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SCRIPTURAL READING.

the gates of the city and kiss the royal hands of your not life behind, and sailing they knew not wbither, it deHighnesses and of my lord the Prince; and then in that manded a rare combination of extraordinary talents for

same month by the information which I bad given your one man, an obscure foreigoer, to retain the obedience of TO THE EDITOR. Sr.The concise but exceedingly sublime description Highnesses of the lands of India, and of a prince called ...

Gran Can, which signifies in our language King of Kings. This turbulent but fainthearted followers. of the creation, given to us in the first chapter of Genesis,

how he and his predecessors had often sent to Rome to “Their terrors began to be troublesome a few days after haring lately been read in our churches, induces me to

solicit teachers of our holy faith to instruct him in it, and quitting Gomera, on perceiving the variation of the mag. taonest ved insertion of the following remarks, in hopes the Holy Father had never provided him any, and thus netic needle. Columbus deserves the honour of being the they may one under the notice of those in whom rests many people were lost by believing in idolatries, and har. bouring doctrines of perdition ;-your Highnesses, as

first to observe this phenomenon, which still remains the porer of giving increased effect and pathos to the read.

Catholic Christians, and Princes, who are lovers of the among the unexplained mysteries of nature. The surprise ing at that most beautiful composition.

holy Christian faith and promoters of it, and enemies of and consternation of his officers and men on the occasion As far a my observation has extended, the conclusion the sect of Mahomet, and of all idolatries and heresies, are sufficient proof that it was unnoticed until then. Some of the 9th, 11th, and other verses, is always read with a thought to send me, Christopher Columbus, to said regions / writers

servation strong emphasis on the word was, instead of on the more of India, to see the said princes, and the people and coun

to Cabot, in 1497 ; but Las Casas, Ferdinand Columbus, properly empbatical word so. Had the sacred historian try, and the disposition of them and of the whole,

course to be adopted for their conversion to our holy | Herrera, and Munoz, bad all concurred in claiming it for beza speaking of matter no longer in existence, the past faith ; and ordained that I should not proceed by land to the Admiral ; and the following extract from the journal ten sonld then have borne a more appropriate significa- the East, as it hath been customary to go, but by way of of his first voyage, dated September 13, taken in connexion tion: but des

an astonishing effect, which still is, the West, in which direction we have to this day no with a passage in his account of his third voyage, is consi. the force of his words is much weakened, to say the least certain evidence that any person has passed. So after having expelled all the Jews from your kingdom and

dered by Senor Navarrete as establishing the fact. He of it, by the usual emphasis : omit the word so, and the

seignories, in the same month of January, your High-succeeded in quieting the apprehensions of his people by emphasis will be right. Is not so (done in such like man- nesses commanded me to proceed to those regions of India an ingenious explanation, which, however, was unsatis. paristas emphatical in our language? I am aware of with a sufficient armament ; and for this granted me factory to his own mind. In reading the passages we are

inding the nsual reading, but I think I great favours, and ennobled me so that thenceforth in about to cite, it should be observed, that they are not taken the possibility of defending the usual reading, but I think great favours, and ennobled the "better argument" is in favour of the reading I pro- time to come I might style myself Don, and should be High Admiral of the ocean, and Viceroy and perpetual

from the original journal of Columbus, but from a mere pose; enlarge the expression and it will be more apparent

Governor of all the islands and mainland which I should abstract in the words of Las Casas ; and as it appears from " And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be

discover and acquire, and which should thereafter be dis- Munoz's unfinished Historia del Nuevo Mundo, that Co. cathered together unto one place, and let the dry land covered and acquired in the ocean, and so my eldest son | lumbus kept two journals, one private and authentic, and appear; and it was" (50) done even as commanded. Con- should succeed me, and from degree to degree for ever :

ver the other with false reckoning and specious statements, it tras: the reading, and another light will be thrown upon and I left the city of Granada the 12th day of the month of May of the same year, 1492, on Saturday; I went to the

would seem that both were used in making this abstract, it: 10th verse, “ And God called the dry land earth, and

town of Palos, a seaport, where I equipped three vessels the phrase " the Admiral says' often introducing not what the gathering together of the waters called he seas : and very suitable for such a purpose ; and departed from the he thought, but what he wished bis companions to believe. code that it was good :" this would not be tolerated. said port, well supplied with much provisions and many | Las Casas has given some long passages in the very words I would further propose the reading of the 3d verse with seamen, the third day of the month of August of the said the following emphasis : “ And God said, Let there be year, on Friday, half an hour before sunrise, and steered of Columbus, but such are accompanied by a notice to that

for the Canary Islands of your Highnesses, which are in

in effect; and in Senor Navarrete's book are distinguished LIGET and there was light, instead of laying stress on the

the said ocean, thence to take my departure, and navigate by inverted commas. To 231. A change of construction would render the until I should reach the Indies, and deliver the embassy Thursday, Sept. 13.—This day and night, continuing fee of my reasoning more apparent. Let light BE, and of your Highnesses to those princes, and thus accomplish their course west, they sailed 33 leagues, and counted 3 or

"J. H. c. Yours, &c. tras.

what you had commanded me; and therefore I thought | 4 less. The currents were contrary. This day, at the to write all this voyage very exactly from day to day, commencement of night, the needles varied (noruesteaban) every thing which I should do, or see, or experience, as to the north-west, and they also varied somewhat to the will be seen in the sequel. And beside describing every north-west in the morning.'

night what passes in the day, and every day how we sail Monday, Sept. 17.-Continued their course west, and * I have here only nade a nosegay of culled rowers, and have

in the night, I design to construct a new chart for navi. sailed in the day and night 50 leagues and upwards; noted beaght nothing of my own but the thread that ties thein."

gation, in which I will mark the waters and lands of the down but 47; the current favoured them; they saw many MONTAIGNE.

ocean in their proper places under their points, and weeds, and very frequently ; it was rockweed, and came

moreover to compose a book, and represent the whole by from towards the west; they judged that land was near. NEW DOCUMENT RESPECTING COLUMBUS. picture, in latitude from the equator, and longitude from

The mates took the north by marking it, and found that the the west ; and above all it is very necessary that I forego needles varied to the north-west (las agujas noruesteaban) The following most interesting article is copied sleep, and atteinpt much in navigation, in order to accom.

