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quem labor adsiduus vicino terreat hoste,

Martia cui somnos classica pulsa fugent:

country life of my own little farm, such as vv. 5, 19-20, 37, 41. Gold thanking the gods for a modest and lands were the two sources of competence.' 15-36: (The pre- wealth for which Roman soldiers vious thought in reverse order), followed their profession. Ull"To you, rustic divinities of my man, however, argues (AJP., Vol. now humble possessions, will I 33 (1912), pp. 160 sqq.) that the offer appropriate sacrifices, if only property of Tibullus had been reyou will let me enjoy them in duced from its ancestral proporpeace, be my own gardener, my tions more probably by extravown shepherd, and be undisturbed agance on the part of his father; by either thieves or wolves. 37- cf. Hor. Sat. I, 4, 28: stupet 50 : The same thought expressed Albius aere. — iugera multa : cf. for the third time, in the same 2, 3, 42: ut multa innumera order as in the previous section. iugera pascat ove; 3, 3, 5; Ovid, In v. 46 the erotic element is in Fast. 3, 192: iugeraque . . . pauca troduced, to be expanded in the tenere soli; K. P. H. in Class. last division of the elegy. 51–78: Rev., Vol. 9 (1895), p. 108. For • Yes, Messalla and his legions indications that his iugera were shall win their trophies on land not now multa, see previous note. and sea; but as for me, let me en- 3. quem ... terreat: best rejoy my Delia's unfailing love while garded as subj. of characteristic, life endures, and live contented like fugent in the next verse. — with my little store.'

labor adsiduus: the various routine 1. fulvo: cf. 2, 1, 88. — con- duties of a Roman soldier's life in gerat: hort. subj. — auro: abl. camp, including foraging amid the instr.

peril of an attack, which naturally 2. culti ... soli : the well-tilled terreat. farms of other owners were often 4. somnos: the plural refers confiscated and allotted by victori- to the repeated instances of the ous generals to their soldiers, as experience which this verse deby Augustus more than once. scribes. Cf. v. 27, n. - classica : The story of the loss and recovery for the evolution of the word's of Vergil's estates near Mantua is meaning cf. R. 1097. From the well known; it is not impossible idea of being a means of distinthat Tibullus may have had some guishing or summoning the classes similar experience, to which refer- it came to refer to the thing so ence is made in the various pas- used, i.e. the trumpet. — pulsa : sages suggesting that his wealth an expression transferred from had been seriously diminished, stringed to wind instruments.

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me mea paupertas vita traducat inerti,

dum meus adsiduo luceat igne focus.
ipse seram teneras maturo tempore vites

rusticus et facili grandia poma manu:
nec Spes destituat, sed frugum semper acervos

5. vita PM vite (= vitae) A.

5. me: for the liberal use of 6. adsiduo ... igne: (with personal pronouns cf. vv. 35, 41, steady glow'; cf. v. 3. Such rep- . 49, 53, 55, 57, 75, 77; 3, 3; etc. etitions of a word are common

– paupertas : not to be interpreted enough in Tibullus (cf. previous too literally, but rather as a playful note). — focus : the hearth fire was comparison with the divitias of essential to every Roman house; the professional soldier. So Hor- indeed, the name for the hearth is ace in Sat. I, 6, 71 speaks of his often used by metonymy for the father as macro pauper agello, yet home; Ter. Eun. 815: domi fociproceeds to tell how this same que fac vicissim ut memineris ; father was able to give him at Hor. Ep. 1, 14, 1: agelli, quem tu Rome an education as good as the fastidis, habitatum quinque focis. sons of rich men enjoyed, and The depth of poverty associated adds : vestem servosque sequentes, with the extinguished hearth fire is in magno ut populo, si qui vidisset, indicated in Cat. 23, 1-2: Furi, cui avita ex re praeberi sumptus mihi neque servus neque arca nec cimex crederet illos. And Horace says neque araneus neque ignis; cf. 2, of Tibullus (Ep. 1, 4, 7): di tibi 1, 22; Verg. Ec. 5, 70; Mart. 10, divitias dederunt artemque fru- 47, 4; et passim. endi. vita : abl. of the way by 7. ipse : with my own hand.' which : cf. Hirt. B.G. 8, 27: nisi — seram: like traducat (v. 5), flumine Ligeri . . . copias tra- opt. subj. duxisset. For a different con- 8. rusticus belongs to the struction cf. CIL, 6, 12072, II: predicate. — facili: due to expeut longum vitae liceat transducere rience. — grandia: ósturdy,' as tempus. — traducat: i.e. through contrasted with tеneras (v. 7). — life. — inerti: cf. vv. 58, 71. It poma = pomos; cf. Verg. Georg. was on account of the prominence 2, 426; but in v. 13 it is used in of this thought in this poem (the the ordinary sense; the regular word does not occur in any other pomus occurs in 2, 1, 43. elegy of Tibullus) that Vahlen pro- 9. Spes: “Hope,' the goddess posed to read iam modo iners in of the sower and the gardener. V. 25.

