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was a man of sense, and more deserving than | advantageous on this account, that, being on most others in the same post; but as he was the sea-coast in a smuggling country, one of a modest disposition, he constantly declined had frequent opportunities of buying many of and made great difficulties of engaging him- the expensive articles used in a family (such self in public business. Socrates therefore as tea, coffee, chocolate, brandy, wines, camaddressed himself to him in this manner. If brics, Brussels laces, French silks, and all you knew any man that could gain the prizes kinds of India goods, 20), 30, and in some arin the public games, and by that means render ticles 50 per cent. cheaper, than they could himself illustrious, and acquire glory to his be had in the more interior parts, of traders country, what would you say of him if he re- that paid duty.-The other honest gentleman fused to offer himself to the contest? I would allowed this to be an advantage, but insisted, say, answered Chartnidas, that he was a mean that the seller, in the advanced price he despirited effeminate fellow. And if a man manded on that account, rated the advantage were capable of governing a republic, of in- much above its value. And neither of them creasing its power by his advice, and of rais- seemed to think dealing with smugglers a ing himself by this means to a high degree practice, that an honest man (provided he got of honour, would you not brand him likewise his goods cheap) had the least reason to be with meanness of soul, if he would not pre- ashamed of. sent himself to be employed ? Perhaps I might, At a time when the load of our public debt, said Charmidas; but why do you ask me this and the heavy expense of maintaining our question; Socrates replied; because you are fleets and armies to be ready for our defence capable of managing the affairs of the repub- on occasion, makes it necessary, not only to lic, and nevertheless you avoid doing so, continue old taxes, but often to look out for though in quality of a citizen you are obliged new ones, perhaps it may not be unuseful to to take care of the commonwealth. Be no state this matter in a light that few seem to longer then thus negligent in this matter, con- have considered it in. sider your abilities and your duty with more. The people of Great Britain, under the attention, and let not slip the occasions of happy constitution of this country, have a serving the republic, and of rendering it, if privilege few other countries enjoy, that of possible, more flourishing than it is. This choosing the third branch of the legislature, will be a blessing, whose influence will de- which branch has alone the power of regulatscend not only on the other citizens, but on ing their taxes. Now whenever the governyour best friends and yourself.

ment finds it necessary for the common bene. fit, advantage, and safety of the nation, for

the security of our liberties, property, religion, On Smuggling, and its various species.

and every thing that is dear to us, that cerPublished in the London Chronicle, No

tain sums shall be yearly raised by taxes,

duties, &c. and paid into the public treasury, vember 24, 1767.

thence to be dispensed by government for SIR,—There are many people that would those purposes; ought not every honest man be thought, and even think themselves, honest freely and willingly to pay his just propormen, who fail nevertheless in particular tion of this necessary expense? Can he possi. points of honesty ; deviating from that cha- bly preserve a right to that character, if, by racter sometimes by the prevalence of mode fraud, stratagem, or contrivance, he avoids or custom, and sometimes through mere in- that payment in whole or in part. attention; so that their honesty is partial only, What should we think of a companion, and not general or universal. Thus one, who, having supped with his friends at a ta. who would scorn to overreach you in a bar- vern, and partaken equally of the joys of the gain, shall make no scruple of tricking you a evening with the rest of us, would nevertheless little now and then at cards: another, that contrive by some artifice to shift his share of plays with the utmost fairness, shall with the reckoning upon others, in order to go off great freedom cheat you in the sale of a horse. scot-free? Ifa man who practised this, would, But there is no kind of dishonesty, into which when detected, be deemed and called a otherwise good people more easily and fre- scoundrel, what ought he to be called, who quently fall, than that of defrauding govern- can enjoy all the inestimable benefits of pubment of its revenues by smuggling when they lic society, and yet by smuggling, or dealing . have an opportunity, or encouraging smugglers with smugglers, contrive to evade paying his by buying their goods.

