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Introductory Letter to some additional Papers 257

Opinions and Conjectures concerning the Pro.

Grievances of Pennsylvania .

perties and Effects of electrical Matter, &c. 258

Dedication to Arthur Onslow .

Additional Experiments with the Leyden Bottle 206

introduction to the History

. vi

Accumulation of the electrical Fire in the elec-

Review of the Constitution and Government of

trified Glass.- Effect of Lightning explained,


. . . .

&c. .

· 267

Appendix, containing sundry original Papers, Unlimited Nature of the electric Force . . 268

relative to the several Points of Controversy

of the Terms, electric per se and pon-electric.

between the Governors and Assemblies of

-Relation between Metals and Water, &c. . 208


. 1

An Experiment towards discovering more of the

qualities of the electrical Fluid . .



Mistake, that only Metal and Water were con-


ductors, rectified, &c. .

Albany Papers

76 Difference in the Electrcity of a Globe of Glass
I. Reasons and Motives on which the Plan of

charged, and a Globe of Sulphur, and the pro.
Union was formed

... . .

ib. bable Course of their diferent Attractions and

Il Reasons against partial Unions .

Repulsions, &c.

. 271, 272

II. Plan of a proposed Union of the several Electrical Experiment made at Marly

. 273

Colonies of Massachuseul's Bay, New Hamp. Letter of W. Watson concerning electrical Ex.

shire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York,

periments upon Thunder-clouds


New Jersey, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Remarks on the Abb: Nollet's Letters, by David

and South Carolina .

78 Colden .



Albany Papers-continued.

Curious Instance of the Efect of Oil on Water 279

1. Letter to Governor Shirley concerning the Rev. Mr. Farish to Dr. Brownrigg


Imposition of direct Taxes upon the Colo-

Dr. Franklin to Dr Brownrigg .

njes, without their consent .

Mr. Tengnagel to Count Bentinck


II. Letter to the same; concerning direct The electrical Kite .


Taxes in the Colonies imposed without con

Size of Rods for Conductors to Buildings.-De-
sent, indirect Taxes, and the Albany Plan

scription of a Thunder-clond

of Union .

Of the positive and negative State of Electricity

III. Letter on the Subject of uniting the Co-

in the Clouds

lonies more intimately with Great Britain, Electrical Experiments . . .

by Representatives in Parliament

Experiments made in pursuance of those made

The Canada Pamphiei:-

by Mr. Canton; with explanations, by B.

The Interest of Great Britain considered, with


regard to her Colonies and the Acquisitions Turkey killed by Electricity


of Canada and Guadaloupe . . . 190 Dr. Franklin to Dr. Lining on electrical Matters 294

Plain Truth; or, Serious Considerations on the Beccaria's Work on Electricity, &c.


present State of the City of Philadelphia, and Dr. Franklin to Peter Collinson .


Province of Pennsylvania. By a Tradesman Mr. Bowdoin to Dr. Franklin concerning Light.

of Philadelphia . . .

ning .

A Comparison of the Conduct of the ancient Answer to the same, by Dr. Franklin

Jews, and of the Anti-federalists in the United Mr. Bowdoin to Dr. Franklin on the Effect of

States of America

. . 211) Lightning on Capt. Waddell's Compass, &c. 301

The Internal State of America ; being a true of the Electric Spark, -Time taken up by . ib.

Description of the Interest and Policy of that Answer to the furegoing .


vast Continent . .

| Mr. Kinnersley to Dr. Franklin.-Experiments

Settlement on Ohio ; Report of Lords Commis.

on boiling Water, &c.


sjoners for Trade and Plantations, concerning Answer to the foregoing


a Grant of Lands on the river Ohio, in North Effects of Lightning in Carolina . . 312


Remarks by Dr. Franklin .


Appendix. No. I. Proclamation by the King . On the Electricity of the Tourmalin


Appendix, No. II. State of the King's Quit-rents Professor Winthrop to Dr. Franklin, relating to

in North America . . . . . 240 Electricity in the Atmosphere

Comparison of Great Britain and America as to

A Small, of London, to Dr Franklin


Credit, in 1777

- . 241 Best Method of securing a Powder Magazine

from Lightning

. ib.


Professor Winthrop to Dr. Franklin.-Electrical

Conductors .

Essays and Correspondence.

