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shaken; till having made itself a passage, it another reason is, the paucity of pyrites in spends itself in a volcano, or burning moun- England. tain.

Comparing our earthquakes, thunder and Bút to corne nearer to the point. Dr. Lis- lightning with theirs, it is observed, that ter is of opinion, that the material cause of there it lightens almost daily, especially in thunder, lightning, and earthquakes, is one suinmer-time, here seldom ; there thunder and the same, viz. the inflammable breath of and lightning is of long duration, here it is the pyrites, which is a substantial sulphur, and soon over; there the earthquakes are frequent, takes fire of itself.

long and terrible, with many paroxysms in a The difference between these three terri- day, and that for many days; here very ble phenomena, he takes only to consist in short, a few minutes, and scarce perceptible. this; that this sulphur, in the former, is fired To this purpose the subterraneous caverns in in the air; and in the latter under ground: England are small and few compared to the which is a notion that Pliny had long before vast vaults in those parts of the world; which him : Quidenim, says he, aliud est in terra is evident from the sudden disappearance of tremor, quam in nube tonitru?

whole mountains and islands. This he thinks abundantly indicated by the Dr. Woodward gives us another theory of same sulphurous smell being found in any earthquakes. He endeavours to show, that thing burnt with lightning; and in the wa- the subterraneous heat, or fire (which is conters, &c. cast up in earthquakes, and even in tinually elevating water out of the abyss, to the air before and after them.

furnish the earth with rain, dew, springs and Add, that they agree in the manner of the rivers) being stopped in any part of the earth, noise ; which is carried on, as in a train, fired; and so diverted from its ordinary course, by the one rolling and rattling through the air, some accidental glut or obstruction in the takes tire as the vapours chance to drive; as pores or passages, through which it used 10 the other fired under ground, in like manner, ascend to the surface; becomes, by such moves with a desultory noise.

means, preternaturally assembled in a greater Thunder, which is the effect of the trem. quantity than usual into one place, and therebling of the air, caused by the same vapours fore causeth a great rarefaction and intumesdispersed through it, has force enough to cence of the water of the abyss; putting it shake our houses; and why inay not there be into great commotions and disorders, and at thunder and lightning under ground, in some the same time making the like effort on the vast repositories there, I see no reason. Es- earth; which being expanded upon the face pecially if we reflect, that the matter which of the abyss, occasions that agitation and concomposes the noisy vapour above us, is in cussion we call an earthquake. much larger quantities under ground.

This effort in some earthquakes, he obThat the earth abounds in cavities, every serves is so vehement, that it splits and tears body allows; and that these subterraneous ca- the earth, making cracks and chasms in it vities, are, at certain times, and in certain some miles in length, which open at the inseasons, full of inflammable vapours, the stant of the shock, and close again in the indamps in mines sufficiently witness, which tervals betwixt them: nay, it is sometimes so fired, do every thing as in an earthquake, violent, that it forces the superincumbent save in a lesser degree.

strata, breaks them all throughout, and thereAdd, that the pyrites alone, of all the known by perfectly undermines, and ruins the founminerals, yields this inflammable vapour, is dation of them; so that these failing, the highly probable: for that no mineral or ore, whole tract, as soon as the shock is over, whatsoever, is sulphurous, but as it is wholly, sinks down into the abyss, and is swallowed or in part, a pyrites; and that there is but one up by it; the water thereof immediately risspecies of brimstone, which the pyrites natu- ing up and forming a lake in the place, where rally and only yields. The sulphur vive, or the said tract before was. That this effort natural brimstone, which is found in and being made in all directions indifferently, about the burning mountains, is certainly the the fire dilating and expanding on all hands, effects of sublimation; and those great quan- and endeavouring to get room, and make its tities of it said to be found about the skirts of way through all obstacles, falls as foul on the volcanoes, is only an argument of the long du- waters of the abyss beneath, as on the earth ration and vehemence of those fires; possibly, above, forcing it forth, which way soever it the pyrites of the volcanoes, or burning-moun- can find vent or passage, as well through its tains, may be more sulphurous than ours: and ordinary exits, wells, springs, and the outlets indeed it is plain, that some of ours in England of rivers, as through the chasnis then newly are very lean, and hold but little sulphur; opened; through the camini or spiracles of others again very much; which may be one Etna, or other neighbouring volcanoes; and reason why England is so little troubled with these hiatus's at the bottom of the sea, where. earthquakes; and Italy, and almost all round by the abyss below opens into it and commuthe Mediterranean sea, so very much: though (nicates with it. That as the water resident in the abyss is, in all parts of it, stored with volcano. That therefore there are scarce a considerable quantity of heat, and more es- any countries much annoyed by earthquakes, pecially in those where those extraordinary but have one of these fiery vents; which are aggregations of this fire happen, so likewise constantly in fames when any earthquake is the water which is thus forced out of it happens; as disgorging that fire, which whilst insomuch that when thrown forth and mixed underneath was the cause of the disaster. with the waters of wells or springs of rivers, Lastly, that were it not for these diverticula, and the sea, it renders them very sensibly hot. it would rage in the bowels of the earth much

