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the lectures and addresses in which it has been treated in all parts of the country, that I propose to notice it very briefly.

Undoubtedly the noble system of common-school education, which is already in existence among us, and for which we can never be too grateful to our Puritan Fathers, is itself no small aid to the cause of agriculture. The farmers and the farmers' children enjoy their full share of its benefits. It furnishes that original sub-soil ploughing to the youthful mind which is essential to the success of whatever other culture it may be destined to undergo. There is no education, after all, which can take the place of reading, writing, and keeping accounts; and the young man who is master of these elemental arts, and whose eye has been sharpened by observation, and his mind trained to reflection, and his heart disciplined to a sense of moral and religious responsibility, - and these are the great ends and the great achievements of our common schools, will not go forth to the work of his life, whether it be manual or mental, whether of the loom or the anvil, of the pen or the plough, without the real, indispensable requisites for success. The great secret and solution of the wonderful advance which has been witnessed of late years, in all the useful arts, has been the union of the thinking mind and the working hand in the same person. Heretofore, for long ages, they have been everywhere separated. One set of men have done the thinking, and another set of men have done the working. The land has been tilled, the loom has been tended, the hammer and the hoe have been wielded, by slaves, or by men hardly more intelligent or independent than their brute yoke-fellows. In other countries, to a considerable extent, and even in our own, so far as one region and one race are concerned, this separation still exists. But a great change has been brought about by the gradual progress of free institutions; and, in the Free States of our own country especially, we see a complete combination of the working hand and the thinking mind, of the strong arm and the intelligent soul, in the same human frame. This has been the glorious result of our common-school system, the cost of which, great as it has been and still is, has been remunerated a thousand-fold, even in a mere pecuniary way, by the improvements, inventions, discoveries, and savings of all sorts, which have been made by educated labor in all the varied departments of human industry. It is now everywhere seen and admitted, that the most expensive labor which can be employed is ignorant labor; and, fortunately, there is very little of it left in the American market.

But, while the great substratum of all education for all pursuits is abundantly and admirably supplied by our common schools, no one can fail to perceive, or hesitate to admit, the advantages which may accrue from something of a more specific and supplementary instruction for those to whom the care and culture of the American soil is to be committed. The earth beneath us has been too long regarded and treated as something incapable of being injured by any thing short of a natural convulsion, or a providential cataclysm. We have been so long accustomed to dig it, and ditch it, and drain it, and hoe it, and rake it, and harrow it, and trample it under our feet, and plough long furrows in its back; and have so long found it repaying such treatment by larger and larger measures of endurance, generosity, and beneficence, - that we have been ready to regard it as absolutely insensible to injury. Because our chains and stakes have exhibited from year to year the same superficial measurements, we have flattered ourselves that our farms were undergoing no detriment or diminution. We have remembered the maxim of the law, “ He who owns the soil owns it to the sky," and have been careful to let nothing interfere with our air or daylight; but we have omitted to look below the surface, and to discover and provide against the robbery which has been annually perpetrated, by day and by night, upon its most valuable ingredients and elements.

The discovery has at last been made, the danger has been revealed, the alarm has been sounded ; and if Government can provide bounties for the destruction of the wolves and bears and foxes, which threaten our flocks, our herds and our hen-roosts, I see not how it can withhold some seasonable provision against the far more frequent and more disastrous depredations by which our soil is despoiled of its treasures, through the want of science and skill on the part of those who till it. These depredations are none the less treacherous, or the less formidable, I need not say, for being carried on in no malicious spirit, and by no hostile hands. The worst robberies of every sort, moral or pecuniary, of character, of property, or of opportunity, are those which a man commits upon himself. It is due to ourselves, it is due even more to our children, that the national soil should not be impaired by our ignorance or our neglect. It is a great trust-estate, of which each generation is entitled only to the use, and for the strip and waste of which the grand Proprietor of the universe will hold us to account.

Whether the promotion of agricultural education shall be undertaken through systematic courses of scientific lectures, or by agricultural schools and colleges, with experimental farms attached to them, or by the preparation and distribution of agricultural tracts and treatises, or by all combined, it is for the farmers to say. What they say will not fail to be rightly and effectively said. With them, words will be things; for no Government will venture to resist their deliberate and united appeals.