Very appropriately she had a tem

10

praebeat et pleno pinguia musta lacu. nam veneror, seu stipes habet desertus in agris

seu vetus in trivio florida serta lapis : et quodcumque mihi pomum novus educat annus,

libatum agricolae ponitur ante deo. flava Ceres, tibi sit nostro de rure corona

15

12. florida O forea w.

ple in the Forum Holitorium at Rome; cf. Preller, Vol. 2, p. 253. Cf. also 2, 6, 21. — destituat: used absolutely here. — frugum: the product of the grandia poma, as musta is that of the tenerae vites.

10. pinguia : “rich'; cf. Hor. Sat. 2, 4, 65: pingui mero. — lacu : the trough-like wine vat into which the juice of the grape ran when first pressed out. Cf. 2, 5, 86.

11. nam: and I have good reason to hope, for I am faithful in my worship of all the rustic divinities, even the humblest. For this elliptical use of num, cf. Ter. Ad. 190. - stipes ... lapis: old tree trunks, stakes, and stones, either plain, or rudely carved, often represented divinities to the Romans, and were worshiped, whether stand ing by themselves in the fields, or set up at the crossroads. Boundary stones furnish an excellent il lustration; for as representatives of the god Terminus they were honored with garlands hung upon them at certain times. Cf. Ovid, Fast. 2, 641 sqq.: Termine, sive lapis, sive es defossus in agro stipes, ab antiquis tu quoque numen habes.

te duo diversa domini de parte coronant binaque serta tibi binaque liba ferunt; Prop. 1, 4, 24; Lucr. 5, 1199, and Munro's note on the passage; Lucian,' Alex. 30; Champney, p. 4. - desertus : • standing alone,' contrasted with trivio (v. 12).

12. florida : for the more exact florea; cf. 1, 2, 14; on the other hand Vergil, Aen. I, 430, uses florea for florida.

13. novus . . . annus : a newly recurring harvest time.

14. libatum : “as a consecrated offering.'-ante: adverbial.—deo: in the collective sense, including Spes, as well as Vertumnus, Pomona, or Silvanus. Cf. 1, 5, 27.

15. flava : the usual epithet, transferred to the goddess from the ripened grain which she represents. Cf. Servius on Verg. Georg. 1, 96: flava dicitur propter ar tarum colorem in maturitate ; Ovid, Fast. 4, 424. — coropa spicea : the most appropriate offering; cf. 2, 1, 4; 1, 10, 22; Hor. Car. Saec. 29-30: fertilis frugum pecorisque Tellus spicea donet Cererem corona ; Ovid, Am. 3, 10, 3; Baum. Denk. p. 417.

spicea, quae templi pendeat ante fores, pomosisque ruber custos ponatur in hortis,

terreat ut saeva falce Priapus aves :

vos quoque, felicis quondam, nunc pauperis agri 20 custodes, fertis munera vestra, lares:

tum vitula innumeros lustrabat caesa iuvencos,

nunc agna exigui est hostia parva soli: agna cadet vobis, quam circum rustica pubes

clamet'io messes et bona vina date': 25 iam modo iam possim contentus.vivere parvo

25. iam modo iam possim Miam modo non possum O quippe ego iam possum P iam modo nunc possum w iam modo si possum Lachmann iam modo iners possim Vahlen iam mibi, iam possim Schneidewin dum modo iam possim Bachrens. . 16. ante fores : cf. Prop. 4, 3, 17. i.e. those usually offered as most

