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Siqua recordanti benefacta priora voluptas

est homini, cum se cogitat esse pium,
nec sanctam violasse fidem nec foedere in ullo

divum ad fallendos numine abusum homines,
multa parata manent in longa aetate, Catulle,

ex hoc ingrato gaudia amore tibi.
nam quaecumque homines bene cuiquam aut dicere

possunt
aut facere, haec a te dictaque factaque sunt.

76. Follows 75 in the Mss. immediately, and was therefore also transposed after 87-75 by Lachmann. 3. in ullo w nullo VRM.

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3. fidem: to men, as contrasted with that obligation towards the

gods which is referred to in the Realizing thoroughly the entire following clause. unworthiness of Lesbia and bit- 4. divum ... numine: 'an terly conscious of the faithlessness oath in the name of the gods'; cf. with which she has rewarded his 64, 134 : neglecto numine divum ; constant devotion, Catullus has Ovid, Met. 10, 430 : promissaque resolved to cure himself of his love. numine firmat. But, finding reason powerless to 5. longa aetate: during a cope with passion, he summons long life'; i.e. he has enough the aid of the gods to rid him of memories of this kind (cf. multa) his infatuation.

to last him a lifetime. 1. benefacta : cf. vv. 7, 8.

6. ingrato: cf. 73, 3, n. 2. pium : 'conscientious'; ex- 7. cuiquam: this indefinite, plained by the next two verses. more common in universal negaSeveral such expressions in this tives, is sometimes employed also elegy are to be explained only in universal affirmatives, usually from the point of view of the poet in expressed, or implied, condiconsumed by the one thought al- tions; cf. Cic. Ad Fam. 6, 14, 1: ready stated in the introduction to si quisquam est timidus ...is ego the poem.

sum.

10

omnia quae ingratae perierunt credita menti.

quare cur te iam amplius excrucies?
quin tu animo offirmas atque istinc teque reducis,

et dis invitis desinis esse miser ?
difficile est longum subito deponere amorem.

difficile est, verum hoc qua lubet efficias :
una salus haec est, hoc est tibi pervincendum :

hoc facias, sive id non pote sive pote.
o di, si vestrum est misereri, aut si quibus umquam

extremam iam ipsa morte tulistis opem,
me miserum adspicite et, si vitam puriter egi,

eripite hanc pestem perniciemque mihi.

20

11. istinc teque

10. cur te iam VM iam te cur Dw cur tu te iam Schoell. Heinsius instincteque 0 instinctoque GM istinc te ipsa Ellis.

9. ingratae : here in the act. sense, “thankless.' – perierunt: have been wasted.

11. offirmas : for a similar intrans. use of this verb cf. Plaut. Stich. 68: offirmabit pater advorsum nos. — istinc: a scornful expression : «from that unworthy love.'

12. dis invitis : best taken in the causal sense with desinis. Cf. 68, 78. -- esse miser : “to make yourself unhappy.'

13. Catullus the lover makes answer to Catullus the reasoner.

- longum: not absolutely long was the period covered by the love of Catullus for Lesbia, but relatively long, as it absorbed the best years of his life.

14. Reason again gets the upper hand. · Cf. the struggle of Propertius, 3, 21, 5.

15. haec refers to the same thing as hoc in vv. 14, 15, 16 ; the gender here conforms to that of salus.

16. pote : sc. est. Cf. v. 24; 72, 7, n.; Prop. 3, 7, 10; Pers. I, 56: qui pote?

18. extremam iam ipsa morte: in the last article of death.' Catullus feels that his is a desperate, life-and-death struggle.

19. puriter: in the sense elaborated in the opening verses of this elegy. The form is one of the poet's archaisms; cf. 39, 14; Cato, R. R. 23, 2.

20. pestem perniciemque: this expression, found in various other writers, was doubtless considered especially emphatic from its alliteration and assonance. Cf. “beastly bore," “plaguey particular," and the like.

hei mihi, subrepens imos ut torpor in artus

expulit ex omni pectore laetitias !
non iam illud quaero, contra ut me diligat illa,

aut, quod non potis est, esse pudica velit :
ipse valere opto et taetrum hunc deponere morbum.

o di, reddite mi hoc pro pietate mea.

25

Quinti, si tibi vis oculos debere Catullum

aut aliud siquid carius est oculis, eripere ei noli, multo quod carius illi

est oculis seu quid carius est oculis.

21. hei Lachmann seu VM sei Ellis.

22. ex omni pectore laetitias: every joyful feeling from my heart.'

23. contra ... me diligat: “reciprocate my love'; diligere stands here for a higher type of affection than amare, as usual. Cf. 72, 3, n.

24. potis est : cf. 72, 7, n.