a whole quarter, which terrified the mariners, who stood in rom the North American Revier; and we most readily pa Reniem. and we most readily plish it, which things will require great toil.'-Tom. 1,

suspense, without saying for what. The Admiral per. p. 1–3.

ceived it, and ordered them to mark the north anew at Abridge our selections from Sir Walter Scott's Napo- « The first thing which strikes us in the journal, is the daybreak, and they found that the needles pointed aright: con, in order to secure the insertion of a narrative artifice to which Columbus was continually driven, to sus.

the cause was, that the star which appears has motion, and which must deeply interest every reader. tain the sinking courage of his crews. Nowhere is the ex.

not the needles. At daybreak this day saw many more alted character of this truly great man more strikingly dis

weeds, which appeared to be river weeds, in which they It is throughout in the hand writing of the celebrated

found a live crab, which the Admiral kept, and says that played, than in the fortitude and magnanimity with which these are sure signs of land, because they are never found Bartolomé de las Casas, who possessed many papers

he bore up against the manifold obstacles to the prosecu- eighty leagues from shore. They found the sea water less Fritten by Columbus, which he made use of in the com.

tion of his magnificent undertaking. He had suffered the salt since they left the Canaries, the air more and more losition of his unpublished Historia de las Indias, and hardships of penury and oppression, with spirits unbroken,

mild ; they were all in good spirits, and the vessels con. bo unquestionably abstracted this journal from the

tended which should go fastest, to be the first to descry with hopes un repressed. Animated by the conviction that Idmiral's log-book, giving a literal copy of the most

land; they saw many tunny fish, and the crew of the Nina undiscovered worlds lay hidden in the western sea, and killed one. Here the Admiral says those signs were from aportant passages. Not the slightest doubt of its authen.

that he was the instrument ordained to discover and ex- the west, where I hope in that high God, in whose band icity can exist. Indeed Las Casas inserted an abridg.

plore them, he had happily overcome the superstitions of is all victory, that he will very soon give us land. This best of it in his manuscript history, which served as the

the priesthood, who, in the outset, stigmatized his hypo. morning he says he saw a white bird, called Rabo de Junco. basis of the works of Herara and other standard historians

which is not wont to sleep at sea.' thesis by the odious name of heresy. The incredulity of of the New World.

" Sunday, Sept. 30.-At night the needles varied a quarter

ernment ! * The introduction to the journal exhibits in the very

th; and its to the northwest, and at daybreak they agreed exactly

parsimony was melted by his ardour. The narrowminded with the star ; by which it appears that the star has motion Fords of Columbus, the views and feelings with which he

| individuals, who, unable to rise themselves, hung the like the other stars, and that the needles always indicate e sai] upon this memorable voyage. We translate it

| weight of their jealousy around his neck as usual, to hold the true point.'-Tom. I, p. 8, 9, 15. med for word, leaving the original arrangement of the

down his lofty genius to the level of their own lowly career, “It has been generally understood that Columbus was terces untouched, because it would be difficult to

he had shaken off at last in triumph. He was now float- compelled to deceive his companions in regard to the disbeat them without taking serious liberties with the text.

ing upon the full tide of adventurous experiment. But tance they sailed, and the various signs of proximity to 13 Domine D. S. Jesu Christi.- Whereas, most Chris.

here also the ignorance and envy of his fellows pursued land. The birds they saw were land birds; the weeds sa, Dost high, most excellent, and most powerful princes, kur lords. King and Queen of the Spains and the isles of him at every hour. His unalterable belief in the existence were freshly disengaged from rocks; and the fish were be sea. This present year 1492, after your Highness had of the lands he sought would have availed him little had | river fish, that never ventured far into salt water ; some. aded the war against the Moors who reigned in Europe, not his pre-eminent nautical skill exacted the confidence times the wind was a breeze from shore; and thus it was od bad finished the war in the great city of Granada,

ranada; of those around him, and his intellect and courage proved that every possible expedient was tried to counteract the here this present year, on the second day of January, I

ocel equal to any emergency of fortune. For when his daring fears and feed the credulity of ignorant mariners. We sw the rogal banners of your Highnesses planted by force equal to any emergency of fortune. For when his Farma The towers of Alhambra, which is the fortress prow was pointed to the west, and his companions felt translate several passages of the journal, which illustrate I the said city, and saw the Moorish King come out of themselves on the bosom of the great deep, leaving home if these remarks.

The Bouquet.

Sa

of

Sunday, Sept. 9.-Sailed that day 19 leagues, and deter-| Admiral's course and description, Munoz conjectured that beneficence. How cruelly they were disappointed in mined to count less than was sailed, so that if the voyage Walling's island was the true Guanabani. But Senor sequel was but too fatally proved by their speedy desto should be long, the people should not be terrified or dis- Navori

Navarette adduces very strong reasons for believing it to tion, under the merciless rule of their foreign masters. mayed.'

be the largest of the Turk's islands. The course of CoWednesday, Sept. 19.- Continued their course, and lumbus from Guanahani was continually west, from island

THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, between day and night sailed 25 leagues, because there

Velican I to island, till he arrived at Nipe, in Cuba. Now this fact / WITH A PRELIMINARY VIEW OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, was a calm; wrote down 22. At ten this day a pelican to island, till he arrived at Nipe, in Cuba. Now th

THE AUTHOR OF "WAVERLEY." came to the ship, and another towards evening, which are is irreconcileable with the idea, that Guanahani is Cat not wont to fly 20 leagues froin land; it drizzled without Island, which lies nearly due north of Nipe. Besides, wind, which is a sure sign of land; the Admiral would she ore the great Bahama Bank, and a long chain of keys called

THE BATTLE OF THE PYRAMIDS. not stop to beat up and down to ascertain whether there

Cayos de la Cadena, stretching between St. Salvador and “During these alarms, the French love of the ludicr was land; but be held for certain that to the north and Cayos south there were islands, as in truth there were, and he | Cuba, interpose a most serious obstacle to holding such a was not abated by the fatigues or dangers of the journ

The savants had been supplied with asses, the beast was sailing in the midst of them; because his wish was westerly course as Columbus pursued. But by setting out

burden easiest attained in Egypt, to transport their To proceed on to the Indies.' [Columbus was, in fact, at from Nipe, and proceeding in a retrogade direction along sons and philosophical apparatus. The General had gi this time only 10 leagues from some small islets or rocks, his course, as he very particularly describes it in his jour- orders to attend to their personal safety, which were, in lat. 28° or 29o.)

