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tisual length is about fix or seven inches, four letters of the alphabet ; and as the though it will grow much larger. See ring, in shaking or vibrating over the plate LXVII. fig. 1.

table, happened to stop over certain of DACOS, DAX, or Acos, a city in France, the letters, these being joined together.

capital of the territories of les Landes, composed the answer required.
in the province of Galcony, situated on DACTYLIS, in botany, a genus of the
the river Adour, west long. 1° north lat. triandria digynia class of plants, the
43° 45'.

flower of which is a bivalve glume, and DACTYL, dixzudes, dactylus, in antient its fruit a single roundil seed, contained

poetry, .a metrical foot, confitting of in the cup and flower.
one long and two short fyllables, as DACTYLUS, DACTYL, in poetry. See
é Axl0;, and mūrmŭıě.

the article DACTYL.
The dactyl and spondee are the only DACTYLUs, among antient botanists, the
feet or measures used in hexameter verses; same with DATE. See DATE,
the former being esteemed more spright- DADO, in architecture, the same with the
ly, and the latter more solemn and

grave. dye. See the article DYE. Accordingly, where great activity is sig. DADUCHI, in antiquity, priests of the nified, we find the dactyls used with goddess Ceres, so called, because, at the much propriety, as in the following fearts and facrifices of that goddess, they verses of Virgil.

ran about the temple, carrying a lighted Quadrupedante putrem fonitu quatit un. torch, which they delivered from band to gula campum.

hand, till it had passed through them all, Dactyli, in antiquity, a name attribute This they did in memory of Ceres's

ed to the first priests of the goddess Cy• searching for her daughter Proserpine, bele, who were particularly called Dac- by the light of a torch, which the kind. tyli Ilæi, becaule he was principally led in mount /Erna. honoured on mount Ida in Phrygia. The DÆDALA, daidada, in antiquity, two name Dactyli is supposed to be given festivals in Bæoria, one of which was them on this occasion, that to prevent observed by the Platæins at Alalcome. Saturn from hearing the cries of Jupiter, nus, where was the largest grove in all whom Cybele had committed to their Bæotia. Here they affembled, and excustody, they used to fing verses of their pofing to the open air pieces of sodden cwn invention, which, by their unequal Aesh, carefully observed whither the measures, seemed to resemble the foot crows that came to feed upon them took Dactylus.

their fight, and then hewed down all Sophocles says they were called Dactyli, those trees on which any of them alightfrom the greek díxzudo, finger, by rea- ed, and formed them into ftatues, which fon their number was equal to that of the by the antient greeks were calied dædala. fingers, viz. ten, five boys, and five The other folemnity was by far the greatgirls; he adds it is to them we owe the elt and most remarkable of the two, beinvention of iron, and the manner of ing celebrated only once in sixty years. working it. It is a conjectine, that the DÆDIS, A2.015, among the greeks, a socuretes and corybantes were not the same lemn festival that lasted three days, durwith the dactyli idæi ; that 100 men ing all which time torches were kept born in Crete were first called daciyli ; burning, which gave occasion to the name. that each of them had nine children, who DÆMON, daimov, a name given by the were the curetes, and that each of the antients to certain fpirits, or genii, which, curetes had ten children, who were allo they say, appeared to men, either to do called dactyli idæi. M. Beger makes them service, or to hurt thein. The Plathe dactyli inventors of the art of thoot. tonists diftinguish between gods, dæmons, ing with bows and arrows.

and heroes. The gods are those whom DACTYLIC VERSES, in antient poetry, Ciceto calls Dii majorum gentium. The

hexam fer veiles ending with a dactyl. dæmons are those whom we call angels. See DACTYL and HEXAMETER.