25. ipse : it is for myself that I pray.' The emphasis is by contrast with illa (v. 23). A. 195, b; L. 2376.

26. pietate : cf. v. 2, n.

interpretation, it must have been written at an earlier period than Nos. 72 and 76, while the poet still felt that Lesbia was his to lose, and still experienced the pangs of jealousy at the mention of other lovers.

2. carius . . . oculis : cf. 104, 2 : ambobus mihi quae carior est oculis ; 3, 5 : quem plus illa oculis suis amabat.

3. ei: synizesis.

4. seu quid ... oculis : the phrase takes the place of another substantive in the same construction as the preceding oculis. Cf. 13, 9: sed contra accipies meros amores seu quid suavius elegantiusve est ; 23, 12 : corpora sicciora cornu aut siquid magis aridum est.

.82 Catullus beseeches Quintius (probably the same person mentioned in 100, 1) not to wrest from him his greatest treasure (presumably Lesbia). If this is the correct

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Lesbia mi praesente viro mala plurima dicit:

hoc illi fatuo maxima laetitiast.
mule, nihil sentis. si nostri oblita taceret,

sana esset: nunc quod gannit et obloquitur,
non solum meminit, sed, quae multo acrior est res,

irata est, hoc est, uritur et coquitur.

5

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Chommoda dicebat, si quando commoda vellet
dicere, et insidias Arrius hinsidias,
83. 6. coquitur Lipsius loquitur VRM.

discernment it implies much

more.. “The lady doth protest too 6. irata : cf. Ter. Andr. 555 : much, methinks.” Cf. No. 92. amantium irae amoris integraWritten not later than 59 B.C., the tiost. — uritur : i.e. with love. year in which Lesbia's husband, Cf. Verg. Aen. 4, 68 : uritur inQ. Caecilius Metellus Celer, died. felix Dido; Tib. 2, 6, 5 ; 4, 6,

1. praesente : Catullus, how 17. — coquitur : is tormented,' ever, seems not himself to have ie by her passion. been there on the occasion referred to, as is indicated by oblita (v. 3),

84 meminit (v. 5).

The use of the aspirate was 2. fatuo: the derivation of the much restricted in early Latin ; word (fari) makes it peculiarly but by the beginning of the first appropriate to one expressing ill. century B.C. the increasing fregrounded boasts.

quency of Greek loan-words led to 3. mule : much less frequent a tendency to go to the other exas a term of abuse than asinus. treme and apply the aspirate to

4. sana : i.e. not wounded by both vowels and consonants where Cupid's darts. Cf. Tib. 4, 6, 18. it had no etymological justifica

5. acrior: (more important,' tion. Cf. Quint. 1, 5, 20; Cic. De because to the possessor of subtle Orat. 160. Devotion to such a

et tum mirifice sperabat se esse locutum,

cum quantum poterat dixerat hinsidias.
credo, sic mater, sic liber avunculus eius,

sic maternus avus dixerat atque avia.
hoc misso in Syriam requierant omnibus aures:

audibant eadem haec leniter et leviter,
nec sibi postilla metuebant talia verba,

cum subito adfertur nuntius horribilis, Ionios Auctus, postquam illuc Arrius isset,

iam non Ionios esse, sed Hionios.

10

84. 3 and 4, which stand as 9 and 10 in the Mss., were transposed by Politianus.

fad became especially ridiculous when found in a parvenu of meager education. Such a person apparently was the Arrius of this witty epigram (cf. vv. 5, 6), who seems to have been as extravagant with his h's as a modern cockney. It has been conjectured, but with out other than circumstantial evidence, that he may have been the Q. Arrius whom Cicero (Brut. 242) mentions as a worthless orator, without ability or noble birth, who had gained some prominence by political methods.

1. Chommoda : “whages.' vellet : this is perhaps the earliest example of the Subjunct. of Indef. Frequency, a construction appearing about this time in isolated instances (e.g. Caes. B.C. 3, 110, 4), but increasingly common in imperial times.

2. hinsidias : "hambuscade.

4. quantum poterat : “with as much emphasis as possible.

5. credo : “no doubt.'— liber: the implication plainly is that either this uncle or some other uncle of his had not been free, and thus that Arrius was at least connected with a family of libertini, apparently on his mother's side, from comparison of the list of relatives mentioned here. It is certain that ignorance of the proper use of the aspirate was especially common among the lower classes. Cf. Gell. 13, 6, 3: rusticus fit sermo, inquit, si adspires perperam.

7. misso in Syriam : if the above identification of Arrius be correct, this mission to Syria was doubtless with his friend Crassus (Cic. Brut. 242), i.e. in 55 B.C., and this would give an approximate date to the epigram.

8. audibant: cf. 68, 85, n.

9. postilla : the anteclassical equivalent of postea; another of the many archaisms of Catullus.

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