17. ruber custos: wooden fig. appropriate ; cf. Hor. Sat. 2, 5, ures of Priapus were commonly 12: dulcia poma et quoscumque painted with vermilion and placed feret cultus tibi fundus honores, in gardens, where they served as ante larem gustet venerabilior lare the prototype of the scarecrow of dives. - lares: here the lares to-day. Cf. Ovid, Fast. 1, 415: rurales ; for their nature see H. at ruber, hortorum decus et tutela, and T. $ 189. At the festival of Priapus; Verg. Georg. 4, 110: et Ambarvalia (cf. 2, 1) they were custos furum atque avium cum honored with the other rural difalce saligna Helles pontiaci servet vinities. tutela Priapi ; Hor. Sat. 1, 8, 3-8. 21. tum: in the times referred

18. falce: pruninghook,' the to in felicis quondam (v. 19). — gardener's weapon. - Priapus : a lustrabat: cf. 2, 1, 1; there were god of fruitfulness in both plants several festivals of purification, and animals; his worship was not such as the Ambarvalia (2, 1), the indigenous in Italy, but imported Palilia (2, 5, 85 sqq.), and the Feriae from the Asian shores of the Sementivae (Ovid, fast. I, 658); Hellespont. Translate in apposi- at any of these the customs detion with ruber custos.

scribed in vv. 21-24 might be wit19. felicis quondam: cf. v. 2, n.; nessed annually. Verg. Ec. I, 75: ite meae felir 25. iam ... iam : hencequondam pecus ite capellae. forth’; the repetition emphasizes

20. fertis : the present of cus- the idea of the actual completion tomary action. - munera vestra: of his military experiences and of

nec semper longae deditus esse viae, sed canis aestivos ortus vitare sub umbra

arboris ad rivos praetereuntis aquae.

nec tamen interdum pudeat tenuisse bidentes 30 . aut stimulo tardos increpuisse boves,

non agnamve sinu pigeat fetumve capellae

desertum oblita matre referre domum. at vos exiguo pecori, furesque lupique,

parcite : de magno est praeda petenda grege. 35 hic ego pastoremque meum lustrare quot annis his having obtained from now on, 28. ad rivos : cf. Ovid, Rem. without interruption, that quiet Am. 194: ipse potes rivos ducere life which he desires. For the lenis aquae; Hor. Epod. 2, 25: repetition, with inserted word, cf. labuntur altis interim ripis aquae ; Verg. Aen. 12, 179. – modo = Lucr. 2, 29-30 : prostrati in dummodo.— possim = mihi liceat. gramine molli propter aquae rivum - vivere = vitam degere. -- parvo : sub ramis arboris altae. my modest competence.'

29. tenuisse : there is no appre26. nec: without being.'- ciable difference in meaning besemper implies the rather impa tween the perfect tense here, and tient memory of several expedi- in v. 30, and the present, in referre tions already engaged in. — viae: (v. 32). The perfect forms were marches.'

sometimes more convenient met27. canis: i.e. the dog star, rically. Cf. vv. 46 and 74; also 1, Sirius. The climax of summer 10, 61-63 ; Prop. I, 1, 15 ; 17, 1. heat is usually coincident with the - bidentes : a common garden days following the star's appear- implement. ance in July, and the ancients re- 31. agnamve sinu : cf. Isaiah, garded it as a cause; cf. the modern 40, 11: “He shall gather the expression, “dog days"; cf. 1, 4, lambs with his arm, and carry 6: aestivi tempora sicca canis; 1, them in his bosom." 7, 21. - ortus : plural, referring to 32. oblita matre : abl. abs. the daily rising of the sun (and the 35. hic: on my little farm, in heat) during the period after the contrast to the preceding verse. — canis has appeared. Cf. Hor. Car. -que ... et: cf. 1, 3, 25. — lus4, 15, 15; 1, 17, 17. — sub umbra: trare: the annual purification here cf. Verg. Ec. 1, 1, 1; Hor. Car. I, referred to took place at the Palilia 1, 21; Epod. 2, 23; Lucr. 2, (or Parilia) on April 21; cf. nn. 30.

on 2, 5, 87, and 90.

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