See the article ANGBL, DACTYLIOMANCY, dactylionantia, a Christians, by the word dæmon under

sort of divination, performed by means stand only evil spirits, or devils. Justin of a ring; confiiting chiefly in holding Martyr speaks of the nature of dæmons, the ring Turoended by a fine thread over as if he thought them not ablolutely a round table, on the edge whereof were spiritual and incorporeal, for which made several marks with the twenty- reason he attributes luch actions to them

as cannot be performed without the in- DAHOME, a kingdom of Africa, on tive tervention of a body. It was a fabulous Guinea-coast. notion among the antient Hebrews, that DAILE, in the sea-language, signifies Adam begot dæmons and spirits on cer- the trough for carrying the water off the tain succubuses. It is difficult to come deck's. at a satisfactory accouct of the dæmo- DAIRY, a house or building where milk, nology of that people, and therefore it butter, cheese, &c. are made or kept. is no easy matter to explain what is meant See the articles MILK, BUTTER, &c. by the worshipping of dæmons, or devils, DAISY, the english name of a genus of which is the last species of idolatry, ac- plants, called by authors bellis. See cording to the division of the rabbins. the article BELLIS. “ The poets, says Minucius Fælix, ac- DAKER-HEN, a bird, otherwile called “ knowledge the existence of dæmons ; ostygometra. See ORTYGOMETRA. " the philosophers make it a matter of DALEBURGH, the capital of the pro“ dispute, Socrates was convinced of vince of Dalia, in Sweden, situated on " it, ' for he had a dæmon always at the western side of the Wener-Jake, filty “ hand, by whose advice he governed miles north east of Gottenburgh, eatt Ion. « himself in all his actions : the magi 13°, and north lat. 59o. “ are not only acquainted with dæmons, DALECARLIA, a province of Swederi, " but perform all their magical opera- abounding with iron and copper mines. “ tions by the help of dæmons." This is also the name of a river, which The mahometans allow several sorts of gives name to the above province. dæmons; and the miners of Hungary, DALECHAMPIA, in botany, a genus of pretend that, while they are at work in the the polygamia-monoecia class of plants. mines, they often see dæmons in the There is no corolla, either in the male shape of little negro boys, doing them or female flower : the fruit is a globofono other harm than often extinguihing triangular scabrous capsule, with three their lights.

cells; the feeds are roundish and foli. DÆMONIAC, a word applied to a per- tary.

fon supposed to be possessed with an evil DALIA, a province of Sweden, bounded spirit, or dæmon. See DEMON.

on the north by Dalecarlia, on the east In the romilh church there is a particular by Wermeland and the Wener-lake, on office for the exorcism of Dæmoniacs. the south by Gothland, and on the west See the article EXORCISM,

by Norwav. DÆMONIACS, in church history, a branch DALKEITH, a town of Scotland, in

of the anabaprilts, whose diftinguishing the county of Lothian, four miles louth tenet is, that the devils shall be laved at east of Edinburgh, west long, 2° 40' the end of the world.

and north lat. 55° 50' DÆSION, the macedonian name of the DALIBARDA, in botany, a genus of the

month called by the Athenians, anther- icosandria-polygynia class of plants, the

terion. See the article ANTHESTERION, calyx of which consists of a single leafed DAFFODIL, the fame with the narcissus perianthium, divided into five segments; of botanifts. See NARCISSUS.

the corolla consists of five oval, equal DAFFODIL LILY, the lilio.narcissus of bo. petals, inserted into the cup: there is no tanits. See LILIO-NARCISSUS.

pericarpium ; the seeds are five in num. Sea. DAFFODIL, a genus of plants called ber, oval, smooth, and almost of the

by larin writers pancratium. See the length of the cup. article PANCRATIUM,

DALMATIA, a frontier province of Dago, or DAGERWORT, the capital of Europe, mostly subject to the Turks,

an illind of the same name in the Baltic, but some towns on the sea.coast to the near the coalt of Livonia, subject to Rur- Venetians : it is bounded by Bosnia on sa, east long. 21° 30', and 'north latit. the north, by Servia on the east, by 1845'.