Answer to the above

Electricity.-Wonderful Effect of Points.--Posi. Opinions and Observations concerning the uti.

tive and negative Electricity. ---Electrical Kiss.

lity of long pointed Rods

Counterfeit Spider.- Simple and commo. On the utility of electrical Conductors

dious electrical Machine

• 214 On the Effects of Electricity in paralytic cases 324

Observations on the Leyden Bottle, with Expe. Electrical Experiments on Amber

. ib.

riments .

. . . 246 On the Electricity of the Fogs in Ireland • 325

Farther Experiments.-Leyden Bottle analyzed. The Shock from the Surinam Eel, or the Torpe.
--Electrical Battery.-Magical Picture.-Elec.

do, considered

trical Wheel or Jack.- Electrical Feast

19 On the Analogy between Magnetism and Elec-

Observations and Suppositions respecting Thun. | tricity


· 254 | Mode of rendering Mcat tender by Electricity : 327

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· 320

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• 452



Choice of Glass for the Leyden Experiment 328 | Remarks on some of the foregoing Observations 423

Concerning the Leyden Bottle

Plan, by Messrs Franklin and Dalrymple, for

Physical and Meteorological Observations

benefiting distant un provided Countries , 427

On Water-spouts

. . . 332

of the Provision made in China against Famine 428

Water-spouts and Whirlwinds

334. 340 | Positions concerning national Wealth . . ib.

Description of a Water-spout at Antigua • 339 On the Price of Corn, and the Management of

Shooting Stars

. ib. the Poor .

Observations on the Meteorological Paper 342 344 On Freedom of Speech and the Press

Answers to the foregoing

343. 345 On Government

. . . . . 439

!, 440

Extracts from Dampier's Voyages

On Paper Money

• 441

C. Colden to Dr. Franklin

- 347 On Coin .

· 445

Account of a Whirlwind in Maryland

348 Rules of Health

. . 448

On the N E Storms in North America

349 Rules for a Club formerly established in Phila.

Meteorological Inaginations and Conjectures • 350 delphia

Ou Cold produced by Evaporation

350. 353 Sketch of an English School

Concerning the Light in Sea water

On Discoveries .

On the Saltness of Sea water

. 355 On the Usefulness of the Mathematics


On the Bristol Waters, and the Tide in Ri. Causes of Earthquakes

. 454


. 356. 358 Public Men


Salt Water rendered fresh by Distillation.-Me On Smuggling


thod of relieving thirst by Sea-water - 358 Plan for improving the Condition of the Free

Tendency of Rivers to the Sea.-Effects of the


. 461

Sun's Rays on Cloths of different colours . 359 Remarks concerning the Savages of North

Effect of Air on the Barometer, and the Benefits

America .

. . . . 462

derived from the Study of Insects

- 360 | Memoire de Sir John Dalrymple ou Projet du

Effect of Vegetation on noxious Air

301 Lord Rocheford, pour empecher la Guerre . 465

On the Inflammability of the Surface of certain On human Vanity

. . 468

Rivers in America .

. . ib.

On true Happiness


On the different Quantities of Rain which fall On Self-denial

at different Heights over the same Ground

Rivalship in Almanac making . . .

On the Properties of an Hygrometer

The Waste of Life .

On the Difference of Navigation in shoal and Dialogue I. between Philocles and Horatio, con-

deep Water .

cerning Virtue and Pleasure

Improvements in Navigation

366. 374 | Dialogue II. The same continued

On the Gulf Stream

. 376 Poor Richard's Almanac.-The Way to Wealth 477

On the Warmth of Sea-water

. 377 | Advice to a Young Tradesman

Journal of a Voyage from the Channel between Necessary Hints to those that would be Rich .

France and England towards America . 379 The Way to make Money plenty in every Man's

On the Art of Swimming

381. 382 pocket

- 481

On the free Use of Air

383 | Hints for a Reply to the Protests of certain

On the Causes of Colds

Members of the House of Lords against the

On the Vis Inerti of Matter

. ib. Repeal of the Stamp Act . . . . 499

On the different Strata of the Earth

. 385

Observations on Passages in a Pamphlet, en.

Theory of the Earth

. ib. titled, "Good Humour, or, a Way with the

Theory of Light and Heat ..


. 50

Of Magnetism and the Theory of the Earth

Observations on Passages in a Letter from a

On the Nature of Sea Coal

| Merchant in London to his Nephew in North

Number of Deaths in Philadelphia by Inoculation ib.