just share of the expense, as settled by his I fell into these reflections the other day, own representatives in parliament; and on hearing two gentlemen of reputation dis wrongfully throw it upon his honester and coursing about a small estate, which one of perhaps much poorer neighbours? He will them was inclined to sell, and the other to perhaps be ready to tell me, that he does not buy; when the seller, in recommending the wrong his neighbours; he scorns the imputaplace, remarked, that its situation was very tion, he only cheats the king a little, who is very able to bear it. This, however, is a mis- , complice in the crime, and assist in the pertake. The public treasure is the treasure petration. of the nation, to be applied to national pur. There are those who by these practices poses. And when a duty is laid for a par- take a great deal in a year out of the public ticular public and necessary purpose, if, purse, and put the money into their own prithrough smuggling, that duty falls short of vate pockets. If, passing through a room raising the sun required, and other duties where public treasure is deposited, a nan must therefore be laid to make up the defi- takes the opportunity of clandestinely pocketciency, all the additional sum laid by the new ing and carrying off a guinea, is he not truly duties and paid by other people, though it and properly a thief! And if another evades should amount to no more than a half-penny paying into the treasury a guinea he ouglit or a farthing per head, is so much actually to pay in, and applies it to his own use, when picked out of the pockets of those other peo- he knows it belongs to the public as much as ple by the smugglers and their abettors and that which has been paid in, what difference encouragers. Are they then any better or is there in the nature of the crime, or the other than pickpokets ? and what mean, low, baseness of committing it? rascally pickpockets must those be, that can Some laws make the receiving of stolen pick pockets for halfpence and for farthings? goods equally penal with stealing, and upon

I would not however be supposed to allow this principle, that if there were no receivers, in what I have just said, that cheating the king there would be few thieves. Our proverb too is a less offence against honesty than cheating says truly, that the receiver is as bad as the the public. The king and the public in this thief. By the same reasoning, as there would case are different names for the sime thing; be few smugglers, if there were none who but if we consider the king distinctly it will knowingly encouraged them by buying their not lessen the crime: it is no justification of goods, we may say, that the encouragers of a robbery, that the person robbed was rich smuggling are as bad as the smugglers; and and able to bear it. The king has as much that, as smugglers are a kind of thieves, loth right to justice as the meanest of his subjects ; equally deserve the punishments of thievery. and as he is truly the common father of his. In this view of wronging the revenue, ubat people, those that rob him fall under the must we think of those who can evade payScripture wo, pronounced against the son that ing for their wheels* and their plate, in defii obbeth his father, and sailh it is no sin. lance of law and justice, and you declaim

Mean as this practice is, do we not daily against corruption and peculation, as if their see people of character and fortune engaged own bands and hearts were pure and unsulin it for trifling advantages to themselves ?- lied? The Americans offend us grievously, Is any lady ashamed to request of a gentle- when, contrary to our laws, they smuggle man of her acquaintance, that when he re. goods into their own country: and yet iley turns from abroad he would smuggle her home had no hand in making those laws. I do not a piece of silk or lace from France or Flan- however pretend from thence to justify them. ders? Is any gentleman ashamed to under- But I think the offence much greater in those take and execute the commission ?-Not in who either directly or indirectly have been the least. They will talk of it freely, even concerned in making the very laws they before others whose pockets they are thus break. And when I hear them exclaiming contriving to pick by this piece of knavery. against the Americans, and for every little in

Among other branches of the revenue, that fringment of the acts of trade, or obstruction of the post-office is, by a late law, appropriated given by a petty mob to an officer of our custo the discharge of our public debt, to defray toms in that country, calling for vengeance the expenses of the state. None but mem- against the whole people as REBELS and traibers of parliament, and a few public officers tors, I cannot help thinking there are stili have now a right to avoid, by a frank, the those in the world who can see a mote in payment of postage. When any letter, not their brother's eye, while they do not discorn written by them or on their business, is frank- a beam in their own ; and that the old saying ed by any of them, it is a hurt to the revenue, is as true now as ever it was, one man muy an injury which they must now take the better steal a horse, than another look over pains to conceal by writing the whole super- the hedge.