Albania on the south, and by Morlachia DAHGESTAN, a country of Asia, bound- and the gulph of Venice on the welt.

ed by Circassia on the north, by the Car- DAM, or Dike, See the article Dike. pian Sea on the eart, by Chisvein, a pro- DAMA, the FALLOU-DEER, in zoology, vince of Persia on the south, and by a species of the deer-kind, diftinguished Georgia on the wet. Iis chief towns are by its ramose and compressed, or pals Tako and Derbent, both fituated on the mated horns. See CERVUS. Caspian Sea,

DAMAGE, in law, is generally underfood of a hurt, or hindrance attending DAMASKEENING, or DAMASKING, a person's estate : but, in common law, the art or operation of beautifying iron, it is a part of what the jurors are to in- steel, &c. by making incisions therein, quire of in giving verdiet for the plain- and filling them up with gold and silver tiff or defendant, in a civil action, wire; chiefly used for adorning swordwhether real or personal: for after giv- blades, guards and gripes, locks of ing verdict on the principal cause, they pistols, &c. are likewise asked their consciences, Damaskeening partakes of the mosaic, touching costs and damages, which con- of engraving, and of carving: like the tain the hindrances that one party hath mosaic, it hath inlaid work; like ensuffered from the wrong done him by graving, it cuts the metal representing the other. See the article COSTS,

divers figures ; and as in chasing, gold DAMAGE-CLEER, was a fee of the tenth and fiver is wrought in relievo. There

part in the common pleas, and twentieth are two ways of dama king, the one, in the king's-bench and exchequer, for- which is the fineft, is when the metal is merly paid out of all ihe damages, ex- cut deep with proper instruments, and ceeding five marks, recovered in those inlaid with gold and silver wire: the courts, in actions of the cale, covenant, other is superficial only. tresspass, and all others wherein the DAMBEA, the capital of Abyssinia, or dainages were uncertain.

Ethiopia, situated at the head of a lake, DAMAGE TEASANT, is when a stranger's to which it gives naine : cait long. 3+",

beails get into another man's ground, and north lat, 15° without licence of the owner or occu- DAMELOPRE, a kind of bilander, used pier of the ground, and there do damage in Holland for conveying merchandize by feeding, or otherwise, to the grass, from one canal to another; being very corn, wood, &c. in which case the

commodious for passing under the tenant whom they damage may there- bridges. fore take, diftrain, or impound them, DAMIANISTS, in church. hiftory, a as well in the night as in the day ; but branch of the ancient acephali-severitæ. in other cases, as for rents and services, They agreed with the catholics in ad. and such like, none may diftrain in the mitting the IVth council, but disowned night.

any distinctions of persons in the GodDAMAN, a port town of the hither India, head; and professed one single nature,

in the province of Guzurat, or Cambay, incapable of any difference ; and yet, fruated on the west coast, about eighty they called God, the Father, Son and iniles south of Surat, in 72° 20' eart Holy Ghost. Jong. and 20° north lat.

DAMIETTA, a port-town of Egypt, It is subject to the Portuguese,

situated on the eastern mouth of the river DAMASCUS, or SCHAM, the capital city Nile, four miles from the sea, and a

of the south part of Syria, fituated nine- hundred miles north of Grand Cairo ; ty miles north east of Jerusalem, in a east long. 32°, and north lat. 31°. pleasant, extensive, and fruitful plain ; DAMNATA Terra, among chemists, eait longit. 37° 20', and north latit. 33° the same with caput mortuum.

See the is'.

article CAPUT. DAMASK, a filk-stuff, with a raised DAMPS, in natural history, noxious pattern, so as that the right side of the Ateams and

and exhalations, frequently damaík, is that which hath the flowers found in mines, pits, wells, and other railed or fattined.

subterraneous places. Damask should be of dressed silk, both Damps are generally reckoned of four in warp and woof ; and in France, half kinds. The first, which is the most ordian ell in breadth : they are made at nary, the workmen in the mines know Chalons in Champagne, and in some when it is coming, by the flame of their places in Flanders, as at Tournay, &c. candle's becoming orbicular, and by its intirely of wool, of an ell wide, and lessening gradually till it goes quite out; 20 ells long.

