2, I, II; Ovid, Am. terranean oracle of Trophonius 3, 9, 33.

(Paus. 9, 39, 8), in the cult of 27. posse mederi : sc. te. Cf. earth gods (Dieterich, Abraxas, Stolz-Schmalz, 162, 2; Draeger, 158 A), in magic rites (ib. 179, 9, 454; Ter. Phorm. 610: venire etc.), and in incubation (Deubner, salzom volup est.

De Incubat. p. 25). — sedeat : cf. 28. picta . . . tabella : the cus- Prop. 2, 28, 45. tom of placing a votive picture in 31. bisque die: in the early the temple of a deity after escape morning, before sunrise, and tofrom sickness, shipwreck, or other wards evening. — resoluta comas : danger, was a common one, es. cf. 2, 5, 66, where the Sibyl is likepecially in temples of Isis; cf. wise engaged in serving a deity. Juv. 12, 27 : votiva testantur fana 32. insignis : i.e. for her untabella plurima; pictores quis usual beauty.- Pharia = Aegyptia; nescit ab Iside pasci ; Hor. Car. Pharos was the island on which 1, 5, 13; Sat. 2, 1, 33. The cus- stood the famous lighthouse at the tom still persists in some churches entrance to the barbor of Alex

andria.

in Italy.

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at mihi contingat patrios celebrare penates

reddereque antiquo menstrua tura lari.
quam bene Saturno vivebant rege, prius quam

tellus in longas est patefacta vias !
nondum caeruleas pinus contempserat undas,

effusum ventis praebueratque sinum,
nec vagus ignotis repetens conpendia terris

presserat externa navita merce ratem.
illo non validus subiit iuga tempore taurus,

non domito frenos ore momordit equus,
non domus ulla fores habuit, non fixus in agris,

qui regeret certis finibus arva, lapis.
ipsae mella dabant quercus, ultroque ferebant

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33. contingat: like sedeat (v. 30), and debeat (v. 32), introduced by ut (v. 29). — celebrare penates: the usual custom on returning from a journey ; cf. Ter. Phorm. 311.

34. antiquo: in comparison with such new-fangled cults as that of Isis. — menstrua : the lar was worshiped especially on the Calends, as well as the Ides, the Nones, and festival occasions. — lari: up to the time of Augustus the lar familiaris was spoken of properly only in the singular, in dicating the protector of the familia as a whole; cf. Wissowa, Rel. u. Kult. d. Römer, p. 149.

35. The following description of "the good old days” of the “golden age” under Saturn's rule is worthy to be compared with the many similar passages in the Roman poets, such as Ovid, Met. I,

89-112; Am. 3, 8, 35-44; Fast. 2, 289-298; Hor. Epod. 16, 41-66; Verg. Ec. 4, 9 sqq ; Georg. I, 125 sqq. Like Vergil, Tibullus distinguishes but two ages ; Horace and Aratus have three; Ovid, four; Hesiod, five. The golden age was already recognized as a trite theme in the Aetna, vv. 9-15.

36. longas ... vias : cf. I, 1, 26. Acc. of purpose.

37. contempserat : cf. Hor. Car. I, 3, 21-24; Tibullus is wishing that he had never set sail on this expedition; the idea of

spurning the billows' has become a commonplace even among English poets.

38. On the position of -que cf. 2, 5, 72, n.

45. ipsae ... quercus : “the very oaks ’; the emphasis is on quercus, a kind of tree which does not ordinarily give honey, but was be50

obvia securis ubera lactis oves.
non acies, non ira fuit, non bella, nec ensem

inmiti saevus duxerat arte faber.
nunc Iove sub domino caedes et vulnera semper,

nunc mare, nunc leti mille repente viae.
parce, pater. timidum non me periuria terrent,

non dicta in sanctos inpia verba deos.
quod si fatales iam nunc explevimus annos,

fac lapis inscriptis stet super ossa notis:
hic iacet inmiti consumptus morte Tibullus,

Messallam terra dum sequiturque mari.'
sed me, quod facilis tenero sum semper Amori,

ipsa Venus campos ducet in Elysios.
hic choreae cantusque vigent, passim que vagantes

50. repente G reperte AV multa reperta via w.

lieved to have done so in this fah. 51. pater: Juppiter. – timiulous age; cf. Verg. Ec. 4, 29-30: dum: a predicate adjective here; incultisque rubens pendebit senti- cf. the English “strike him dead." bus uva, et durae quercus suda- 52. Clearly Tibullus does not bunt roscida mella ; Ovid, Met. I, consider the sentiment of v. 49 111-112: flumina iam lactis, iam any sacrilege. flumina nectaris ibant, flavaque 53. fatales : which fate has alde viridi stillabant ilice mella; lotted. also the Israelitish “land flowing 54. notis : sc. litterarum. with milk and honey.".

55. Cf. 3, 2, 29; Prop. 2, 13, 35. 46. securis : sc. dominis. They 56. Note favorite position of were free even from the ordinary the -que ; cf. 1, 1, 51, n. care of providing themselves daily 57. me: in contrast to lapis food.

(v. 54). 48. duxerat: i.e. on the anvil; 58. Cf. Ovid, Am. 3, 9, 60. — cf. Eng. “ ductile”; Verg. Aen. ipsa Venus: this function was 7, 633.

usually ascribed to Mercury. 50. repente: with adjectival 59. For the description cf. force; cf. A. 321, d.; mare is one Verg. Aen. 6,637 sqq. — choréae : of these new ways of sudden death; instead of the usual chorēae ; cf. cf. Prop. 3, 7, 31, n.

Prop. 2, 19, 15.

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