B. F. scription themselves. And yet such is our insensibility to justice in this particular, that nothing is more common than to see, even in Plan for improving the Condition of the Free a reputable company, a very honest gentle

Blacks. man or lady declare his or her intention to cheat the nation of three pence by a frank, and

three nence hva frank and The business relative to free blacks shall without blushing apply to one of the very le- be transacted by a committee of twenty-four gislators themselves, with a modest request, Alluding to the British taxes on carriage wheels, that he would be pleased to become an ac- and on plate.

persons, annually elected by ballot, at the cert. Affairs of great importance shall be remeeting of this society, in the month called ferred to the whole committee. April; and in order to perform the different The expense incurred by the prosecution services with expedition, regularity, and of this plan, shall be defrayed by a fund, to be energy, this committee shall resolve itself in- formed by donations, or subscriptions, for these to the following sub-committees, viz: particular purposes, and to be kept separate

I. A committee of inspection shall super- from the other funds of this society. intend the inorals, general conduct, and ordi- The committee shall make a report of their nary situation of the free negroes, and afford proceedings, and of the state of their stock, to them advice and instruction, protection from the society, at their quarterly meetings, in the wrongs, and other friendly offices.

months called April and October. II. A committee of guardians, who shal! Philadelphia, 26th October, 1789. place out children and young people with suitable persons, that they may (during a mo- Remarks concerning the Savages of North derate time of apprenticeship, or servitude) learn some trade or other business of subsis

America.* tence. The committee may effect this partly

SAVAGES we call them, because their by a persuasive infuence on parents and the manners differ from ours, which we think the persons concerned; and partly by co-operating perfection of civility ; they think the same with the laws, which are, or may be enacted of theirs. for this, and similar purposes: in forming con

Perhaps, if we could examine the manners tracts on these occasions, the committee shall of different nations with impartiality, we secure to the society, as far as may be practi- should find no people so rude, as to be withcable, the right of guardianship over the per

out any rules of politeness; nor any so poaons so bound.

lite, as not to have some remains of rudeness. III. A committee of education, who shall The Indian men, when young, are hunters superintend the school-instruction of the child and warriors; when old, counsellors; for all dren and youth of the free blacks; they may their government is by the council or advice either influence them to attend regularly the of the sages; there is no force, there are no schools already established in this city, or prisons, no officers to compel obedience, or form others with this view: they shall. in inflict punishment. Hence they generally either case, provide, that the pupils may re- study oratory, the best speaker having the ceive such learning as is necessary for their most influence. The Indian women till the future situation in life; and especially a deep ground, dress the food, nurse and bring up impression of the most important, and gene- the children, and preserve and hand down to rally acknowledged moraland religious princi- posterity the memory of public transactions. ples. They shall also procure and preserve a These employments of men and women are regular record of the marriages, births, and accounted natural and honourable. Having manumissions of all free blacks.

few artificial wants, they have abundance of IV. A committee of employ, who shall en- leisure for improvement by conversation. deavour to procure constant employment for Our laborious manner of life, compared with those free negroes who are able to work : as theirs, they esteem slavish and base; and the want of this would occasion poverty, idle- the learning on which we value ourselves, ness, and many vicious habits. This commit- they regard as frivolous and useless. An intee will, by sedulous inquiry, be enabled to stance of this occurred at the treaty of Lanfind common labour for a great number; they caster, in Pennsylvania, anno 1744, between will also provide, that such, as indicate proper the government of Virginia and the Six Natalents, may learn various trades, which may tions. After the principal business was selbe done by prevailing upon them to bind them- tled, the commissioners from Virginia acselves for such a term of years, as shall com- quainted the Indians by a speech, that there pensate their masters for the expense and was at Williamsburg a college, with a fund, trouble of instruction and maintenance. The for educating Indian youth; and that if the committee may attempt the institution of some chiefs of the Six Nations would send down usefuland simple manufactures, which require half a dozen of their sons to that college, the but little skill, and also may assist, in com

government would take care that they should mencing business, such as appear to be quali- be well provided for, and instructed in all the fied for it.

learning of the white people. It is one of Whenever the committee of inspection shall the Indian rules of politeness, not to answer find persons of any particular description re- a public proposition the same day that it is quiring attention, they shall immediately di- made; they think it would be treating it as rect them to the committee, of whose care they a light matter, and that they show it respect are the proper objects. In matters of a mixed nature, the commit