as also, by the difficulty of breathing. DAMASK is also applied to a very fine steel, Thole thai escape (wooning, feldom suffer

in some parts of the Levant, chiefly at any harm by it: but such as swoon Damascus in Syria ; whence its name. away, though they miss of downright It is used for sword and cutlass blades, Juffocation, are, on their recovery, tore and is finely tempered. See STEEL, monted with very violent convulfions. Their way of cure is to lay the person is well known to all that are versed in down on the earth, in a prone posture, chemical experiments, that most metals with a hole dug in the ground under his emit a great quantity of sulphwous vamouih ; if this fail, they fill him full of pours, during the effervescence they ungood ale, and if that will not do, they dergo in the time of their solutions, in conclude the case desperate.

their respective menftruums : this vapour, The second kind is the pease-bloom damp, being received into bladders, in the lame being so called from its smell : this damp, manner with the natural air of Sir James they say, always comes in the summer- Lowther, has been found to take fire, time, but hath never been known to be in the like way, on being let out in a mortal. The miners in the Peak of small stream, and answering all the phæDerbyshire, fancy it arises from the great nomena of the natural kind. number of red trefoil flowers, called DAMSEL, from the french damoisel, or by them honeysuckles, with which the damoiseau, an appellation antiently Jimestone meadows of the peak abound, given to all young people of either sex, Probably the smell of this damp gives that were of noble or genteel extraction, timely notice to get out of the way. as the sons and daughters of princes, The third is the most peftilential, and knights, and barons : thus we read of the ftrangest of all, if what is laid of Damiel Pepin, Damsel Louis le Gros, it be true. They who pretend to have Damsel Richard prince of Wales. seen it, describe it thus. In the highest From the fons of kings this appellation parts of the roof of those passages in a firit passed to those of great lords and mine which branch out from the main barons, and at length to those of gentle. grove, they see a round thing that hangs men, who were not yet knights. about the bigness of a foot-ball, covered At present, damsel is applied to all maids with a film of the thickness and colour or girls, not yet married, provided they of a cobweb. If this bag should be be not of the vuigar. broke by a splinter, or any other acci- DANAE, in antiquity, a coin somewhat dent, the damp immediately flies out, more than an obulus, uled to be put into and suffocates all the company. The the mouths of the dead, to pay their miners have a way of breaking it at a passage over the river Acheron. distance, by means of a stick and long DANCE, an agreeable motion of the body, rope ; and when they have done this, adjusted by art to the meatures or tune they purify the place with fire. They of instruments, or of the voice. will have it, that it flows from the steam Athenæus concludes, that in the early of their bodies and candles, ascends up ages of antiquity, they accounted dancing into the highest part of the vault, and an exercise becoming persons of honour there condenses; and that in time, a and wisdom, and that, as such, it had film growing over it, it becomes pesti- been esteemed by the greatest men in all leptial.

ages. Thus, Homer calls Merion a fine The fourth is the fulminating, or fire- dancer, and says, that the graceful mein damp, whose vapour, being touched by and great agility which he had acquired the fame of a candle, presently takes by that exercise, distinguished him above fire, and has all the effe&ts of lightening, the rest in tbe armies of either Greeks or fired gun-powder. These are fre- or Trojans. Dancing was in very great quently met with in the coal-mines, and esteem among the Greeks, even the Lafonetimes, though rarely, in the lead. cedemonians encouraged it: but, at mines.

Rome, we find the custom was quite The pernicious damps in mines, shew otherwise ; for there, to use the words of abundantly, that nature affords inflam- Cicero, no man dances unless he is mad mable air in some cases; and we have or drunk: Cicero reproaches Gabinius found by experiments, that art can do with having danced : and we read, that the same, and that, very probably, on Domitian excluded several members from the fame principles with the natural. the senate for having danced. Sir James Lowther, having collected the Dancing in general, was by the antients air of some of these damps in bladders, divided into cubistic, ipheriftic, and orpreserved it so well, that when brought chestic: the cubistic dance was performup to London, it would take fire at the ed with certain wrestlings and contorsions Aame of a candle, on being let out at of the body ; the spheriftic with a sort of #orifice of a piece of tobacco-pipe. It ball, or bowl play; but the orchettic


was most usual, and what indeed was There is also the bearing of a bend, dancing properly so called.