. 504

Answer to the preceding . r . . ib. Observations on Passages in an “Inquiry into

Effects of Lead upon the Human Constitution


the Nature and Causes of the Disputes be-

The prevailing Doctrines of Life and Death 391 tween the British Colonies in America and

New invented Pennsylvania Fire-places

- 392 their Mother Country" . .

. 510

On the Causes and Cure of smoky Chimneys . 401 Observations on Passages in a Pamphlet, en.

Description of a new Stove for burning Pit.coal titled, “The True constitutional Means for

and consuming all its Smoke .

. 41 putting an end to the Disputes between Great

Method of contracting Chimneys.-Modesty in

Britain and the American Colonies" .

. 516


. 420

The handsome and deformed Leg

. 481
The Busy body

Concerning the Increase of Mankind, peopling The Drinker's Dictionary.

. 495
of Countries, &c.

121 | White-washing


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401 | Observa

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FEBRUARY 22, 1757.

In obedience to the order of the house, we have drawn up the heads of the most important aggrievances that occur to us, which the people of this province with great difficulty labour under; the many infractions of the constitution (in manifest violation of the royal grant, the proprietary charter, the laws of this province, and of the laws, usages, and customs of our mother-country) and other matters; which we apprehend call aloud for redress. They are as follow:

First-By the royal charter (which has ever been, ought to be, and truly is the principal and invariable fundamental of this constitution) king Charles the Second did give and grant unto William Penn, his heirs, and assigns, the province of Pennsylvania ; and also to him and his heirs, and his or their deputies or lieutenants, free, full, and absolute power, for the good and happy government thereof, to make and enact any laws, according to their best discretion; by and with the advice, assent, and approbation of the freemen of the said country, or of their delegates or deputies; for the raising of money, or any other end appertaining to the public state, peace, or safety of the said country. By the words of this grant, it is evident, that full powers are granted to the deputies and lieutenants of William Penn and his heirs, to concur with the people in framing laws for their protection and the safety of the province, according to their best discretion; independent of any instructions or directions they should receive from their principals. And it is equally obvious to your committee, that the people of this province and their representatives were interested in this royal grant; and by virtue thereof, have an original right of legislation inherent in them; which neither the proprietors nor any other person whatsoever can divest them of, restrain, or abridge, without manifestly violating and destroying the letter, spirit, and design of this grant.

Nevertheless we unfortunately find, that the proprietaries of this province, regardless of this sacred fundamental of our rights and liberties, have so abridged and restricted their late and present governor's discretion in matters of legislation, by their illegal, impracticable, and unconstitutional instructions and prohibitions ; that no bill for granting aids and supplies to our most gracious sovereign (be it ever so reasonable, expedient, and necessary for the defence of this his majesty's colony, and safety of his people) unless it be agreeable thereto, can meet with his approbation : by means whereof the many considerable sums of money which have been offered for those purposes, by the assemblies of this province (ever anxious to maintain his honour and rights), have been rejected: to the great encouragement of his majesty's enemies, and the imminent danger of the loss of this colony.

SecondlyThe reprepresentatives of the people, in general assembly met, by virtue of the said royal grant, and the charter of privileges granted by the said William Penn, and a law of this province, have right to, and ought to enjoy all the powers and privileges of an assernbly, according to the rights of the free-born subjects of England, and as is usual in any of the plantations in America : (also) it is an indubitable and now an incontested right of the commons of England, to grant aids and supplies to his majesty in any manner they think most easy to themselves and the people; and they (also) are the sole judges of the measure, manner, and time of granting and raising the same.

Nevertheless the proprietaries of this province, in contempt of the said royal grant, proprietary charter, and law of their colony, designing to subvert the fundamentals of this constitution, to deprive the assembly and people of their rights and privileges, and to assume an arbitrary and tyrannical power over the liberties and properties of his majesty's liege subjects, have so restrained the governors by the despotic instructions (wbich are not to be varied from, and are particularly directory in the framing and passing of money bills and supplies to his majesty, as to the mode, measure, and time), that it is impossible for the assembly, should they lose all sense of their most essential rights, and comply with those instructions, to grant sufficient aids for the defence of this his majesty's province from the common enemy.