He adds, that though the abyss be liable to more furiously, and make greater havoc than those commotions in all parts; yet the effects it doth. are no where very remarkable except in those We have seen what fire and water may countries which are mountainous, and conse- do, and that either of them are sufficient for quently stony or cavernous underneath; and all the phenomena of earthquakes; if they especially where the disposition of the strata should both fail, we have a third agent, scarce is such, that those caverns open into the inferior to either of them : the reader must abyss, and so freely admit and entertain the not be surprised when we tell him it is air. fire; which assembling therein is the cause Mons. Amontons, in the Memoires de of the shock: it naturally steering its course l’Acad. des Sciences, An. 1703, has an express that way where it finds the readiest recep- discourse to prove, that on the foot of the new tion, which is towards those caverns. Besides, experiments of the weight and spring of the that those parts of the earth which abound air, a moderate degree of heat may bring the with strata of stone or marble, making the air into a condition capable of causing earth, strongest opposition to this effort, are the quakes. It is shown, that at the depth of inost furiously shattered ; and suffer much 43,528 fathoms below the surface of the earthmore by it, than those which consist of gravel air is only one fourth less heavy than mercury. sand, and the like laxer matter, which more Now, this depth of 43,528 fathoms is only a easily give way, and make not so great re- 74th part of the semi-diameter of the earth. sistance; but, above all, those countries which | And the vast sphere beyond this depth, in diyield great store of sulphur and nitre, are, by ameter 6,451,538 fathoms, may probably be far, the most injured by earthquakes; those only filled with air; which will be here greatly minerals constituting in the earth a kind of condensed, and much heavier than the heavinatural gunpowder, which taking fire upon est bodies we know in nature. But it is found this assernblage, and approach of it, occasions by experiment, that the more air is compressed that murmurring noise, that subterraneous the more does the same degree of heat inthunder, which is heard rumbling in the bow-crease its spring, and the more capable does els of the earth during earthquakes, and by it render it of a violent effect: and that, for the assistance of its explosive power, renders instance, the degree of heat of boiling water the shock much greater, so as sometimes to increases the spring of the air above what it make miserable havoc and destruction. has in its natural state, in our climate, by a

And it is for this reason, that Italy, Sicily, quantity equal to a third of the weight whereAnatolia, and some parts of Greece, have with it is pressed. Whence we may conbeen so long, and often alarıned and harassed clude, that a degree of heat, which on the by earthquakes ; these countries being all surface of the earth, will only have a modemountainous and cavernous, abounding with rate effect, may be capable of a very violent stone and marble, and affording sulphur and one below. And as we are assured, that nitre in great plenty.

there are in nature degrees of heat, much Further, that Ætna, Vesuvius, Hæcla, and more considerable than that of boiling water: the other volcanoes, are only so many spira- it is very possible there may be some, whose cles, serving for the discharge of this subter violence, further assisted by the exceeding raneous fire, when it is thus preternaturally weight of the air, may be more than sufficient assembled. That where there happens to be to break and overturn this solid orb of 43,528 such a structure and conformation of the in- fathoms; whose weight, compared to that of terior parts of the earth ; as that the fire may the included air, would be but a trifle. pass freely, and without impediment, from the Chemistry furnishes us a method of makcaverns wherein it assembles unto those spi- ing artificial earthquakes, which shall have racles: it then readily and easily gets out all the great effects of natural ones : whic from time to time, without shaking or dis- as it may illustrate the process of nature in lurbing the earth: but where such commu- the production of these terrible phenomena nication is wanting, or passage not sufficient under ground, we shall here add. ly large and open, so that it cannot come at To twenty pounds of iron filings, add as the spiracles, it heaves up and shocks the many of sulphur: mix, work, and temper the earth with greater or lesser impetuosity, ac- whole together with a little water, so as to cording to the quantity of fire thus assembled, form a mass, half moist and half dry. This betill it has made its way to the mouth of the ling buried three or four feet under ground, in

six or seven hours time, will have a prodigious | Fa. Anthon. Serovita, being on his way thither, effect : the earth will begin to tremble, crack and at the distance of a few miles, observed a and smoke, and fire and fame burst through. black cloud, like night, hovering over the city;

