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the gates of the city and kiss the royal hands of your not life behind, and sailing they knew not whither, it de

Highnesses and of my lord the Prince, and then in that manded a rare combination of extraordinary talents for TO THE EDITOR.

same month by the information which I bad given your $n,-The concise but

exceedingly sublime description Highnesses of the lands of India, and of a prince called one man, an obscure foreigner, to retain the obedience of of the creation, given to us in the first chapter of Genesis, how he and his predecessors had often sent to Rome to

Gran Can, which signifies in our
language King of Kings, his turbulent but fainthearted followers.

“Their terrors began to be troublesome a few days after haring lately been read in our churches, induces me to solicit teachers of our holy faith to instruct him in it, and quitting Gomera, on perceiving the variation of the magtequest your insertion of the following remarks, in hopes the Holy Father had never provided him any, and thus netic needle. Columbus deserves the honour of being the they may one under the notice of those in whom rests many people were lost by believing in idolatrets, and har: first to observe this phenomenon, which still remains the power of giving increased effect and pathos to the read. Catholic Christians, and Princes, who are Lovers of the among the unexplained mysteries of nature. The surprise ing at that most beautiful composition.

holy Christian faith and promoters of it, and enemies of and consternation of his officers and men on the occasion As far as my observation has extended, the conclusion the sect of Mahomet, and of all idolatries and heresies, are sufficient proof that it was unnoticed until then. Some of the 9th, 11th, and other verses, is always read with a thought to send me, Christopher Columbus, to said regions writers have ascribed the credit of making this observation strong emphasis on the word was, instead of on the more of India, to see the said princes, and the people and counproperly emphatical word so. Had the sacred historian try, and the disposition of them and of the whole, and the to Cabot, in 1497; but Las Casas, Ferdinand Columbus,

course to be adopted for their conversion to our holy Herrera, and Munoz, had all concurred in claiming it for been speaking of matter no longer in existence, the past faith ; and ordained that I should not proceed by land to the Admiral; and the following extract from the journal tense Fould then have borne a more appropriate significa- the East, as it hath been customary to go, but by way of of his first voyage, dated September 13, taken in connexion the force of his words is much weakened, to say the least certain evidence that any person has passede som aften dered by Senor

Navarrete as establishing

the fact. He tion ; but describing an astonishing effect, which still

is, the West,
in which direction, we have to this
day no with a passage in his account

of his third voyage, is consiof it, by the usual emphasis : omit the word so, and the seignories, in the same month of January, your High- succeeded in quieting the apprehensions of his people by emphasis will be right

. Is not so (done in such like man- nesses commanded me to proceed to those regions of India an ingenious explanation, which, however, was unsatis. ne) always emphatical in our language?. I am aware of with a sufficient armament, and for this granted me factory to his own mind. In reading the

passages we are the possibility of defading the usual reading, but I think great favours, and ennobled me, so that thenceforth in about to cite

, it should be observed, that they are not taken the to better argumene” is in favour

of the reading I pro: High Admiral or the ocean, mind Viceroy and perpetual from the original journal of Columbus, but from a mere pose; enlarge the expression and it will

be more apparent Governor of all the islands and mainland which I should abstract in the words of Las Casas ; and as it appears from ** And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be discover and acquire, and which should thereafter be dis- Munoz's unfinished Historia del Nuevo Mundo, that Cogathered together unto one place, and let the dry land covered and acquired in the ocean, and so my eldest som lumbus kept two journals, one private and authentic, and appear; and it was” (50) done even as commanded. Con- should efu ched me and figura de les doy de por favor the other with false reckoning and specious statements, it it: 10th verse, “ And God called the dry land earth,

and May of the same year, 1492, on Saturday; I went to the would seem that both were used in making this abstract,

town of Palos, a seaport, where I equipped three vessels the phrase the Admiral says' often introducing not what the gathering together of the waters called he seas: and very suitable for such a purpose ; and departed from the he thought

, but what he wished bis companions to believe. God saw that it was good :"-this would not be tolerated. said port, well supplied with much provisions and many Las Casas has given some long passages in the very words I would further propose the reading of the 3d verse with seamen, the third day of the month of August

of the said of Columbus, but such are accompanied by a notice to that the following emphasis : “ And God said, Let there be ler Priday i slalása of hour before register mich effect ; and in Senor Navarrete's

book are distinguished LICH7 and there was light, instead of laying stress on the the said ocean, thence to take my departure, and navigate by inverted commas. Word 2003. A change of construction would render the until I should reach the Indies, and deliver the embassy Thursday, Sept. 13.-This day and night, continuing fstee of my reasoning more apparent. Let light DE, and of your Highnesses to those princes, and thus accomplish their course west, they sailed 33 leagues, and counted 3 or tras. Yours, &c.