called double dancette: thus, he beareth Dancing is usuaily an effect and indi. azure, a bend double dancette argent. cation of jov, though Mr. Palleprat af- DANCHE, in heraldry, the fame with fures us, that there are nations in Soa:h dantelle, according to Guillim : but America, who dance, to new their Columbier makes it the same with in. Sorrow. It has been in ufe. among all dented. See the articles INDENTED and nations civilized and barbarous, though DANTELLE. held in esteem among some, and in con- DANEGELT, a tax, or tribute, on every fempt among others. It has often been, hide of land, imposed on our ancestors and still is, lometimes, made an act of the Saxons by the Dares, on their fre. religion. Thus David danced before the quent invasions, as the arbitary terms ark, to honour God, and exprels his of peace, and departure. It was fift excess of joy, for its return into Sion. imposed as a continual yearly tax upon Anong the Pagans it made a part of the whole nation, under king Ethelredo the worship paid to the Gods, it being It was levied by William J. and II, but ulud to dance round the aliars, and was released by king Henry the first ; and ftatues ; and at Rome, the falii, who finally abolished by king Stephen. were priests of Mars, canced through DANIEL, or book of DANIEL, a canonica! the streets in honour of that God. The book of the old testament, so denominated poets made the Gods themselves dance. from its author Daniel, who was a very The Chriftians are not free from this extraordinary person, and was favoured fuperftition, for in popis countries cer. of God, and honoured of men, beyond tain festivals, particularly those of the any that had lived in his time. His facrament, and paflion of our Lord, are prophecies concerning the coming of the celebrated with dancing,

Meffiah, and the other great events of af. Rope DANCER, fcboexobates, a person who ter times, are so clear and explicit, that

walks, leaps, dances, and performs le. Porpbyry objected to them, that they veral other seats upon a linall rope, or mult have been written after the facts wire.

were done. The file of Daniel is not The antients had their rope-dancers, fo lofty and figurative as that of the other who had four several ways of exercising prophets ; it is clear and concise, and his

the firtt vaulted, or turned narrations and descriptions simple and round the rope, like a wheel round its natural; and, in Mori, he writes more axis, and there hung by the heels or

like an hiftorian than a prophet. neck. The second flew or lid from The Jews do not reckon Daniel above, downwards, resting on their mong the prophets ; part of his book, ftomach, with the arms and legs ex- that is from the 4th verse of the 2d chaptended. The third ran alorg a rope, ter to the end of the gıh chapter, was ftretched in a right line, or up and originally written in the chaldee landown. Laitly, the fourth, not only guage, the reason of which was, that in walked on the rope, but made surpri- that part he treats of the chaldean or basing leaps and turns thereon.

bylonith affairs; all the rest of the book is This ait is lately much improved, as in hebrew. The fix first chapters of the well in this nation as in France, and book of Daniel are an history of the several other parts of Europe ; witness kings of Babylon, and what befel the the admirable feats of several rope-dan- Jews under their government. In the six cers, now in this country, who, standing lart, he is altogether propherical, foretel. only with one foot on the wire, beat the Bing not only what should happen to his drum, sound the trumpes, play the violin, own church and nation, but events in c. and all the while the wire is in full which foreign princes and kingdoms fwing. The other feats which they per. were concerned. form on the wire by the lielp of a ba- DANK, a piece of silver current in Persia,

lance, are too many to be enumerated here. and loine parts of Arabia, weighing the DANCETTE, in heraldry, is when the fixieenth part of a drachin. It is also a

ou:line of any bordure, or ordinary, is weiglit uled by the Arabians to weigh indented very largely, the largenels of jewels and drugs. the incientures being ihe only thing that DANIELLE,'in heraldry, the same with distinguishes it from indented. See the dariertte. See the article DANCETTE. article INDENTED.

DANTZICK, the capital of regal Prussis,

their art;


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