nal, we may easily trace his path, and shall be convinced course, obeyed. But as these civilians had little importa • Saturday, Sept. 22.-Sailed northwesterly, beating up

'that Guanahani is no other than Turk's island. Add to in the eyes of the military, loud shouts of laughter bi and down ; sailed 30 leagues; saw hardly any weeds. Here the Admiral says, "This head wind was very neces. this, that his description of it accords exactly with the from the ranks, while forming to receive the Mamelul

as the general of division called out, with military pr sarv for me : because my people had become highly ex- latter, especially in the circumstance of there being a large sion. T Let the asses and the sevente enter L. cited, in the idea that over these seas no wind blew by lake in the middle of it. This point is of no great con- square.' The soldiers also amused themselves by cal which they could return to Spain."

sequence ; but it is satisfactory to know precisely what the asses demi-savants. In times of discontent these • Sunday, Sept. 23.—The weeds were in great quanti.

spot in America was first revealed to the eye of Europeans. I lucky servants of science had their full share of the ties, and they found crabs in them, and as the sea was

" In the subsequent parts of the journal, we frequently pedition had been undertaken to gratify their passion

diers' reproaches, who imagined that this unpopular smooth and tranquil, the people murmured, saying that they had lost the deep water, and there never would be a discover the influence of the opinions which Columbus ) research

researches, in which the military took very slender inte wind for returning to Spain; but after a while the sea had imbibed from the travels of Marco Polo and the fa. “ Under such circumstances it may be doubted whe rose without wind, which astonished them.'-Tom. I, p. mous letter of Paolo Toscanelli. It is the Indies, and the even the literati themselves were greatly delighted, wł 7, 11, 12. Indies alone, which he seeks. Although his reason as

after fourteen days of such marches as we described, “We pass over many entries in the journal of like im

arrived, indeed, within six leagues of Cairo, and beh sured him of the true figure of our globe, and he deduced

| at a distance, the celebrated Pyramids, but learned, at port, and come to the time when the vessels actually ap

the right consequences froin this position, and thus was same time, that Murad Bey, with twenty-two of his 1 proached their destination.

much in advance of his age, yet he had a most vague and thren, at the head of their Mamelukes, had formed an Wednesday, Oct. 10.-Sailed west southwest, went 10

incorrect idea of the actual locality of the Indies. After trenched camp at a place called Embabeh, with the miles the hour, occasionally twelve, and sometimes seven,

he has discovered Guanahani, bis inquiries of the savages :P

1.pose of covering Cairo, and giving battle to the Frei and in the twenty-four hours fifty-nine leagues ; reckoned

On the 21st of July, as the French continued to adval to the people only forty-four. Here the crews could en- invariably point to Cathay or Cipango, or other distantin

ably point to Cathay or Cipango, or other distant they saw their enemy in the field, and in full force. dure it no longer ; they complained of the length of the Asiatic countries, at which he, every moment, expected to splendid line of cavalry, under Murad and the other B voyage ; but the Admiral encouraged them as well as he arrive. Indeed, many years afterwards, in a letter written displayed the whole strength of the Mamelukes. Ti could, giving them good hopes of the great profits they

bey to the Pope in 1502, he says. This island is Tarsis, it is right rested on the imperfectly entreached camp, in wh would make. And he added that it was idle for them to complain, because he was going to the Indies, and should

lay twenty thousand infantry, defended by forty piece Cethia, it is Ophir, and Ophaz, and Cipango, and we have

cannon. But the infantry were an undisciplined rabb kecp on till he found them, with the help of our Lord. called it Hispaniola.'* Conformable to this idea are the

the guns, wanting carriages, were mounted on clun Thursday, Oct. 11.-Sailed west south west, had much entries in his journal.

wooden frames; and the fortifications of the camp w sea, more than in the whole voyage before. Saw pardelas Friday, Oct. 26th. He set sail for Cuba, because, by but commenced, and presented no formidable oppositi and a green rush near the vessel. The crew of the Pinta the signs which the Indians gave him of its magnitude, Bonaparte made his dispositions. He extended his lin saw a cane and a log, and took up a stick of wood wrought and of the gold and pearls there, he thought it must be the right, in such a manner as to keep out of gunshot to all appearance with iron, and a piece of cane, and an. the same with Cipango.'

the entrenched camp, and have only to encounter the 1 other plant which grows on land, and a small board. Those "Tuesday, Oct. 30th.-He says that he must exert him. of cavalry... of the Nipa also saw other signs of shore, and a branch self to go to the Grand Can, who he thought was there. “Murad Bey saw this movement; and, fully awar loaded with roseberries. By these signs all were relieved

or at the city of Cathy, belonging to the Grand Can, I its consequence, prepared to charge with his magnific and rejoiced. Sailed this day by sunset 27 leagues. which, he says, is very large, as he was told before he left 1 body of horse, declaring he would cut the French up • After sunset sailed on their first course west. Went Spain.'-Tom. I, p. 40, 44.

gourds. Bonaparte, as he directed the infantry to fo miles the hour, and at two o'clock, A. M. had sailed on We pass over the intermediate portions of the journal, der Pyramids twenty centuries behold your action

no squares to receive them, called out to his men, •From y 90 miles, that is 224 leagues. (Italian miles of four to.

Jin which the Admiral relates his discoveries among the The Mamelukes advanced with the utmost speed and ause the cara inta was al sailer, and kept a head of the Admiral, she discovered islands, describing the appearance and productions of the responding fury, and charged with horrible vells. T land, and made the signals prescribed by him. This land country, and the condition of the inhabitants. The luxu. disordered one of the French squares of infantry, wh was first seen by a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana ; the riance of tropical vegetation, abounding in noble trees, I wou

would have been sabred in an instant, but that the m Admiral, however, at ten in the evening, standing on the splendid flowers, and exquisite fruits, and springing from

of this fiery militia was a little behind this advanced gui quarter-deck, saw a light, although it was a thing so in.

