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THE

RUDIMENTS

OF

LATIN AND ENGLISH

G R A M M A R;

DESIGNED

TO FACILITATE THE STUDY OF BOTH LANGUAGES,

BY CONNECTING THEM TOGETHER.

By ALEXANDER ADAM, L. L. D.
BECTOR OF THE HIGH SCHOOL OF EDINBURGH.

Grammatice est ars, necessaris peeris, jucunda fenibas, dulcis secretorum comes, et

quæ vel sola omní studiorum genere plus habet operis quam ostentationis. Ne quis
igitur tanquam parva fastidiat Grammatices elementa ; quia interiora velut sem
hujus adeuntibus, apparebit mutta reram subtilitas, quæ non modo acuere ivgenia
puerilia, sed exercere altissimam quoque eruditionem ac scientiam possit

Quinctilion, i, 4, 6.

FIRST ALBANI, TROM THE FIFTH ENGLISH EDITION,

WITH IMPROVEMENTS.

Recommended by the University at Cambridge (Mass.), to be used by

those who are intended for that Seminary.

ALBANY ::

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY E. AND E, HOGFOAD,

success.

spicuous. The first complete edition of Despauter's Grammar was printed at Cologue, anno. 1522 ; his Syntax had been published anno 1509. Lily was made first master of St. Paul's school in London, by Dr. Colet, its founder, anno 1510; so that he was contemporary with Despauter. His Grammar was appointed, by an act which is still in force, to be taught in the established schools of England. Vari ous attempts were afterwards made by different authors; as, Sanctius, Alvarus, Scioppius, Kirkwood, Watt, Ruddiman, &c. to improve on the plan of Despanter and Lily; but. with little

The truth is, it seems impracticable to express with sufficient perspicuity the Principles of Grammar in Latin verse; and it appears strange, that when scholastic jargon is exploded from elementary books on other sciences, it should be retained by public authority, where it ought never to have been admiited, in Latin Grammars for children. But such is the force of habit and attachment to established modes, that we go on in the use of them, without thinking whether they be founded in reason or not. When there are a great many exceptions to a general rule, whalever can assist the memory is no doubt useful. On this account the principal rules for the genders of nouns, &c. are here subjoined, for local reasons, from Ruddiman's Gramniar; although many of them are by no means adapted to the capacity of boys; and more of them are inserted, in compliance with the opinion of others, than the compiler judges necessary. They are printed at the end of the book; and such as choose it, may have Lily's rules, Watt's rules, or any other substituted in their place.

The authors of the Nouvelle Methode or Port Royal Grammar in France, judging it as absurd to teach Latin by rules in Latin verse, as to teach Greek by rules in Greek verse, or Hebrew by rules in Hebrew, composed the rules of Latin Grammar in French verse. Some authors in England, as, Clarke, Phillips, &c. have imitated their example. But this plan has not in either country been much followed. Nothing can be more uncouth than such versification. So that Lalin rules, on the whole, seem preferable. However this may be, the following remarks concerning the inethod of teaching Latin, it is hoped will not be deemed improper.

When the learner is once master of the inflexion of nouns and verbs, he should be exercised in getting by heart words

and phrases, while at the same time he is employed in readeing some easy author, and in turning plain sentences from English into Latin. The sooner he can be brought to write part of his exercises, the better; but he should never be obliged to get Gramınar rules in Latin verse, till he is capable of understanding them by himself ; because, although the teacher may explain them, the scholar will soon forget the interpretation, and repeat the words merely by rote, without attending to their meaning. Nor should he be forced to get rules in Latin verse, which may be remembered equally well in English próse. Rules in verse are only useful when they assist the memory; as when there is a number of exceptions from a general rule, where alone they are indeed of advantage: and even here, perhaps, any chime of words might answer the purpose as well as Latin hexameters. It is of importance, when the rule is long, that the learner be accustomed to repeat no more of it than is strictly applicable to the word or phrare in question. The repetition of the whole is an useless waste of time. The great object ought to be, to bring the learner, in as short a time as possible, to join without hesitation an adjective with a substantive in any case, number, or degree of comparison ; and in like manner to touch upon any part of a verb, and to tell readily by what case any adjective, verb, or preposition is followed. This facility practice alone can teach, and the method of acquiring it must in all languages be much the same.

The niceties of construction, the figures of Syntax, and the other parts of Grammar, should be occasionally taught, as the learner proceeds in reading the more difficult authors. **As the ancient Romans joined the Grammar of their own language with that of the Greek ; so we ought to connect the study of English Grammar with that of the Latin. And when the learner properly understands Latin Grammar, he ought to join with it the study of the Greek; the knowledge of both these languages being requisite for the thorough understanding of the English. This is the practice in England and other countries, where the best Greek and Latin scholars are formed. It is particularly necessary in Scotland to pay attention to the English in conjunction with the La. tin, as by neglecting it boys at school learu pany improprieties in point of Grammar, as well as of pronunciation, which it is difficult in after life to correct. This attention is less

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