J. H. C. what you had commanded me; and therefore I thought 4 less. The currents were contrary. This day, at the

to write all this voyage very exactly from day to day, commencement of night, the needles varied (noruesteaban)

every thing which I should do, or see, or experience, as to the north-west, and they also varied somewhat to the The Bouquet.

will be seen in the sequel. And beside describing every north-west in the morning.' * I have here only made a nosegay of culled powers, and have in the night, I design to construct a new chart for navi: sailed in the day and night 50 leagues and upwards ; noted

night what passes in the day, and every day how we sail • Monday, Sept. 17.-Continued their course west, and brought aething of my own but the thread that ties them."

gation, in which I will mark the waters and lands of the down but 47; the current favoured them; they saw many ocean in their proper places under their points; and weeds, and very frequently; it was rockweed, and came

moreover to compose a book, and represent the whole by from towards the west; they judged that land was near. NEW DOCUMENT RESPECTING COLUMBUS. picture, in latitude from the equator, and longitude from The mates took the north by marking it, and found that the

the west;

and above all it is very necessary that I forego needles varied to the north-west (las agujas noruesteaban) The following most interesting article is copied sleep, and atteinpt much in navigation, in order to accom.

a whole quarter, which terrified the mariners, who stood in rom the North American Revier; and we most readily plish it, which things will require great toile’-Tom. I, suspense, without saying for what. The Admiral per

. ibridge our selections from Sir Walter Scott's Napo

ceived it, and ordered them to mark the north anew at

“ The first thing which strikes us in the journal, is the day break, and they found that the needles pointed aright: son, in order to secure the insertion of a narrative artifice to which Columbus was continually driven, to sus the cause was, that the star which appears has motion, and which must deeply interest every reader.

tain the sinking courage of his crews. Nowhere is the ex. not the needles. At daybreak this day saw many more alted character of this truly great man more strikingly dis- found a live crab, which the Admiral kept, and says that

weeds, which appeared to be river weeds, in which they * It is throughout in the handwriting of the celebrated

played, than in the fortitude and magnanimity with which these are sure signs of land, because they are never found Bartolomé de las Casas, who possessed many papers he bore up against the manifold obstacles to the prosecu- eighty leagues from shore. They found the sea water less Fritten by Columbus, which he made use of in the com- tion of his magnificent undertaking. He had suffered the salt since they left the Canaries, the air more and more losition of his unpublished Historia de las Indias, and iho unquestionably abstracted this journal from the hardships of penury and oppression, with spirits unbroken, mild; they were all in good spirits, and the Admiral's log-book, giving a literal copy of the most undiscovered worlds lay hidden in the western sea, and killed one. with hopes unrepressed. Animated by the conviction that land ; they saw many tunny fish, and the crew of the Nina

tended which should go fastest, to be the first to descry mportant passages. Not the slightest doubt of its authen. icity can exist. Indeed Las Casas inserted an abridg- that he was the instrument ordained to discover and ex- the west, where I hope in that high God, in whose band zest of it in his manuscript history, which served as the plore them, he had happily overcome the superstitions of is all victory, that he will very soon give us land. This basis of the works of Herara and other standard historians the priesthood, who, in the outset, stigmatized his hypo- morning he says he saw a white bird, called Rabo de Junco,

which is not wont to sleep at sea.' of the New World.

thesis by the odious name of heresy. The incredulity of
the Government had yielded to the force of truth; and its to the northwest, and at daybreak they agreed exactly

"Sunday, Sept. 30.-At night the needles varied a quarter * The introduction to the journal exhibits in the very Fords of Columbus, the views and feelings with which he parsimony was melted by his ardour. The narrowminded with the star; by which it appears that the star has mocion

individuals, who, unable to rise themselves, hung the like the other stars, and that the needles always indicate e sail upon this memorable voyage. We translate it and for word, leaving the original arrangement of the weight of their jealousy around his neck as usual