* This paper and the two next in order were publish

ed in separate pamphlets in England, in the year 1764 tees shall confer, and, if necessary, act in con- and afterwards in 1787,

by taking time to consider it, as of a matter you are cut off in the middle of it by the imimportant. They therefore deferred their patient loquacity of those you converse with, answer till the day following: when their and never suffered to finish it! speaker began, by expressing their deep sense The politeness of these sa vages in converof the kindness of the Virginia government, sation is indeed carried to excess, since it in making them that offer; “for we know," does not permit them to contradict or deny says he, “ that you highly esteem the kind the truth of what is asserted in their presence. of learning taught in those colleges, and that By this means they indeed avoid disputes ; the maintenance of our young men, while but then it becomes difficult to know their with you, would be very expensive to you. minds, or what impression you make upon We are convinced therefore, that you mean them. The missionaries who have attemptto do us good by your proposal; and we thank ed to convert them to christianity, all comyou heartily. But you, who are wise, must plain of this as one of the great difficulties of know, that different nations have different their mission. The Indians hear with patience conceptions of things; and you will therefore the truths of the gospel explained to them, not take it amiss, if our ideas of this kind of and give their usual tokens of assent and apelucation happen not to be the same with probation : you would think they were conyours. We have had some experience of it: vinced. No such matter. It is mere civility. several of our young people were formerly A Swedish minister, having assembled the brought up at the colleges of the northern chiefs of the Susquehanna Indians, made a provinces; they were instructed in all your sermon to them, acquainting them with the sciences; but when they came back to us, principal historical facts on which our relithey were bad runners, ignorant of every gion is founded; such as the fall of our first means of living in the woods, unable to bear parents by eating an apple, the coming of either cold or hunger, knew neither how to Christ to repair the mischief, his miracles build a cabin, take a deer, or kill an enemy, and suffering, &c.- When he had finished, an spoke our language imperfectly, were there- Indian orator stood up to thank him. “What fore neither fit for hunters, warriors, nor you have told us," says he, “is all very good. counsellors; they were totally good for no- | It is indeed bad to eat apples. It is better to thing. We are however not the less obliged make them all into cyder. We are much by your kind offer, though we decline accept-obliged by your kindness in coming so far, to ing it: and to show our grateful sense of it, tell us those things which you have heard if the gentlemen of Virginia will send us a from your mothers. In return, I will tell dozen of their sons, we will take great care of you some of those we have heard from ours. their education, instruct them in all we know, “In the beginning, our fathers had only and make men of them.

the flesh of animals to subsist on, and if their Having frequent occasions to hold public hunting was unsuccessful, they were starycouncils, they have acquired great order and ing. Two of our young hunters having killdecency in conducting them. The old men ed a deer, made a fire in the woods to broil sit in the foremost ranks, the warriors in the some parts of it. When they were about to next, and the women and children in the hind satisfy their hunger, they beheld a beautiful most. The business of the women is to take young woman descend from the clouds, and exact notice of what passes, imprint it in their seat herself on that hill which you see yonder inemories, for they have no writing, and com- among the Blue Mountains. They said to municate it to their children. They are the each other, it is a spirit that perhaps has smelt records of the council, and they preserve the our broiling venison, and wishes to eat of it: tradition of the stipulations in treaties a hun- let us otier some to her. They presented her dred years back; which, when we compare with the tongue: she was pleased with the with our writings, we always find exact. Ile taste of it, and said, your kindness shall be that would speak, rises. The rest observe a rewarded ; come to this place after thirteen profound silence. When he has finished and moons, and you shall find something that will sits down, they leave him five or six minutes be of great benefit in nourishing you and your to recollect, that, if he has omitted any thing children to the latest generations. They did he intended to say, or has any thing to add, so, and to their surprise found plants they he may rise again and deliver it. To inter- | had never seen before: but which, from that rupt another, even in common conversation, ancient time, have been constantly cultivated is reckoned highly indecent. How different among us, to our great advantage. Where this is from the conduct of a polite British her right hand had touched the ground, they house of commons, where scarce a day passes found maize; where her left hand had touchwithout some confusion, that makes the speak- ed it they found kidney-beans; and where her er hoarse in calling to order; and how differ- backside had sat on it, they found tobacco." ent from the mode of conversation in many The good missionary, disgusted with this idle polite companies of Europe, where, if you do tale, said, “ What I delivered to you were cot deliver your sentence with great rapidity, sacred truths, but what you tell me is mere fable, fiction, and falsehood.” The Indian, discourse began to flag, the Indian to continue offended, replied, “ My brother, it seems your it said, “Conrad, you have lived long among friends have not done you justice in your edu- the white people, and know something of their cation ; they have not well instructed you in customs; I have been sometimes at Albany, the rules of common civility. You saw that and have observed, that once in seven days we, who understand and practise those rules, they shut up their shops, and assemble all in believed all your stories, why do you refuse the great house; tell me what it is for ? to believe ours?"