Such is the effect even of the two cold bo- and there arose from the mouth of Mongibeldies, in cold ground : there only wants a suf- lo, great spires of flame, which spread all ficient quantity of this mixture to produce a around. The sea all of a sudden began to roar, true Ætna. If it were supposed to burst out and rise in billows; and there was a blow, as under the sea, it would produce a spont. And if all the artillery in the world had been at if it were in the clouds, the effect would be once discharged. The birds flew about astothunder and lightning.

nished, the cattle in the fields ran crying, &c. An earthquake is defined to be a vehement His and his companion's horse stopped short, shake, or agitation of some considerable place, trembling; so that they were forced to alight. or part of the earth; from natural causes ; at They were no sooner off, but they were lifted tended with a huge noise like thunder, and from the ground above two palms; when frequently with an eruption of water, or fire, casting his eyes towards Catanea, he with or smoke, or winds, &c.

amazement saw nothing but a thick cloud of They are the greatest and most formidable dust in the air. This was the scene of their phenomena of nature. Aristotle and Pliny calamity: for of the magnificent Catanea, distinguish two kinds, with respect to the there is not the least footstep to be seen. S. manner of the shake, viz. a tremor an a Bonajutus assures us, that of 18,914 inhabipulsation; the first being horizontal, in alter- tants, 18,000 perished therein. The same aunate vibrations, compared to the shaking of a thor, from a computation of the inhabitants, person in ague. The second perpendicular, before and after the earthquake, in the several up and down, their motion resembling that of cities and towns, finds that near 60,000 peboiling.

rished out of 254,900. Agricola increases the number, and makes Jamaica is remarkable for earthquakes. four kinds, which Alb. Magnus again reduces The inhabitants, Dr. Sloan informs us, expect to three, viz. inclination, when the earth li- one every year. That author gives us the brates alternately from right to left; by which history of one in 1687: another horrible one mountains have been sometimes brought to in 1692, is described by several anonymous meet, and clash against each other: pulsation, authors. In two minutes time it shook down when it beats up and down like an artery: and and drowned nine tenths of the town of Port trembling, when it shakes and totters every Royal. The houses sunk outright, thirty or way, like a flame.

forty fathoms deep. The earth opening, swalThe Philosophical Transactions furnish us lowed up people; and they rose in other with abundance of histories of earthquakes ; streets; some in the middle of the harbour, particularly one at Oxford, in 1665, by Dr. and yet were saved ; though there were 2000 Wallis and Mr. Boyle. Another at the same people lost, and 1000 acres of land sunk. All place in 1683, by Mr. Pigot. Another in Si. the houses were thrown down throughout the cily, in 1692-3 by Mr. Hartop, Fa. Allessan- island. One Hopkins had his plantation redro Burgos, and Vin. Bonajutus, which last is moved half a mile from its place. Of all wells, one of the most terrible ones in all history. from one fathom to six or seven, the water

It shook the whole island ; and not only flew out at the top with a vehement motion. that, but Naples and Malta shared in the shock. While the houses, on the one side of the It was of the second kind mentioned by Aris- street were swallowed up, on the other they totle and Pliny, viz. a perpendicular pulsation, were thrown on heaps; and the sand in the or succession. It was impossible, says the street rose like waves in the sea, lifting up noble Bonajutus, for any body, in this country, every body that stood on it, and immediately to keep on their legs, on the dancing earth; dropping down into pits; and at the same innay, those that lay on the ground, were toss- stant, a flood of waters breaking in, rolled ed from side to side, as on a rolling billow: them over and over; some catching hold of high walls leaped from their foundations seve- beams and rafters, &c. Ships and sloops in

the harbour were overset and lost; the Swan The mischief it did is amazing : almost all frigate particularly, by the motion of the sea, the buildings in the countries were thrown and sinking of the wharf, was driven over down. Fifty-four cities and towns, besides an the tops of many houses. It was attended incredible number of villages, were either de with a hollow rumbling noise like that of stroyed or greatly damaged. We shall only thunder. In less than a minute three quarinstance the fate of Catanea, one of the most ters of the houses, and the ground they stood famous, ancient, and flourishing cities in the on with the inhabitants, were all sunk quite kingdom; the residence of several monarchs, under water; and the little part, left behind, and an university. This once famous, now was no better than a heap of rubbish. The unhappy Catanea, to use the words of Fa. shake was so violent, that it threw people Burgos, had the greatest share in the tragedy. down on their knees, or their faces, as they Vol. II. ... 3 M