The French had a moment to restore order, and used, distinct that he would not affirm it was land; but he called a virgin soil of exhaustless fertility, awakens his admira. The

soil of exhaustless fertility, awakens his admira- The combat then, in some degree, resembled that whi Pero Gutierrez, a gentleman of the king's household, and tion at every step. Nor is he less enchanted with the twenty years afterwards, took place at Waterloo. the 1 told him that a light appeared, and that he should observe blandness and suavity of the atmosphere of the new re tile cavalry furiously charging the squares of infantry, 1 it, which he did, and saw it. He also mentioned it to gions he was

° gions he was exploring, where the people, the climate, the I trying, by the most undaunted efforts of courage, to bri Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia, whom the king sent in the hieriches of the vegetable and mineral kingdoms, all excited

in upon them at every practicable point, while a trem fleet for inspector, who could not see it on account of his

dous fire of musketry, grape-shot, and shells, crossing standing in an unsuitable position. After the Admiral his imagination and drew from him the warmest praises. various directions, repaid their audacity. Nothing in mentioned it, it was seen once or twice, and resembled a The riches planted in those beautiful islands by the hand was ever seen more desperate than the exertions of wax candle, moving up and down, which seemed to be an of nature still remain ; and the conquerors have increased Mamelukes, Failing to force their horses through indication of land. Būt the Admiral felt certain the shore their

their abundance by transporting thither and naturalizing

inic | French squares, individuals were seen to wheel th was near. Wherefore, when they had said the Salve, which

round, and rein them back on the ranks, that they mi all mariners are accustomed to say or chant in their way, the congenial productions of Asia and Europe. But in 1

ongenial productions of Asia and Europe. but in disorder theon by kicking. As they became frantic w all together, the Admiral desired and admonished them to one other respect how changed is the whole face of things despair, fthey hurled at the immoveable phalanxes. h keep a good watch from the forecastle, and look well out there! The native races of Guanahani, Cuba, Hayti, they could not break, their pistols, their poinards, 1 for the land, and that to whomever should first say he saw | Jamaica, bave vanished like the dew of the morning : their carbines. Those who fell wounded to the grou land, he would forth with give a silk jacket, beside the I and Africa is unpeopled to supply their place. Nothing

dragged themselves on, to cut at the legs of the Frei other favours which the sovereigns had promised, which

with their crooked sabres : but their efforts were all in va were ten thousand maravedis to the first who should see it. I was more deeply impressed on the mind of Columbus

“The Mamelukes, after the most courageous efforts At two o'clock A. M. the shore was in sight, two leagues than the perfectly amiable character of tbe inhabitants. accomplish their purpose, were finally beaten off w off. They handed all sail, and stood under the square He dwells upon it in the description of every island at great slaughter; and, as they could not form, nor act sail alone, and lay to until Friday, when they reached one which he touched. At peace among themselves, unarmed. squadron, their retreat became a confused fight. 1 of the Lucayos Islands, which the natives called Guana. and engaged in the tranquil arts of cultivation, they gi

greater part attempted to return to their camp, from t hani.'— Tom. I, p. 18, 20.

sort of instinct (as Napoleon termed it) which leads fu dreaded nothing but the ruinous descents of the brutal tives to retire in the same direction in which they had “ Much doubt and uncertainty have existed as to the

and ferocious Caribbees. They received the Spaniards | vanced. By taking this route they placed themselves island which Columbus first discovered. He gave it the

with unsuspecting confidence, as beings of a higher order, twixt the French and the Nile; and the sustained and name of San Salvador, and it has been generally supposed

descended among them for objects of philanthropy and to be the island now called St. Salvador, or Cat Island.

supportable fire of the former soon obliged them to plur

into the river, in hopes to escape by swimming to the The position of this island not agreeing perfectly with the

Colleccion, Tom. II., p. 280.

posite bank,-a desperate effort, in which few succeed

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Their infantry, at the same time, evacuated their camp, advantage, states him to have been the best of masters, I fall is divided by a rock from Goat Island, and though vithout the least show of resistance, precipitated them. labouring to assist all his domestics wherever it lay in his here insignificant in appearance, would rank high among selves into the boats, and endeavoured to cross the Nile. power, giving them the highest credit for such talents as European cascades. The current runs about six miles an Ver many of these also were destroyed. The French they actually possessed, and imputing, in some instances, hour; but supposing it to be only five miles, the quantity ssldiers long aftersards occupied themselves in fishing for good qualities to such as had them not.

which passes the falls in an hour is more than 85,000,000 the drowned Mamelukes, and failed not to find money and There was gentleness, and even sofiness, in his charac. of tons avoirdupois: if we suppose is to be six, it will valuables opou all whom they could recover. Murad Bey, ter. He was affected when he rode over the fields of bat. be more than 102,000,000; and in a day would exceed with a part of bis best Mamelukes, escaped the slaughter tle, which bis ambition had strewed with the dead and the 2,400,000,000 of tons. by a uz regular roovement to the left, and retreated by dying, and seemed not only desirous to relieve the victims “The next morning, with renewed delight, I beheld Giesinha Upper Egypt.

-issuing for that purpose directions, which too often were from my window-I may say, indeed, from my bed-the * Thus were in a great measure destroyed the finest not, and could not be obeyed-but showed himself subject stupendous vision. The beams of the rising sun shed Giralry, considered as individual horsemen, that were to the influence of that more acute and imaginative species over it a variety of tiots; a cloud of spray was ascending ETCE koowa to esist. Could I bave united the Mame of sympathy which is termed sensibility. He mentions a from the crescent; and as I viewed it from above, it aplake horse to the French infantry,' said Bonaparte, I circumstance which indicates a deep sense of feeling. Aspeared like the steam rising from the boiler of some mon. Niall bare reckoned myself master of the world.' The he passed over a field of battle in Italy, with some of his strous engine. destruction of a body hitherto regarded as invincible, generals, he saw a houseless dog lying on the body of his Erick terror, not through Egypt only, but far into Africa slain master. The creature came towards them, then re

them. then re-l “ This evening I went down with one of our party to apd Asil, wberever the Moslem religion prevailed; and turned to the dead body, moaned over it pitifully, and view the cataract by moonlight. I took my favourite seat the rolhog fire of musketry by which the victory was seemed to ask their assistance. Whether it were the feel. on the projecting rock, at a little distance from the brink achieved, procured for Bonaparte the oriental appellationing of the moment,' continued Napoleon, the scene, the of the fall, and gazed till every sense seemed absorbed in of Saltaa Kebir, or King of Fire.