, to hold the true point.'-Tom. I, p. 8, 9, 15. entences untouched, because it would be difficult to he had shaken off at last in triumph. He was now float- compelled to deceive his companions in regard to the dis

down his lofty genius to the level of their own lowly career, “ It has been generally understood that Columbus was berat them without taking serious liberties with the text. lo samine D. S. Jesu Christi. Whereas, most Chris

. ing upon the full tide of adventurous experiment. But tance they sailed, and the various signs of proximity to is, Dost high, most excellent, and most powerful princes, here also the ignorance and envy of his fellows pursued land. The birds they saw were land birds; the weeds ur lords, King and Queen of the Spains and the isles of him at every hour. His unalterable belief in the existence were freshly disengaged from rocks; and the fish were he sea, this present year 1492, after your Highness had of the lands he sought would have availed him little had river fish, that never ventured far into salt water; some. ind had finished the war in the great city of Granada, of those around him, and his intellect and courage proved that every possible expedient was tried to counteract the nded the war against the Moors who reigned in Europe, not his pre-eminent nautical skill exacted the confidence times the wind was a breeze from shore ; and thus it was where this present year, on the second day of January, I sw the royal banners of your Highnesses planted by force equal to any emergency of fortune. For when bis daring fears and feed the credulity of ignorant mariners. We {arms on the towers of Alhambra, which is the fortress prow was pointed to the west, and his companions felt translate several passages of the journal, which illustrate I the said city, and saw the Moorish King come out of themselves on the bosom of the great deep, leaving home if these remarks.




Sunday, Sept. 9.-Sailed that day 19 leagues, and detero | Admiral's course and description, Munoz conjectured that beneficence. How cruelly they were disappointed in mined to count less than was sailed, so that if the voyage Watling's island was the true Guanahani. But Senor sequel was but too fatally proved by their speedy desti should be long, the people should not be terrified or dis- Navarette adduces very strong reasons for believing it to cion, under the merciless rule of their foreign masters. mayed.' Wednesday, Sept. 19.- Continued their course, and be the largest

of the Turk's islands. The course of Co

THE LIFE OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, between day and night sailed 25 leagues, because there lumbus from Guanahani was continually west, from island was a calm ; wrote down 22. At ten this day a pelican to island, till he arrived at Nipe, in Cuba. Now this fact WITH A PRELIMINARY VIEW OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION, came to the ship, and another towards evening, which are is irreconcileable with the idea, that Guanahani is Cat not wont to fly 20 leagues from land; it drizzled without Island, which lies nearly due north of Nipe. Besides, wind, which is a sure sign of land ; the Admiral would the great Bahama Bank, and a long chain of keys called not stop to beat up and down to ascertain whether there

“During these alarms, the French love of the ludier was land; but he held for certain that to the north and Cayos de la Cadena, stretching between St. Salvador and south there were islands, as in truth there were, and he Cuba, interpose a most serious obstacle to holding such a was not abated by the fatigues or dangers of the journ was sailing in the midst of them; because his wish

was westerly course as Columbus pursued. But by setting out The savants had been supplied with asses, the beasts to proceed on to the Indies.” [Columbus was, in fact, at from Nipe, and proceeding in a retrogade direction along sons and philosophical apparatus. The General had gi this time only 10 leagues from some small islets or rocks, his course, as he very particularly describes it in his jours orders to attend to their personal safety, which were in lat. 28° or 29o.)

nal, we may easily trace his path, and shall be convinced course, obeyed. But as these civilians had little importa Saturday, Sept. 22.-Sailed northwesterly, beating up and down; sailed 30 leagues ; saw hardly any weeds. that Guanahani is no other than Turk’s island. Add to in the eyes of the military, loud shouts of laughter b Here the Admiral says, "This head wind was very neces- this, that his description of it accords exactly with the from the ranks, while forming to receive the Mamelu

as the general of division called out, with military pr sary for me ; because my people had become highly ex. latter, especially in the circumstance of there being a large sion, Let the asses and the savants enter within cited, in the idea that over these seas no wind blew by lake in the middle of it. This point is of no great con square.' The soldiers also amused themselves by cal which they could return to Spain." • Sunday, Sept. 23. — The

weeds were in great quanti- sequence ; but it is satisfactory to know precisely what the asses demi-savants. In times of discontest trimestel ties, and they found crabs in them, and as the sea was spot in America was first revealed to the eye of Europeans. lucky servants of science had their full share of the