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ral paces.

were running about for shelter. The ground England in 1703, by Mr. Thoresby : or lastly heaved and swelled like a rolling sea, and those in New England in 1663, and 1670, by several houses still standing, were shutiled Dr. Mather. and moved some yards out of their places. A whole street is said to be twice as broad now Public Men. From the Pennsylvania Gaas before; and in many places the earth would crack, and open, and shut, quick and

zette, No. 95, September 3, 1730. fast. Of which openings, two or three hun- The following is a dialogue between Socradred might be seen at a time: in some where-tes, the great Athenian philosopher, and one of, the people were swallowed up; others, the Glaucon a private man of mean abilities, but closing earth caught by the middle, and press- ambitious of being chosen a senator, and of goed to death ; in others, the heads only ap- verning the republic; wherein Socrates, in a peared. The larger openings swallowed up pleasant manner, convinces him of his incahouses; and out of some would issue whole pacity for public affairs, by making him senrivers of waters, spouted up a great height in- sible of his ignorance of the interests of his to the air, and threatening a deluge to that country, in their several branches, and entirepart the earthquake spared. The whole was ly dissuades them from any attempt of that attended with stenches and offensive smells, nature. There is also added, at the end, part the noise of falling mountains at a distance, of another dialogue, the same Socrates had &c. and the sky in a minute's time, was turn- with one Charmidas, a worthy man, but too ed dull and reddish, like a glowing oven.- modest, wherein he endeavours to persuade Yet, as great a sufferer as Port Royal was, him to put himself forward and undertake more houses were left standing therein, than public business, as being very capable of it. on the whole island beside. Scarce a plant. The whole is taken from Xenophon's Memoing house, or sugar work was left standing in rable Things of Socrates, lib. 3. als Jamaica. A great part of them were A certain man, whose name was Glaucon, swallowed up, houses, people, trees, and all the son of Ariston, had so fixt it in his mind at one gap: in lieu of which afterwards, ap- to govern the republic, that he frequently peared great pools of water, which when dri- presented himself before the people to disven up, left nothing but sand, without any course of the affairs of state, though all the mark that ever tree or plant had been there world laughed at him for it ; nor was it in

Above twelve miles from the sea, the the power of his relations or friends to disearth gaped and spouted out, with a prodigi- suade hin from that design. But Socrates ous force, vast quantities of water into the had a kindness for him, on account of Plato air : yet the greatest violences were among his brother, and he only it was who made him the mountains and rocks: and it is a general change his resolution; he met him, and ac. opinion, that the nearer the mountains, the costed him in so winning a manner, that he greater the shake; and that the cause therr. first obliged him to hearken to his discourse. of lay there. Most of the rivers were stop- He began with him thus: You have a mind ped up for twenty-four hours, by the falling then to govern the republic? I have so, anof the mountains, till swelling up, they found swered Glaucon. You cannot, replied Socra. themselves new tracts and channels, tearing tes, have a more noble design; for if you can up in their passage trees, &c. After the accomplish it so as to become absolute, you great shake, those people who escaped, got will be able to serve your friends, you will on board ships in the harbour, where many raise your family, you will extend the bounds continued above two months; the shakes all of your country, you will be known, not only that time being so violent, and coming so in Athens, but through all Greece, and perthick, sometimes two or three in an hour ac- haps your renown will fly even to the barbacompanied with frightful noises like a ruffling rous nations, as did that of Themistocles. In wind, or a hollow rumbling thunder, with short, wherever you come, you will have the brimstone blasts, that they durst not come respect and admiration of all the world. These ashore. The consequences of the earthquake words soothed Glaucon, and won him to give was a general sickness, from the noisome va- ear to Socrates, who went on in this manner. pours belched forth, which swept away above But it is certain, that if you desire to be ho3000 persons.

noured, you must be useful to the state. CerAfter the detail of these horrible convul- tainly, said Glaucon. And in the name of all sions, the reader will have but little curiosity the gods, replied Socrates, tell me, what is left, for the less considerable phenomena of the first service that you intend to render the the earthquake at Lima, in 1687, described state? Glaucon was considering what to anby Fa. Alvarez de Toledo, wherein above swer, when Socrates continued. 5000 persons were destroyed; this being of design to make the fortune of one of your the vibratory kind, so that the bells in the friends, you would endeavour to make him church rung of themselves: or that at Bata- rich, and thus perhaps you will make it your via in 1699, by Witzen: that in the north of business to enrich the republic? I would, an

on.