But let not the farmers, or the friends of the farmers, deceive themselves. When all that can be desired in this way shall have been accomplished; when Government shall have done its whole duty in regard to agricultural statistics and agricultural science; when the products of every State and of every district in the Union shall have been put in the way of exact and periodical ascertainment; when the American soil shall have been everywhere analyzed, and when those who till it shall have been everywhere instructed in its peculiar adaptations, and its peculiar properties, and its peculiar wants; when the whole vegetable and animal and mineral kingdoms shall have been raked and ransacked for the cheapest and most accessible and most effective fertilizers; when some safe and convenient mode shall have been contrived (according to the late suggestion of Lord Palmerston in England) for turning back the drains and gutters and common sewers of our great cities and towns upon our farms and gardens, instead of allowing them to run waste to the sea, breeding pestilence as they flow, “the country thus purifying the towns, and the towns fertilizing the country;" when the great doctrine of modern' science shall be practically recognized and applied, that there is no waste in the physical universe, nothing in excess, nothing useless, from the bone which the dog growls over at our door to the dung of the sea-fowl, for which the nations of the earth are contending, on the most distant and desolate island, but that

Nature never lends
The smallest scruple of her excellence,
But, like a thrifty goddess, she determines
Herself the glory of a creditor,
Both thanks and use;"

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still, still, the great want of American agriculture will remain, — that want which I have alluded to, in the opening of this address, and to which I recur once more, for a few moments, in its conclusion, - the want of adequate markets for the sale of its produce. Nay, the want will only have been increased and aggravated by the greater fertility of our fields, and the greater abundance of our harvests.

Now, it is obvious that these markets are either to be created at home or found abroad.

And I am not one of those, if any there be, who are disposed to disparage the value of a foreign market for any thing for which we can find one. It is clearly the duty of our Government to make arrangements in every way in its power by wise negotiations and just systems of reciprocity, for the introduction into foreign countries of the largest possible amount of our surplus provisions and breadstuffs. Such arrangements, however, are clearly commercial arrangements; and I refer to them merely as an illustration, that what may seem to be done by our legislators only for the benefit of commerce, may really result in the most important aid and advantage to agriculture.

I cannot pass from this topic, however, without the expression of an opinion, that the idea of an adequate foreign market for our agricultural surplus has proved, and will still prove, utterly fallacious and delusive. There is at least one principle, in this connection, which may be considered as settled by the whole current of experience, and by all the deductions and dictates of reason and common sense. No large or considerable kingdom or country will ever be habitually dependent on the soil of other countries for the food of its inhabitants. Why, where would be the power of Great Britain, were she compelled to look abroad for the daily bread of her people? What a mockery would be her boasted dominion over the seas! What a farce her world-encircling chain of colonial possessions and military posts! With what face would she venture to interfere with our fishing-grounds, or even to maintain her own, were she liable to be starved out at any moment by our embargoes? We should soon learn how to bring her to terms, as her own parliaments have so often brought her monarchs to terms, by a simple refusal of supplies, a simple stopping of rations.

I never think, Mr. President, of this dream of some of our American farmers, that they are to raise food for all the world, without associating it with the dream of Joseph of old, or rather with his two successive dreams, as related to his brethren, and recorded in Holy Writ:

“Hear, I pray you," said he, “this dream which I have dreamed: For, behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and lo! my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves stood round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf. And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign over us? Or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us?

“ And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it to his brethren, and said: Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun, and the moon, and the eleven stars, made obeisance to me.”

Sir, the one of these dreams is as likely to be fulfilled in our favor as the other. We may as well hope that the constellations of the other hemisphere will stoop to make obeisance to our constellation, and that the kings and queens of the earth will bend and do homage to our republic, as that the sheaves of other lands will stand round about and make obeisance to our sheaf, and the agriculture of the world acknowledge its dependence upon our agriculture.

Indeed, the fulfilment of the one dream, as I have already suggested, would speedily involve the fulfilment of the other. No great nation can ever maintain its political independence, except by sufferance and courtesy, when it has become absolutely dependent on another nation for its food. As to Great Britain, moreover, to whom our farmers have always been pointed for their most

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