“ In the subsequent parts of the journal, we frequently pedition had been undertaken to gratify their passion

diers' reproaches, who imagined that this unpopular smooth and tranquil, the people murmured, saying that they had lost the deep water, and there never would be a discover the influence of the opinions which Columbus researches, in which the military took very slender inter wind for returning to Spain ; but after a while the sea had imbibed from the travels of Marco Polo and the fa- “ Under such circumstances it may be doubted whe rose without wind, which astonished them.'— Tom. I, p. mous letter of Paolo Toscanelli. It is the Indies, and the even the literati themselves were greatly delighted, wi 7, 11, 12 “We pass over many entries in the journal of like im sured him of the true figure of our globe, and he deduced at a distance, the celebrated Pyramids, but learned, as Indies alone, which he seeks. Although his reason as- after fourteen days of such marches as we described, *

arrived, indeed, within six leagues of Cairo, and beh port, and come to the time when the vessels actually apo the right consequences from this position, and thus was same time, that Murad Bey, with twentytwo of his 1 proached their destination.

much in advance of his age, yet he had a most vague and thren, at the head of their Mamelukes, had formed an Wednesday, Oct. 10.Sailed west southwest, went 10 incorrect idea of the actual locality of the Indies. After trenched camp at a place called Embabeh, with the r and in the twenty-four hours fifty-nine leagues ; reckoned he has discovered Guanahani, his inquiries of the savages on the 21st of July, as the French continued to calva to the people only forty-four. Here the crews could en invariably point to Cathay or Cipango, or other distant they saw their enemy in the field, and in full force. dure it no longer ; they complained of the length of the Asiatic countries, at which he, every moment, expected to splendid line of cavalry, under Murad and the other B voyage ; but the Admiral encouraged them as well as he arrive. Indeed, many years afterwards, in a letter written displayed the whole strength of the Mamelukes. TI could, giving them good hopes of the great profits they to the Pope in 1502, he says— This island is Tarsis, it is right rested on the imperfectly entrenched camp, in wh complain, because he was going to the Indies, and should Cethia, it is Ophir, and Ophaz, and Cipango, and we have lay twenty thousand infantry, defended by forty piece keep on till he found them, with the help of our Lord. called it Hispaniola."* Conformable to this idea are the the guns, wanting carriages, were mounted on clun Thursday, Oct. 11.-Sailed west south west, had much entries in his journal.

wooden frames; and the fortifications of the camp w sea, more than in the whole voyage before. Saw pardelas Friday, Oct. 26th.-He set sail for Cuba, because, by but commenced, and presented no formidable oppositi and a green rush near the vessel. The crew of the Pinta the signs which the Indians gave him of its magnitude, Bonaparte made his dispositions. He extended his lin saw a cane and a log, and took up a stick of wood wrought and of the gold and pearls there, he thought it must be the right, in such a manner as to keep out of gunshot to all appearance with iron, and a piece of cane, and an. the same with Cipango.'

the entrenched camp, and have only to encounter the 1 other plant which grows on land, and a small board. Those of the Nina also saw other signs of shore, and a branch self to go to the Grand Can, who he thought was there, Tuesday, Oct. 30th. He says that he must exert him. of cavalry.

“ Murad Bey saw this movement; and, fully aware loaded with roseberries, ; By these signs all were relieved or at the city of Cathy, belonging to the Grand Can its consequence, prepared to charge with his magnifie After sunset sailed on their first course west. Went which, be says, is very large, as he was told before he left body of horse, declaring he would cut the Frenchkupi SpainIp,

gourds. Bonaparte, as he directed the infantry to 'fe twelve miles the hour, and at two o'clock, A. M. had sailed 90 miles, that is 224 leagues. [Italian miles of four to

“We pass over the intermediate portions of the journal, squares to receive them, called out to his men, . From y the league.), And because the caravel Pinta was a better in which the Admiral relates his discoveries

among the The Mamelukes advanced with the

utmost speed and sailer, and kept a head of the Admiral, she discovered islands, describing the appearance and productions of the responding fury, and charged with borrible yells. T land, and made the signals prescribed by him. This land country, and the condition of the inhabitants. The luxu. disordered one of the French squares of infantry, wh was first seen by a sailor named Rodrigo de Triana; the riance of tropical vegetation, abounding in noble trees, would have been sabred in an instant, but

that the m quarter-deck, saw a light, although it was a thing so in: splendid flowers, and exquisite fruits, and springing