Thirdly-In pursuance of sundry acts of general asembly, approved of by the crown, [and] a natural right inherent in every man antecedent to all laws, the assemblies of this province have had the power of disposing of the public moneys, that have been raised for the encouragement of trade and support of government, by the interest money arising by the loan of the bills of credit and the excise. No part of these moneys was ever paid by the proprietaries, or ever raised on their estates; and therefore they can have no pretence of right to a voice in the disposition of thenı. They have ever been applied with prudent frugality to the honour and advantage of the public, and the king's immediate service, to the general approbation of the people: the credit of the government has been preserved, and the debts of the public punctually discharged. In short, no inconveniencies but great and many advantages have accrued, from the assembly's prudent care and management of these funds.

Yet the proprietaries resolved to deprive the assemblies of the power and means of supporting an agent in England, and of prosecuting their complaints and remonstrating their aggrievances, when injured and oppressed, to his majesty and his parliament; and to rob them of this natural right (which has been so often approved of by their gracious sovereign), have, by their said instructions, prohibited their governor from giving his assent to any laws emitting or remitting any paper currency or bills of credit, or for raising money by excise or any other method ; unless the governor or commander-in-chief for the time being, by clauses to be inserted therein, has a negative in the disposition of the moneys arising thereby; let the languishing circumstances of our trade be ever so great, and a further or greater medium be ever so necessary for its support.

Fourthly—By the laws and statutes of England, the chief rents, honours, and castles of the crown are taxed, and pay their proportion to the supplies that are granted to the king for the defence of the realm, and support of government: his majesty, the nobility of the realm, and all the British subjects do now actually contribute their proportion towards the defence of America in general, and this province in particular; and it is in a more especial manner the duty of the proprietaries to pay their proportion of a tax for the immediate preservation of their own estates in this province. To exempt, therefore, any part of their estates from their reasonable part of this necessary burthen, it is unjust as it is illegal, and as new as it is arbitrary.

Yet the proprietaries, notwithstanding the general danger to which the nation and its colonies are exposed, and great distress of this province in particular, by their said instructions, have prohibited their governors from passing laws for the raising supplies for its defence; unless all their located, unimproved, and unoccupied lands, quit-rents, fines, and purchase moneys on interest (the much greater part of their enormous estates in this colony) are expressly exempted from paying any part of the tax.

Fifthly-By virtue of the said royal charter, the proprietaries are invested with a power of doing every thing "which unto a complete establishment of justice, unto courts and tribunals, forms of judicature, and manner of proceedings, do belong." It was certainly the import and design of this grant, that the courts of judicature should be formed, and the judges and officers thereof hold their commissions, in a manner not repugnant, but agreeable to the laws and customs of England; that thereby they might remain free from the influence of persons in power, the rights of the people might be preserved, and their properties effectually secured. That by the guarantee, William Penn (understanding the said grant in this light) did, by his original frame of government, covenant and grant with the people, that the judges and other officers should hold their commissions during their good behaviour, and no longer.

Notwithstanding which, the governors of this province have, for many years past, granted all the commissions to the judges of the king's bench or supreme court of this province, and to the judges of the court of common pleas of the several counties, to be held during their will and pleasure ; by means whereof, the said judges being subject to the influence and directions of the proprietaries and their governors, their favourites and creatures, the laws may not be duly administered or executed, but often wrested from their true sense to serve particular purposes; the foundation of justice may be liable to be destroyed; and the lives, laws, liberties, privileges, and properties of the people thereby rendered precarious and altogether insecure ; to the great disgrace of our laws, and the inconceivable injury of his majesty's subjects.

Your committee further beg leave to add, that besides these aggrievances, there are other hardships the people of this province have experienced, that call for redress. The enlistment of ser. vants, without the least satisfaction being made to the masters, has not only prevented the cultivation of our lands, and diminished the trade and commerce of the province, but is a burden extremely unequal and oppressive to individuals. And should the practice continue, the cousequence must prove very discouraging to the further settlement of this colony, and prejudicial to his majesty's future service.- Justice, therefore, demands, that satisfaction should be made to the masters of such enlisted servants; and that the right of masters to their servants be confirmed and settled. — But as those servants have been enlisted into his majesty's service for the general defence of America, and not of this province only, but all the colonies, and the nation in general, have and will receive equal benefit from their service; this satisfaction should be made at the expense of the nation, and not of the province only.