If you swered Glaucon. Socrates replied : would be well to do so, said (ilaucon. It comes innot the way to enrich the republic be to in- to my mind, too, continued Socrates, that you crease its revenue? It is very likely it would, have never been at the mines of silver, to exsaid Glaucon. Tell me then in what consists amine why they bring not in so much now as the revenue of the state, and to how much it they did formerly. You say true, I have nemay amount? I presume you have particular- ver been there. Indeed they say the place is ly studied this matter, to the end that if any very unhealthy, and that may excuse you.thing should be lost on one hand, you might You rally me now, said Glaucon. Socrates know where to make it good on another, and added; but I believe you have at least'obserythat if a fund should fail on a sudden, you ed how much corn our lands produce, how might immediately be able to settle another long it will serve to supply our city, and how in its place? I protest, answered Glaucon, I much more we shall want for the whole year; have never thought of this. Tell me at least to the end you may not be surprised with a the expenses of the republic, for no doubt you scarcity of bread, but may give

timely orders intend to retrench the superfluous? I never for the necessary provisions. There is a deal thought of this neither, said Glaucon. You to do, said Glaucon, if we must take care of were best then to put off to another time your all these things. There is so, replied Socradesign of enriching the republic, which you tes, and it is even impossible to manage our can never be able to do, while you are igno- own families well, unless we know all that is rant both of its expenses and revenue. There wanting, and take care to provide it. As you is another way to enrich a state, said Glau- see, therefore, that our city is composed of con, of which you take no notice, and that is above ten thousand families, and it being a difby the ruin of its enemies. You are in the ficult task to watch over them all at once, why right, answered Socrates : but to this end, it did you not first try to retrieve your uncle's is necessary to be stronger than they, other- affairs which are running to decay, and after wise we shall run the hazard of losing what having given that proof of your industry, you we have: he therefore who talks of under might bave taken a greater trust upon you ? taking a war, ought to know the strength on But now, when you find yourself incapable both sides, to the end that if his party be the of aiding a private man, how can you think stronger, he may boldly advise for war, and of behaving yourself so as to be useful to a that if it be the weaker, he may dissuade the whole people ? ought a man who has not people from engaging themselves in so dan- strength enough to carry a hundred pound gerous an enterprise. All this is true. Tell weight, undertake to carry a heavier burden? 1 me then, continued Socrates, how strong our would have done good service to my uncle, forces are by sea and land, and how strong said Glaucon, if he would have taken my adare our enemies? Indeed, said Glaucon, i vice. How! replied Socrates, have you not cannot tell you on a sudden. If you have a hitherto been able to govern the mind of your list of them in writing, pray show it me, I uncle, and do you now believe yourself able should be glad to hear it read. I have it not to govern the minds of all the Athenians, and yet. I see then, said Socrates, that we shall not his ainong the rest? Take heed, my dear Glauengage in war so soon : for the greatness of con, take heed lest too great a desire of power the undertaking will hinder you from mature- should render you despised; consider how danly weighing all the consequences of it in the gerous it is to speak and entertain ourselves beginning of your government. But, continu- concerning things we do not understand: what ed he, you have thought of the defence of the a figure do those forward and rash people make country, you know what garrisons are neces- in the world, who do so; and judge yourself, sary, and what are not; you know what num- whether they acquire more esteem than blame, ber of troops is sufficient in one, and not suf- whether they are more admired than contemnficient in another: you will cause the neces- ed. Think, on the contrary, with how much sary garrisons to be reinforced, and will dis- honour a man is regarded, who understands band those that are useless? I should be of perfectly what he says, and what he does, and opinion said Glaucon, to leave none of them then you will confess that renown and apon foot, because they ruin a country, on pre- plause have always been the recompence of tence of defending it. But, Socrates objected true merit, and shame the reward of ignoif all the garrisons are taken away, there rance and temerity. If therefore you would would be nothing to hinder the first comer be honoured, endeavour to be a man of true from carrying off what he pleased : but how merit; and if you enter upon the government come you to know that the garrisons behave of the republic, with a mind more sagacious themselves so ill ? Have you been upon the than usual, I shall not wonder if you succeed place, have you seen them ? Not at all; but I in all your designs. suspect it to be so. When therefore we are Thús Socrates put a stop to the disorderly certain of it, said Socrates, and can speak up- ambition of this man: but on an occasion quite on better grounds than simple conjectures, we contrary, he in the following manner exhortwill propose this advice to the senate. It may led Charmidas to take an employment. He

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