hour, or the circumstance itself, I was never so deeply contemplation. Although the shades of night increased “After this combat, which, to render it more striking affected by any thing which I have seen upon a field of the sublimity of the prospect, and deepened the murmur to the Parisiens, Rodaparte termed the Battle of the battle. That man, I thought, has perhaps had a house, of the falling floods,' the moon in placid beauty shed her Pyramids, Cairo surrendered without resistance. T'he frier.ds, comrades, and here he lies deserted by every one soft influence upon the mind, and mitigated the horrors shattered remains of the Mamelukes, who had swam the but his dog. How mysterious are the impressions to of the scene. The thunders which bellowed from the Nil, and united ander Ibrahim Bey, were compelled to which we are subject! I was in the habit, without emo. abyss, and the loveliness of the falling element, which retras iata Syria. A party of three hundred French tion, of ordering battles which must decide the fate of a glittered like molten silver in the moonlight, seemed to aralı Fentered to attack them at Salahieh, but were campaign, and could look with a dry eye on the execution complete, in absolute perfection, the rare union of the Senerely baddled by Ibrahim Bey and his followers, who, of mancuvres which must be attended with much loss ; ( beautiful with the sublime. haring wat many of them to pieces, pursued their retreat and here I was moved-nay, painfully affected by the “While reflecting upon the inadequacy of language to without farther interruption. Lower Egypt was com. cries and the grief of a dog. It is certain that at that mo- express the feelings I experienced, or to describe the wonplace in the hands of the French, and thus far the ex. ment I should have been more accessible to a suppliant ders which I surveyed, an American gentleman, to my Polition of Bonaparte had been perfectly successful." enemy, and could better understand the conduct of Achilles great amusement, tapped me on the shoulder, and 'guessed' YAPOLEOX'S PERSONAL CHARACTER.

in restoring the body of Hector to the tears of Priam.' that it was pretty droll!' It was difficult to avoid laugh" Arrived at the conclusion of this momentous nar. | The anecdote at once shows that Napoleon possessed aing in his face ; yet I could not help envying him his rative, the reader may be disposed to pause a moment to heart amenable to humane feelings, and that they were vocabulary, which had so eloquently released me from my rebect on the character of that wonderful person, on usually in total subjection to the stern precepts of military

dilemma. wboa fortune showered so many favours in the beginning stoicism. It was his common and expressive phrase, that “Though earnestly dissuaded from the undertaking, I

trough the middle of his career, to overwhelm its the heart of a politician should be in his head; but his had determined to employ the first fine morning in visit. ridh such deep and unwonted afflictions.

feelings sometimes surprised him in a gentler mood. ing the cavern beneath the fall. The guide recommended The external appearance of Napoleon was not im. "A calculator by nature and by habit, Napoleon was my companion and myself to set out as early as six o'clock, sing at the first glance, his stature being only five feet fond of order, and a friend to that moral conduct in wbicb that we might have the advantage of the morning sun tú inches, English. His person, thin in youth, and order is best exemplified. The libels of the day have made

e came to ti lide's house at the what corpulent in age, was rather delicate than robust some scandalous averments to the contrary, but without appointed hour, and disencumbered ourselves of such Fetard appearance, but cast in the mould most capa. adequate foundation. Napoleon respected himself too garments as we did not care to have wetted : descending he seaduring privation and fatigue. He rode un much, and understood the value of public opinion too

the circular lad we followed the course of th encefalls, and without that command of his horse which well, to have plunged into general or vague debauchery. running along the top of the débris of the precipice, guishes a perfect cavalier; so that he showed to dis. "Considering his natural disposition. then, it may be | wbich I have already descri . Hav

pursued this Shantage when riding beside such a horseman as Murat. assumed, that if Napoleon had continued in the vale of track for about eighty yards, in the course of which we Bitte was fearless, sat firm on his seat, rode with rapidity, private life, and no strong temptation of passion or revenge were completely drenched, we found ourselves close to sad s capable of enduring the exercise for a longer time had crossed his path, he must have been generally regarded the cataract. Although enveloped in a cloud of spray, we om bost men. We have already mentioned his indif. | as one whose friendship was every way desirable, and I could distinguish without difficulty the direction of our Ference to the quality of his food, and his power of en- whose enmity it was not safe to incur. "

path, and the nature of the cavern we were about to daag ahstinence. A morsel of food, and his flask of “But the opportunity afforded by the times, and the enter. Our guide warned us of the difficulty in respiraHare bung at his saddle.bow, used, in his earlier cam- elasticity of his own great talents, both military and polition which we should encounter from the spray, and rePas, o support him for days. In his latter wars, he tical, raised him with unexampled celerity to a sphere of commended us to look with exclusive attention to the se. bere frequently used a carriage; not, as has been sur great power, and at least equal temptation.”

curity of our footing. Thus warned we pushed forward, mised, from any particular illness, but from feeling in a

blown about and buffeted by the wind, stunned by the pe o constantly in exercise the premature effects of

noise, and blinded by the spray. Each successive gust THE FALLS OF THE NIAGARA.

penetrated us to the very bones with cold. Determined - ide ceuntenance of Napoleon is familiar to almost

(FROM DE ROOS' PERSONAL NARRATIVE.)

to proceed, we toiled and struggled on; and having fol. ce from description, and the portraits which are

lowed the footsteps of the guide as far as was possible fond erywhere. The dark brown hair bore little marks “I had already seen some of the most celebrated works consistently with safety, we sat down, and having collected of the attention of the toilet. The shape of the counte. of nature in different parts of the globe; I had seen Etna our senses by degrees, the wonders of the cavern slowly munca approached more than is usual in the human race and Vesuvius; I had seen the Andes almost at their developed themselves. It is impossible to describe the to a sqaure. His eyes were gray, and full of expression, greatest elevation; Cape Horn, rugged and bleak, buffeted strange unnatural light reflected through its crystal wall, he pepils rather large, and the eye-brows not very strongly by the southern tempest; and, though last not least, I the roar of the watcrs, and the blasts of the hurried anted. The brow and upper part of the countenance had seen the long swell of the Pacific, but nothing I had, hurricane which perpetually rages in its recesses. We w rauber of a stern character. This nose and mouth ever beheld or imagined could compare in grandeur with the endured its fury a sufficient time to form a notion of