from The French had a moment to restore order, andere distinct that he would not affirm it was land ; but he called a virgin soil of exhaustless fertility, awakens his admira. The combat then, in some degree, resembled that whi Pero Gutierrez, a gentleman of the king's household, and tion at every step. Nor is he less enchanted with the twenty years afterwards, took place at Waterloo, the 1 told him that a light appeared, and that he should observe blandness and suavity of the atmosphere of the new retile cavalry furiously charging the squares of infantry, it, which he did, and saw it. He also mentioned it to gions he was exploring, where the people, the climate, the trying, by the most undaunted efforts of courage, to br Het Tier inspector, who could not see it on account of his riches of the vegetable and mineral kingdoms, all excited dous fire of musketry, grape-shot, and shells, crossing standing in an unsuitable position. After the Admiral his imagination and; drew from him the warmest

praises, various directions, repaid their auđacity. Nothing in mentioned it, it was seen once or twice, and resembled a The riches planted in those beautiful islands by the hand was ever seen more desperate than the exertions of wax candle, moving up and down, which seemed to be an of nature still remain; and the conquerors have increased Mamelukes. Failing to force their horses through indication of land.But

the Admiral felt certain the shore their abundance by transporting thither and naturalizing round, and rein them back on the ranks, that they mi all mariners are accustomed to say or chant in their

way, the congenial productions of Asia and Europe. But in disorder them by kicking. As they became frantic w all together, the Admiral desired and admonished them to one other respect how changed is the whole face of things despair, fthey hurled at the immoveable phalanxes, w! keep a good watch from the forecastle, and look well out there ! The native races of Guanahani, Cuba, Hayti, they could not break, their pistols, their poinards, land, he would forth with give a silk jacket, beside the and Africa is unpeopled to supply their place. Nothing with their crooked sabres : but their efforts were all in v for the land, and that to whomever should first say he saw Jamaica, bave vanished like the dew of the morning; their carbines. Those who fell wounded to the grou other favours which the sovereigns had promised, which were ten thousand maravedis to the first who should see it was more deeply impressed on the mind of Columbus

“ The Mamelukes, after the most courageous effort At two o'clock A. M. the shore was in sight, two leagues than the perfectly amiable character of the inhabitants. accomplish their purpose, were finally beaten off w off. They handed all sail, and stood under the square He dwells upon it in the description of every island at great slaughter; and, as they could not form, nor act sail alone, and lay to until Friday, when they reached one which he touched. At peace among themselves, unarmed, squadron, their retreat became a confused fight. 1 of the Lucayos Islands, which the natives called Guana- and engaged in the tranquil arts of cultivation, they greater part attempted to return to their camp, from ! “Much doubt

and uncertainty have existed as to the dreaded nothing but the ruinous descents of the brutal tives to retire in the same direction in which they hady island which Columbus first discovered. He gave it the and ferocious Caribbees. They received the Spaniards vanced. By taking this route they placed themselves name of San Salvador, and it has been generally supposed with unsuspecting confidence, as beings of a higher order, twixt the French and the Nile ; and the sustained and to be the island now called St. Salvador, or Cat Island.descended among them for objects of philanthropy and supportable fire of the former soon obliged them to plur

into the river, in hopes to escape by swimming to the The position of this island not agreeing perfectly with the

• Colleccion, Tom. II., p. 280.

posite bank,-a desperate effort, in which few succeed

Their infantry, at the same time, evacuated their camp, advantage, states him to have been the best of masters, fall is divided by a rock from Goat Island, and though rithout the least show of resistance, precipitated them. labouring to assist all his domestics wherever it lay in his here insignificant in appearance, would rank high among elves into the boats, and endeavoured to cross the Nile. power, giving them the highest credit for such talents as European cascades. The current runs about six miles an Very many of these also were destroyed. The French they actually possessed, and imputing, in some instances, hour; but supposing it to be only five miles, the quantity oldiers long afterwards occupied themselves in fishing for good qualities to such as had them not.

which passes the falls in an hour is more than 85,000,000 he drowned Mamelukes, and failed not to find money and ". There was gentleness, and even sofiness, in his charac. of tons avoirdupois: if we suppose is to be six, it will aluables apoo all whom they could recover. Murad Bey, ter. He was affected when he rode over the fields of bat. be more than 102,000,000; and in a day would exceed sith a part of his best Mamelukes, escaped the slaughter tle, which bis ambition had strewed with the dead and the 2,400,000,000 of tons. by a more regular raovement to the left, and retreated by dying, and seemed not only desirous to relieve the victims The next morning, with renewed delight, I bebeld Gizeh into Upper Egypt.