What do they do there ?" “ They meet there,” When any of them come into our towns, says Conrad, “ to hear and learn good things." our people are apt to crowd round them, gaze “I do not doubt,” says the Indian, “that they upon them, and incommode them where they tell you so; they have told me the same : but desire to be private; this they esteem great I doubt the truth of what they say, and I will rudeness, and the effect of the want of in- tell you my reasons. I went lately to Albany struction in the rules of civility and good to sell my skins and buy blankets, knives, powmanners. “We have,” say they, “as much der, rum, &c. You know I used generally to curiosity as you, and when you come into deal with Hans Hanson; but I was a little inour towns, we wish for opportunities of look- clined this time to try some other merchants. ing at you; but for this purpose we hide However, I called first upon Hans, and asked ourselves behind bushes, where you are to him what he would give for beaver. He said pass, and never intrude ourselves into your he could not give any more than four shillings company."

a pound: but, says he, I cannot talk on business Their manner of entering one another's now; this is the day when we meet together villages has likewise its rules. It is reckon- to learn good things, and I am going to meet. ed uncivil in travelling strangers, to enter a ing. So I thought to myself, since I cannot village abruptly, without giving notice of do any business to-day, I may as well go to their approach. Therefore, as soon as they the meeting too, and I went with him. There arrive within hearing, they stop and hollow, stood up a man in black, and began to talk to remaining there till invited to enter. Two the people very angrily. I did not understand old men usually come out to them, and lead what he said ; but perceiving that he looked them in. There is in every village a vacant much at me and at Hanson, I imagined he was dwelling called the strangers' house. Here angry at seeing me there; so I went out, sat they are placed, while the old men go round down near the house, struck fire, and lit my from hut to hut, acquainting the inhabitants, 'pipe, waiting till the meeting should break up. that strangers are arrived, who are probably I thought too, that the man had mentioned hungry and weary; and every one sends then something of beaver, and I suspected it might what he can spare of victuals, and skins to be the subject of their meeting. So when repose on. When the strangers are refresh- they came out I accosted my merchant. ed, pipes and tobacco are brought; and then, Well, Hans, says I, I hope you have agreed but not before, conversation begins, with in- to give more than four shillings a pound ? No, quiries who they are, whither bound, what says he, I cannot give so much, I cannot give news, &c. and it usually ends with offers of more than three shillings and sixpence. I service, if the strangers have occasion for then spoke to several other dealers, but they guides, or any necessaries for continuing all sung the same song, three and sixtheir journey ; and nothing is exacted for the pence, three and sixpence. This made entertainment.

it clear to me that my suspicion was right; The same hospitality, esteemed among them and that whatever they pretended of meeting as a principal virtue, is practised by private per- to learn good things, the real purpose was to sons; of which Conrad Weiser, our interpre-consult how to cheat Indians in the price of ter, gave me the following instance. He had beaver. Consider but a little, Conrad, and been naturalised among the Six Nations, and you must be of my opinion. If they met so spoke well the Mohock language. In going often to learn good things, they would cer. through the Indian country, to carry a mes- tainly have learned some before this time. sage from our governor to the council at But they are still ignorant. You know our Onondaga, he called at the habitation of Ca- practice. nassetego, an old acquaintance, who embrac- “ If a white man, in travelling through our ed him, spread furs for him to sit on, and plac-country, enters one of our cabins, we all treat ed before him some boiled beans and venison, him as I do you; we dry him if he is wet, and mixed soine rum and water for his drink. we warm him if he is cold, and give him When he was well refreshed, and had lit his meat and drink, that he may allay his thirst pipe, Canassetego began to converse with him; and hunger; and we spread soft furs for him asked how he had fared the many years since to rest and sleep on: we demand nothing in they had seen each other; whence he then return. But if I go into a white man's house came; what occasioned the journey, &c. Con- at Albany, and ask for victuals and drink, they rad answered all his questions; and when the say, Where is your money ? and if I have

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