are beautifully formed. The upper lip was very short. Falls of Niagara. My first sensation was that of exqui. the shape and dimensions of this dreadful place. The The teeth were indifferent, but were little shown in speak. site delight at having before me the greatest wonder of cavern was tolerably light, though the sun was unfortuTag His smile possessed uncommon sweetness, and is the world. Strange as it may appear, this feeling was nately enveloped in clouds. His disc was invisible, but we Ested to have been irresistible. The complexion was a immediately succeeded by an irresistible melancholy. Had could clearly distinguish his situation through the watery clear blive, otherwise in general colourless. The prevail. this not continued, it might perhaps have been attributed barrier. The fall of the cataract is nearly perpendicular. ing character of his countenance was grave, even to to the satiety incident to the complete gratification of The bank oyer which it is precipitated is of a concave form, melaboly, but without any signs of severity or violence. hope long deferred ;' but so far from diminishing, the owing to its upper stratum being composed of ļime-stone, Alla desth, the placidity and dignity of expression which more I gazed, the stronger and deeper the sentiment and its base of soft slate-stone, which has been eaten away semed to occupy the features, rendered them eminently became. Yet this scene of sadness was strangely mingled by the constant attrition of the recoiling waters. The bail, and the admiration of all who looked on them. with a kind of intoxicating fascination. Whether the cavern is about 120 feet in height, 50 in breadth, and 300

* Sach was Napoleon's exterior. His personal and phenomenon is peculiar to Niagara, I know not; but cer- in length. The entrance was completely invisible. By P a racter was decidediy amiable, excepting in one tain it is, that the spirits are affected and depressed in a screaming in our ears, the guide contrived to explain 10

Pance. His temper, when he received, or thought he singular manner by the magic influence of this stupendous us that there was one more point which we might have Tesired, provocation, especially if of a personal character, and eternal fall.

reached had the wind been in any other direction. Unwas warm and Yindictive. He was, however, placable in "About five miles above the cataract the river expands luckily it blew full upon the sheet of the cataract, and the case sea of his enemies, providing that they submitted to the dimensions of a lake, after which it gradually nar. drove it in so as to dash upon the rock over which we to tia mats; but he had not that species of generosity rows. The Rapids commence at the upper extremity of must have passed. A few yards beyond this the precipice with respects the sincerity of a manly and fair opponent. Goat Island, which is half a mile in length, and divides becomes perpendicular, and, blending with the water,

a the other hand, no one was a more liberal rewarder of the river at the point of precipitation into two unequal forms the extremity of the cave. After a stay of nearly *uizerment of his friends. He was an excellent hus. parts; the largest is distinguished by the several names of ten minutes in this most horrible purgatory, we gladly ma, kind relation, and, unless when state policy inter. the Horseshoe, Crescent, and British Fall, from its semi- left it to its loathsome inhabitants, the eel and the water. 105, 1 most affectionate brother. General Gourgaud, circular form and contiguity to the Canadian shore. The snake, who crawl about its recesses in considerable num

zgomunications were not in every case to Napoleon's smaller is named the American Fall. A portion of this bers,--and returned to the inn.”

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The Kaleidoscope. | Monsieur G. Beavjeux, professor of gymnastics at Dublin, 1

ANTIQUITIES.
where lie superintends a most respectable establishment, is
PUBLISHERS' ADDRESS,

now on a visit to Liverpool, and purposes to remain | The following communication has been ha ON THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE EIGHTH VOLUME

during the long vacation of two or three months. He by Dr. Albert, and we shall feel obliged if OF THE KALEIDOSCOPE.

wishes to establish a gymnastic school here, and those gen. literary correspondents would favour us with a

tlemen who think proper to patronise the undertaking are tion of the inscription attached. This day's publication commences the eighth vo requested to leave their names and address with Mr. l. On a découvert récemment, près de Nismes, lume of the New Series of the Kaleidoscope ; and our Beaujeux, No. 45, Mount-pleasant.--Mons. B. has a series de granit brut représentant un carré, oblong

bassin. Sur l'un de ses cotés on a déchiffré I gratitude to our friends for the continued patronage of gymnastics particularly applicable to females, and also

suivante, que les archéologues n'ont pas enco with which they have honoured us, will, we trust, apto children, admirably adapted to strengthen their frame,

expliquer : and to improve their carriage. It may be necessary to add, CEB. Lo. Caes. Tev. Ne. Avg. En. AG. pear by the exertions we shall make to render our

that Mons. B. is furnished with numerous and most fawork still more worthy of the public approbation.

vourable testimonials as to his professional talent, and the The Index, which we expect to deliver gratuitously

respectability of bis private character. We shall subjoin The cauties of Ches with our next number, will be the best advertisement

two of these, taken indiscriminately, in the hope that they we can put forth to show the varied contents of the may promote the object of Mr. Beaujeux's visit to Liver.

Ludimus effigiem belli.”_VIDA. seventh volume of the Kaleidoscope. We shall, there-i pool. fore, here merely recapitulate a few of the original

STUDY CXLVIII. and revived articles which are to be found in our

MY DEAR SIR, I

kind

White to win, with the pawn, in five move last volume, and which are alone of considerably and favourable attention, Mr. Beaujeux, a French gen- | taking any of the black pawns, or compel the bli

formerly an officer in the army of his native country, with a pawn, in eight moves. greater value than the price which we set upon our whole annual work.

who has been for these two years teaching the new system

of Gymnastic Exercises, so much in vogue in London, as Independent of several hundred original commu.

Black. taught by Capt. Clias, under the patronage of the late nications in prose and verse, upon various subjects,

is, Duke of York, and the Duke of Wellington. Mr. Beauour last volume was illustrated by upwards of fifty lieux was some short time assisting Capt. Clias, at Land

Va 3 a d engravings on wood; also upwards of fifty prime hurst College, if I am not mistaken. studies at Chess, taken from the best works on the He was patronised here by Mr. Goulbourn, and taught subject extant; twenty-four pieces of Music are also in his family and in several other private families and comprehended in the volume, and about fifty tales schools; and with much credit at the Royal Military or stories, either original or selected, from the most School in the Phænix Park. He has given instructions approved modern publications ; amongst these is to to my five children, and has been of great use to them in be found the whole of an American novel, called giving strength to their limbs, and an erect and graceful Charlotte Temple, or the Fatal Consequences of Se- carriage. He

carriage. He finds that during the summer season in duction. These, with an original translation of Wil.