-issuing for that purpose directions, which too often were from my window-I may say, indeed, from my bed the " Thas were in a great measure destroyed the finest not, and could not be obeyed—but showed himself subject stupendous vision. The beams of the rising sun shed avalry, considered as individual horsemen, that were to the influence of that more acute and imaginative species over it a variety of tints; a cloud of spray was ascending ver known to exist. "Could I have united the Mame. of sympathy which is termed sensibility. lle mentions a from the crescent; and as I viewed it from above, it apake horse to the French infantry,' said Bonaparte, :I circumstance which indicates a deep sense of feeling. As peared like the steam rising from the boiler of some mon. Fould have reckoned myself master of the world. The he passed over a field of battle in Italy, with some of his strous engine. estruction of a body hitherto regarded as invincible, generals, he saw a houseless dog lying on the body of his truck terror, not through Egypt only, but far into Africa slain master. The creature came towards them, then re “ This evening I went down with one of our party to od Asia, wherever the Moslem religion prevailed; and turned to the dead body, moaned over it pitifully, and view the cataract by moonlight. I took my favourite seat de rolling fire of musketry by which the victory was seemed to ask their assistance. • Whether it were the feel. on the projecting rock, at a little distance from the brink cliieral, procured for Bonaparte the oriental appellation ing of the moment, continued Napoleon, the scene, the of the fall, and gazed till every sense seemed absorbed in f Saltan Kebir, or King of Fire.

hour, or the circumstance itself, 'I was never so deeply contemplation. Although the shades of night increased * After this combac, which, to render it more striking affected by any thing which I have seen upon a field of the sublimity of the prospect, and deepened the murmur o the Parisians, Bonaparte termed the Battle of the battle. That man, I thought, has perhaps had a house, of the falling floods, the moon in placid beauty shed her Pyramids, Cairo surrendered without resistance. The friends, comrades, and here he lies deserted by every one soft influence upon the mind, and mitigated the horrors shattered remains of the Mamelukes, who had swam the but his dog. How mysterious are the impressions to of the scene. The thunders which bellowed from the Nile, and anited under Ibrahim Bey, were compelled to which we are subject ! I was in the habit, without emo- abyss, and the loveliness of the falling element, which retreat into Syria. A party of three hundred French tion, of ordering battles which must decide the fate of a glittered like molten silver in the moonlight, seemed to pralry rentured to attack them at Salahieh, but were campaign, and could look with a dry eye on the execution complete, in absolute perfection, the rare union of the izterely handled by Ibrahim Bey and his followers, who, of manceuvres which must be attended with much loss; beautiful with the sublime. waving cut many of them to pieces, pursued their retreat and here I was moved—nay, painfully affected-by the “ While reflecting upon the inadequacy of language lo without farther interruption. Lower Egypt was com cries and the grief of a dog. It is certain that at that mo- express the feelings I experienced, or to describe the wonpletely in the hands of the French, and thus far the ex. ment I should have been more accessible to a suppliant ders which I surveyed, an American gentleman, to my pedition of Bonaparte had been perfectly successful.” enemy, and could better understand the conduct of Achilles great amusement, tapped me on the shoulder, and guessed'

XAPOLEON'S PERSONAL CHARACTER. in restoring the body of Hector to the tears of Priam.' that it was pretty droll!' It was difficult to avoid laugh. “ Arrived at the conclusion of this momentous nar. The anecdote at once shows that Napoleon possessed a ing in his face ; yet I could not help, enrying him his satire, the reader may be disposed to pause a moment to heart amenable to humane feelings, and that they were vocabulary, which had so eloquently released me from my reflect on the character of that wonderful person, on usually in total subjection to the stern precepts of military dilemma. whoin fortune showered so many favours in the beginning stoicism. It was his common and expressive phrase, that " Though earnestly dissuaded from the undertaking, I and through the middle of his career, to overwhelm its the heart of a politician should be in his head; but his had determined to employ the first fine morning in visit: close with such deep and unwonted afflictions.