That the people now labour under a burden of taxes, almost insupportable by so young a colony, for the defence of its long-extended frontier, of about two hundred miles from New Jersey to Maryland ; without either of those colonies, or the three lower counties on Delaware, contributing their proportion thereto; though their frontiers are in a great measure covered and protected by our forts. And should the war continue, and with it this unequal burden, many of his majesty's subjects in this province will be reduced to want, and the province, if not lost to the enemy, involved in debt, and sunk under its load.

That notwithstanding this weight of taxes, the assemblies of this province have given to the general service of the nation, tive thousand pounds to purchase provisions for the troops under general Braddock; two thousand nine hundred and eighty-five pounds and eleven pence for clearing a road by his orders ; ten thousand five hundred and fourteen pounds ten shillings and a penny to general Shirley, for the purchasing provisions for the New England forces; and ex. pended the sum of two thousand three hundred and eighty-tive pounds and two pence halfpenny



in supporting the inhabitants of Nova Scotia ; which likewise we conceive ought to be a national expense.

And that his majesty's subjects, the merchants and insurers in England, as well as the merchants here and elsewhere, did during the last, and will during the present war, greatly suffer in their property, trade, and commerce, by the enemy's privateers on this coast, and at our capes, unless some method be fallen on to prevent it.

Wherefore your committee are of opinion, that the commissioners intended to be sent to England, to solicit a memorial and redress of the many infractions and violations of the constitution, should also have it in charge, and be instructed to represent to our most gracious sovereign and his parliaments, the several unequal burdens and hardships before mentioned; and endeavour to procure satisfaction to the masters of such servants as have been enlisted, and the right of masters to their servants established and confirmed; and obtain a repayment of the said several sums of money, some assistance towards defending our extensive frontier, and a vessel of war to protect the trade and commerce of this province.

Submitted to the correction of the house, February 22, 1757.



SIR–The subject of the following sheets is an unhappy one: the controversy between the proprietaries and successive assemblies of Pennsylvania. A controversy which has often embarrassed, if not endangered the public service; a controversy which has been long depending, and which still seems to be as far from an issue as ever.

Our blessed Saviour reproaches the Pharisees with laying heavy burdens on men's shoulders, which they themselves would not stir with a single finger.

Our proprietaries, sir, have done the same; and for the sake of the commonwealth, the province has hitherto submitted to the imposition. Not, indeed, without the most strenuous endeavours to lay the load equally, the fullest manifestations of their right to do so, and the strongest protestations against the violence put upon them.

Having been most injuriously misrepresented and traduced in print by the known agents and dependants of these gentlemen their fellow subjects, they at last find themselves obliged to set forth an historical state of their case, and to make their appeal to the public upon it.

With the public opinion in their favour, they may with the more confidence lift up their eyes to the wisdom of parliament and the majesty of the crown, from whence alone they can derive an effectual reinedy.

To your hands, sir, these papers are most humbly presented, for considerations so obvious, that they scarce need any explanation.

The Roman provinces did not stand more in need of patronage than ours : and such clients as we are would have preferred the integrity of Cato to the fortune of Cæsar.

The cause we bring is in fact the cause of all the provinces in one; it is the cause of every British subject in every part of the British dominions. It is the cause of every man who deserves to be frec, everywhere.

The propriety, therefore, of addressing these papers to a gentleman, who, for so many successive parliaments, with so much honour to himself and satisfaction to the public, has been at the head of the commons of Great Britain, cannot be called in question.

You will smile, sir, perhaps, as you read the references of a provincial assembly to the rights and claims of parliament; but, we humbly conceive, it will be without the least mixture of resentment; those assemblies having nothing more in view than barely to establish their privileges, on the most rational and solid basis they could find, for the security and service of their constituents.

And you are humbly besought, sir, not to think the worse of this address, because it has been made without your permission or privity.

Nobody asks leave to pay a debt; every Briton is your debtor, sir; and all we have said, or can say, is but a poor composition for what we owe you.

You have conferred as much honour on the chair you fill, as the chair has conferred on you.
Probáty and dignity are your characteristics.
May that seat always derive the same lustre from the same qualities.
This at least ought to be our prayer, whether it is or not within our expectations.

For the province of Pennsylvania, as well as in my own private capacity, I have the honour to be, with the most profound respect,

Sir, your most obedient, humble servant,


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