Dublin he cannot command the attention of a sufficient liam Tell, and a great variety of scientific literary

number of scholars to make it worth his while. He is, articles, in French and English-Monthly Lists of

therefore, induced to make a short tour through Eng.

land, in hopes of inaking his system better known, and Patents, and descriptions of the Fashions, form a

appreciated as it deserves, and perhaps obtaining some mass of amusing and instructive matter not to be scholars. We expect his return very anxiously in Sepfound, we believe, in any periodical work of the same tember. In addition to his undoubted abilities in teachprice in the kingdom. ing the system of gymnastics, I feel much pleasure in

A B C D E F G TO PERSONS RESIDING IN THE COUNTRY,

introducing him to you as a perfect gentleman; and, I
hope, that you will have it in your power to introduce him

WHITE.
Where there are no Agents for the Kaleidoscope, and who are so widely among your numerous friends in Liverpool, as
desirous of becoming Subscribers.

will induce him to make some stay there. And I am con-
vinced that it will be a valuable acquisition to all the

To Correspondents.
In consequence of frequent applications for the young people there to obtain the benefit of his instruction.
Kaleidoscope, from places in the country where we

This will, I trust, be a sufficient apology, on my part, LITERATURE.—The communication of our correspond

for troubling you with this letter. With my kind rebave no agents, we take this opportunity of inform

Literat (we cannot exactly decipher the signature) spects to all your family at Liverpool and elsewhere, I received, and shall be perused forthwith. The w ing those who wish to take the work, that they may remain, my dear Sir, yours, very faithfully,

so singolar & mode of arranging his manuscript be supplied by any bookseller who receives parcels Dublin, June 4, 1827.

M. WOODMASON. with difficulty we can understand what part of from London. Messrs. Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper,

to consider as its commencement. We have one,

I have had abundant opportunity of witnessing the Paternoster row; Mr. Marlborough, Ave-Maria-lane;

and three columns in the same page. In any tuti ne; good effects of the exercises taught by Monsieur Beaujeux, 1 munications, by the same writer, would it not o and Mr. Clerc Smith, St. James's-street, have now a in his Gymnastic school, and have myself practised those

to adopt the ordinary mode of arrangement? regular stock; and as all the London booksellers are exercises with much benefit to my health and bodily LiveBPOOL SCIENTIFIC SOCIETY,_We have received a in the habit of supplying each other with the works 3

strer
Dublin, June 1, 1827. ROBERT BELL, M.D.

communication on this subject. they respectively publish, an order given to any book

The search we have made hitherto for the manus seller will ensure the forwarding of the work to any Extraordinary Occurrence.—When the Kent Indiaman W. R. has been fruitless; but we have no doubt of part of the kingdom. This, of course, is a circuitous was on fire in the Bay of Biscay, Colonel Macgregor, of it. Owing to circumstances which we need not mode of supply to some parts of the country, but it is the 31st regiment, bastily wrote a memorandum of the

ur editorial room has been m circunstance, and threw it overboard in a well-corked bottle turbed, and many of our papers mislaid. Our corres, not on that account less regular or certain, as a few (previously to the fortunate rescue by the Cambria brig) will, we trust, consider this some kind of apolog days' delay is a circumstance of no consequence with

addressed to his father in Scotland. This officer now be seeming, but certainly unintended, slight on our par such a work as the Kaleidoscope, which does not longs to the 93d regiment, stationed at Barbadoes, and while on a visit to a gentleman's estate on the windward

THE GERMAN MUSE.-We have no doubt, judging by contain news. It is necessary to observe, that the

sient glance, that the translation of J. B. - Will side of that island, in October last, the identical bottle, Kaleidoscope, being an unstamped work, cannot be

able to our work. with the paper in it, was washed ashore there, having, in sent free through the Postoffice like a newspaper. nineteen months, crossed the Atlantic in a south-west di.

W.R-n, of Manchester, is informed that we were not rection. -Edinburgh Observer.

of the liberties taken with his last communication The Musical Ropers. At the ropery in Rathbone-street,

were hazarded, no doubt with the best intention, 1 GYMNASIA. some of the ropers, who probably helong to one of the

compositors. As for dividing the lines, it was occa Choral Societies, are in the habit of singing in parts, as "DENS SANA IN CORPORE SANO."

by the length of the line. (fourteen syllables.) W t ey are at work, and the effect, at a little distance, is very

often seen this kind of verse so arranged. Chevy

bears some analogy to w. R's verses, and it 154 pleasing. A few days ago a gentleman passing, observed Our townsmen and our townswomen have now an ex- pleasing. A few days ag

printed in the four lines. cllent opportunity of acquiring some proficiency in the

io his friend that he was surprised to find these itinerant

singers chime in so well in the chords, to which the other modern, useful, and fashionable gymnastic exercises, as observed, it was quite in the line of ropemakers to produce Printed, published, and sold, EVERY taught with the greatest success in London and Dublin.'cords.

E. SMITH & Co. 75, Lord.street, Liverpool.

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VERY TUESDAY

Literary and Scientific Mirror.

“ UTILE DULCI." than

Lar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, MEN and 18. IS, AMUSEMENT, elegant EXTRACTS, PORTRY, ANECDOTES, BIOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, the DRAMA, ARTS and SCIENCES, WIT and SATIRE, FASHIONS, NATURAL HISTORY, &e. forming

LOME, with an INDEX and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this Work from London throu

168. — Vol. VIII.

TUESDAY, JULY 17, 1827.

Price 3d

jes The Investigator.

to maintain themselves at their own expense; and hence in the district was compelled to furnish provisions suffi

arose the frequent commotions and civil wars during the cient for them, though these provisions could not possibly S hending Political Economy, Statistics, Jurispru- earlier periods of the Norman rule. It must be allowed, be used. To escape this the landowners generally comDe occasional passages from Parliamentary Speeches from general nature, occasional Parliamentary Docu- !"

sches from the foregoing statement, that the feudal system placed pounded, by paying a large sum of money. and other speculative subjects, excluding Party a mighty engine in the hands of a proud and turbulenti 5. The enjoyment of forfeited estates was perhaps the

aristocracy, an engine which the Monarch could not most lucrative branch of the King's revenue. Not only

always resist. But the nobles themselves, by the pro- did the Monarch acquire possession of the estates of all be (ORIGINAL)

visions of the feudal system, were held to be in as great convicted of high treason, but all possessions, whether real

vassalage to the King as the villains were to them. The or personal, reverted to the King, provided there was no ITORICAL AND CRITICAL INQUIRY INTO THE claims of attendance in war, and attendance in peace, regular and legitimate issue to claim them, at the death GIN OF THE CONSTITUTION OF ENGLAND. purveyorship, wardship, homage, and service, lay heavy of their owner; the claims of all relatives, not sons or

on the nobles when the sceptre was swayed by a vigorous daughters, being held as not legal, unless sanctioned by BY ERASMUS GOWER.

hand; and if the villains groaned under their numerous the King's order in council.

obligations, the nobles themselves ofttimes felt the weight! These were the means by which the King could derive (Continued from our last.) of vassalage.

revenue, but these means were at best but casual, and CHAPTER II.

