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much strength at liberty to be employed | The charters are sacred. Violate them, elsewhere.

and then the present bond of union (the “ The legislative power of every kingdom or | kingly power over us) will be broken. empire should centre in one supreme assembly.” | “The Americans may insist upon the same

Distinguish here what may be convenient rights, privileges, and exemptions, as are allowed from what is fact. Before the union it was the Irish, because of the similarity, if not identhought convenient, and long wished for, tity, of their connexions with us." that the two kingdoms should join in one Surely the Americans deserve a little parliament. But, till that union was formed, more. They never put you to the trouble the fact was that their parliaments were dis- and expense of conquering them, as Ireland tinct, and the British Parliament would not has done three times over. They never make laws for Scotland. The same fact were in rebellion.--I speak now of the nanow subsists in America. The parliaments tive Irish. The English families settled and states are distinct; but the British Par- there lost no rights by their merit in conliament has taken advantage of our mino- quering that country. rity, and usurped powers not belonging to it. “It would be amiss, perhaps, to ask them

. “But if any distinction were to be made, what bounds they would be content to fix to

most certainly, of the two nations, the Ame

| ricans are least entitled to any lenity on that their claims and demands upon us, as hitherto they seem to be at a loss where to stop." They only desire, that you would leave

I wonder much at this “ most certainly.them where you found them; repeal all “The terms she may not think safe and proyour taxing laws, and return to requisitions per to grant the Irish, she may judge full as where you would have aids from them. dangerous and imprudent to grant the Ameri

“I must freely own, that whatever opinion I may have of their right, I certainly have not It is very imprudent to deprive America quite as favourable one of their conduct, which of any of her privileges. If her commerce often is neither consistent nor prudent." and friendship are of any importance to you, They think the same of yours.

they are to be had on no other terms, than “If they are really willing we should exercise | leaving her in the full enjoyment of her any acts of sovereignty among them at all, the rights. imposition they have so riotously resisted might “ Long before we could send among them not improperly, perhaps, have been allowed bet- any considerable number of forces, they might ter quarter."

do a great deal of mischief, if not actually overLeave the king, who alone is the sove- turn all order and government.” reign, to exercise his acts of sovereignty in They will take care to preserve order and appointing their governors, and in approving

n approving government for their own sakes. or disapproving their laws. But do you leave it to their choice to trade elsewhere “ Several other reasons might be offered, why for commodities; to go to another shop ? | the same measures, in regard to both nations, No! you say they shall buy of you, or no- might not be altogether alike convenient and body.

advisable.” "Nor should mere custom, nor any charter Where you cannot so conveniently use or law in being, be allowed any great weight in force, there you should endeavour to secure the decision of this point."

affection.

cans.

OBSERVATIONS

IN

PASSAGES IN A PAMPHLET

ENTITLED

THE TRUE CONSTITUTIONAL MEANS FOR PUTTING AN END TO THE DISPUTES BETWEEN GREAT BRITAIN AND THE AMERICAN

COLONIES-LONDON, 1769.”

“ Every British subject must acknowledge, I at some entertainments the attendants have ap that the directive influence of the British state peared almost as numerous as the guests." remains with the British legislature, who are the Was not the gold first purchased by the only proper judges of what concerns the general produce of his land, obtained by hard labour ? welfare of the whole empire."

Does gold drop from the clouds in Virginia The British state is only the island of into the laps of the indolent? Their very Great Britain; the British legislature are purchasing plate and other superfluities from undoubtedly the only proper judges of what England is one means of disabling them concerns the welfare of that state; but the from paying taxes to England. Would you Irish legislature are the proper judges of have it both in meal and malt? It has been what concerns the Irish state, and the Ame- a great folly in the Americans to entertain rican legislatures of what concerns the Ame- English gentlemen with a splendid hospirican states respectively. By " the whole tality ill suited to their circumstances; by empire” does this writer mean all the king's which they excited no other grateful sentidominions? If so, the British Parliaments ments in their guests, than that of a desire should also govern the isles of Jersey and to tax the landlord. Guernsey, and Hanover ; but this is not so. “It cannot be deemed exorbitant considering

“But the land tax, which I have proposed, is their traffic with the French sugar-islands, as in its very nature unoppressive, and is equally well as with our own; and this will make the well suited to the poorest as to the richest pro- whole of their importations four millions per vince of the British empire.”

annum." This writer seems ignorant, that every This is arguing the riches of a people colony has its own civil and military esta- from their extravagance; the very thing blishment to provide for; new roads and that keeps them poor. bridges to make; churches and all public “ The inhabitants of Great Britain pay above edifices to erect; and would he separately thirteen millions sterling every year, including tax them, moreover, with a tax on lands turnpikes and the poor's rates, two articles which equal to what is paid in Britain ?

| the colonies are exempt from." “The colonists must possess a luxuriant A turnpike tax is no burthen, as the turnabundance to be able to double their inhabitants pike gives more benefit than it takes. And in so short a space.”

ought the rich in Britain, who have made How does this appear? Is not a mere such numbers of poor by engrossing all the competence sufficient for this purpose? If small divisions of land, and who keep the America will consent to pay thus its propor. labourers and working people poor by limittion of British taxes, will Britain pay outing their wages,-ought those gentry to of the whole all the American taxes? Or complain of the burden of maintaining the is America to pay both ?

| poor that have worked for them at unreason« The produce of the planters purchases for ably low rates all their lives? As well them what others buy with gold and silver; but might the planter complain of his being even several of the colonists of the rank of obliged to maintain his poor negroes, when good livers have often been seen to pay the price they grow old, are sick, or lame, and unable of a negro with gold. As instances of Virgi- to provide for themselves. nian luxury, I have been assured, that there are “For though all pay by the same law, yet few families there without some plate; and that none can be required to pay beyond his ability; and the fund from whence the tax is raised, is, “I beg to know if the returns of any traffic in the colonies that are least inhabited, just as on earth ever produced so many per cent. as able to bear the burden imposed, as in the most the returns of agriculture in a fertile soil and populous country of Great Britain.”

favourable climate.” The colonies are almost always considered | How little this politician knows of agriby these ignorant, flimsy writers, as unwille culture! Is there any county where ten ing to contribute to the general exigencies bushels of grain are generally got in for one of the state ; which is not true. They are sown? And are all the charges and advances always willing, but will have the granting for labour to be nothing ? No farmer of of their own money themselves ;-in which America in fact makes five per cent. of his they are right for various reasons.

money. His profit is only being paid for " They would be content to take land from his own labour, and that of his children. us gratuitously.”

The opulence of one English or Dutch What land have they ever taken from merchant would make the opulence of a you? The lands did not belong to the hundred American farmers. crown, but to the Indians, of whom the “ It may, I think, be safely concluded, that colonists either purchased them at their the riches of the colonists would not increase own expense, or conquered them without so fast, were the inhabitants to leave off enlargassistance from Britain. The engagement ing their settlements and plantations, and run to settle the American lands, and the ex- eagerly upon manufactures.” pense of settlement, are more than equiva

There is no necessity of leaving their lent for what was of no value to Britain

plantations; they can manufacture in their without a first settlement.

families at spare times. Depend upon it, “The rental of the lands in Great Britain the Americans are not so impolitic as to and Ireland amounts to about twenty-two mil-neglect settlements for unprofitable manulions; but the rental of the same extent of factures; but some manufactures may be lands in America is not probably one million more advantageous to some persons than sterling."

the cultivation of land, and these will proseWhat signifies extent of unsettled lands, cute such manufactures notwithstanding that produce nothing?

your oratory. Vol. II. 44

THE END.

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