Thus the feudal system, in its widest extent, placed the were totally inefficient. From causes which will be de

most absolute power in the hands of the Sovereign ; but | tailed in the course of the present inquiry, the early NorNorman Conquest swept away the Witenagemote, .

this power was negatived by a strange and unaccountable man Monarchs were enabled to maintain their dignity by stead instituted the feudal system; a system y adapted to the spirit and circumstances of the

omission or denial of a right generally acknowledged by these means alone, at least they derived no other revenue

all civilized nations, viz. a right on the part of the Sove sbich it flourished. As it is my purpose to

from England. But the evil day, though it was procrase fles of this system, it will be necessary to enter some.

reign to tax his people, in order to defray the expenses of tinated, did at length come, and the Monarch was reduced

the state. The feudal system made no provision for the to the necessity of applying not only to the nobles but to large into an examination of its merits. When

maintenance of the King's dignity, save what arose from conquered the Saxons, the French had fully

all the freemen in the country, for a liberal grant of money, the following privileges :

in order to enable him to pay his debts and support his I ted the feudal system, with its long train of ward. 1 klizations, soccages, tallages, &c. As was naturally

1. Private revenue.

dignity. The consequences of this application will be 2. Voluntary contribution.

seen in the course of the present inquiry. specied, the Conqueror introduced this system into

3. Wardship and from the introduction of it arose the liberties

But here it is necessary to notice a power which has an I But it is necessary before I proceed further

4. Purveyorship.

important connexion with the present subject, and which 5. Forfeited estates.

possessed considerable influence in the state, from the 2 into an examination of the system itself. e fierce barbarians, who annihilated the Roman em

As it is of the first importance to the present inquiry reign of the Conqueror to the reign of Edward I. This

that the means and resources of the King should be fully power was the King's council of nobles and prelates. ma they had broken in pieces the mighty fabric of "

| understood, it will be necessary to explain th nature of what the exact jurisdiction of the King's council was. power, erected on its ruins a strange and incon. the above terms.

has never been exactly ascertained. system, in wbích the Roman jurisprudence was

It would seem to bear 1. The private revenue of the early Norman Kings was some resemblance to the Saxon Witenagemote, though its mingled with the rude institutions of their native

The che fondal sustem with all its clar. ample, and arose from the Saxon nobles. But, in the powers and privileges were much more extensive efects, modified by its striking advantages to a rude course of time, these estates were bestowed upon the sub council was composed of th polished people. The first great feature in this jects, either as a mark of attachment, a reward for service, I their lands from the Crown.

it or as a bribe for support; so that by the end of the reign of service. All prelates wbo held lands of the Crown, inde. Tas the complete and absolute slavery in wbich it or as a bribe for support; so that by the end of the reig

vil Richard I. little or nothing of these estates remained in pendent of their ecclesiastical estates, were also members of the common people, or, as they were styled, the Vil

the King's possession, and of course he derived no revenue the council. It will be thought, by a superficial obBy the practice of infangthef, the lord had the from them.

server, that in a council so constituted there could reside er of trying and executing his vassals, without the lat.

2. The voluntary contributions of the nobles were tardy | no positive power ; but such was not the case. having the privilege of appealing for protection to the

The tur. and inefficient, and in depending upon these, the King bulent aristocracy who flourished under the first Norman of the land ; and by the practice of outfangthef, the

rendered himself the slave of their caprices ; so that this Kings, held their lands by a more permanent and seI had the still greater power of trying and executing

means was a last and most disgraceful resource. efenders seized within his jurisdiction, wherever the me

cure tenure than suit and service to the Crown, namely,

s. By wardship was meant the power which the King by their own good swords, and by their warlike depend. Ime might have been committed. t But these powers, possessed of exercising the office of guardian to all minors ants. In many a bloody

In many a bloody field did the nobles defeat great, by no means constituted the whole of the possessed of exercising the office of guardian to all minors l ants.

who were heirs, and whose parents were deceased ; and in their Sovereign ; and on many a memorable day did they ilege enjoyed by the lords of manors, estates, town.

cases where the minor was a female, the King had the dictate the terms of reconciliation. ta, &e. The villains upon an estate were considered

Thus the council. ze complete and absolute property of their lord, nor could power of exercising his guardianship during her natural when unanimous, could defy

life; nor could she dispose of herself in marriage without their advice and opinions were not to be disregarded with by dispose of themselves in any way without his consent.. bar, for instance, no vassal could marry without the his consent. These powers the King generally relin- impunity: but, as before stated, the cases in which they

claimed an interest has never been exactly ascertained ; ette of his lord; nor could such sanction be obtained quished on payment of a sum of money. at a servile obedience to the numerous obligations

4. Purveyorship was perhaps the obligation that was and whether the council was a permanent body, or only be the feudal system. No vassal could, without most grievously felt by the nobles, and it was certainly | assembled at distant intervals, is also a doubtful anesti

tion. los permission, leave the estate to which he belonged. the one they got the most speedily rid of. By purveyor. | If only the latter, as is most probable, its powered

ould be or could he gather the fruits of his industry until his

his ship was meant the obligations the King's vassals were but of short duration ; nor could its influence be ex. i daim of soccage and tallage had been satisfied.

under of providing him and his retinue with provisions tensively or permanently beneficial.
and entertainment when he was upon a journey, and this But whatever were the exact powers of the council,

privilege the King generally exercised to a tyrannous extent. they at length merged into those of a superior and per. • Hallam's Middle Ages, &c.

Not only was the host for the time constrained to en. manent assembly, which, called into existence for the pur. | Hallam.

tertain che Sovereign and his retinue, but each landowner pose of administering to the necessities of the Sovereign,

10 held

suit and

PO

Low beir lord in war. 200

were

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