feelings sometimes surprised him in a gentler mood. ing the cavern beneath the fall. The guide recommended ** The external appearance of Napoleon was not im " A calculator by nature and by habit, Napoleon was my companion and myself to set out as early as six o'clock, pasing at the first glance, his stature being only five feet fond of order, and a friend to that moral conduct in which that we might have the advantage of the morning sun sis inches, English. His person, thin in youth, and order is best exemplified. The libels of the day have made upon the waters. We came to the guide's house at the 2.ewhat corpulent in age, was rather delicate than robust some scandalous averments to the contrary, but without appointed hour, and disencumbered ourselves of such it outward appearance, but cast in the mould most capa. adequate foundation. Napoleon respected himself too garments as we did not care to have wetted : descending ble of enduring privation and fatigue. He rode un much, and understood the value of public opinion too the circular ladder, we followed the course of the path gracefully, and without that command of his horse which well, to have plunged into general or vague debauchery, running along the top of the débris of the precipice, distinguishes a perfect cavalier; so that he showed to dis.

“Considering his natural disposition, then, it may be which I have already described. Having pursued this advantage when riding beside such a horseman as Murat. assumed, that if Napoleon had continued in the vale of track for about eighty yards, in the course of which we But he was fearless, sat firm on his seat, rode with rapidity, private life, and no strong temptation of passion or revenge were completely drenched, we found ourselves close to and was capable of enduring the exercise for a longer time had crossed his path, he must have been generally regarded the cataract. Although enveloped in a cloud of spray, we ilan most men. We have already mentioned his indif. as one whose friendship was every way desirable, and could distinguish without difficulty the direction of our ference to the quality of his food, and his power of en- whose enmity it was not safe to incur.

path, and the nature of the cavern we were about to daring abstinence. A morsel of food, and his flask of “ But the opportunity afforded by the times, and the enter. Our guide warned us of the difficulty in respirawine hung at his saddle-bow, used, in his earlier

cam- elasticity of his own great talents, both military and poli- tion which we should encounter from the spray, and repaigas, to support him for days. In his latter wars, he tical, raised him with unexampled celerity to a sphere of commended us to look with exclusive attention to the se. more frequently used a carriage; not, as has been sur. great power, and at least cqual iemptation.”

curity of our footing. Thus warned we pushed forward, mised, from any particular illness, but from feeling in a

blown about and buffeted by the wind, stunned by the frame so constantly io exercise the premature effects of

noise, and blinded by the spray. Each successive gust

penetrated us to the very bones with cold. Determined "The countenance of Napoleon is familiar to almost


to proceed, we toiled and struggled on; and having fol. every one from description, and the portraits which are

lowed the footsteps of the guide as far as was possible found everywhere. The dark brown hair bore little marks “ I had already seen some of the most celebrated works consistently with safety, we sat down, and having collected of the attention of the toilet. The shape of the counte. of nature in different parts of the globe; I had seen Erna our senses' by degrees, the wonders of the cavern slowly Dance approached more than is usual in the human race and Vesuvius; I had seen the Andes almost at their developed themselves. It is impossible to describe the to a square. His eyes were gray, and full of expression, greatest elevation; Cape Horn, rugged and bleak, buffeted strange unnatural light reflected through its crystal wall, the pupils rather large, and the eye-brows not very strongly by the southern tempest; and, though last not least, I the roar of the waters, and the blasts of the hurried marked. The brow and upper part of the countenance had seen the long swell of the Pacific; but nothing I had hurricane which perpetually rages in its recesses. We Has rather of a stern character. His nose and mouth ever beheld or imagined could compare in grandeur with the endured its fury à sufficient time to form a notion of sére beautifully formed. The upper lip was very short. Falls of Niagara." My first sensation was that of exqui. the shape and dimensions of this dreadful place. The The teeth were indifferent, but were lit:le shown in speak. site delight at having before me the greatest wonder of cavern was tolerably light, though the sun was unfortu. ing. His stile possessed uncommon sweetness, and is the world. Strange as it may appear, this feeling was vately enveloped in clouds. His disc was invisible, but we s'sied to have been irresistible. The complexion was a immediately succeeded by an irresistible melancholy. Had could clearly distinguish his situation through the watery c'ar olive, otherwise in general colourless. The prevail. this not continued, it might perhaps have been a!tributed barrier. The fall of the cataract is nearly perpendicular. ing character of his countenance was grave, even to to the satiety incident to the complete gratification of The bank over which it is precipitated is of a concave form, nelancholy, but without any signs of severity or violence. hope long deferred ;' but so far from diminishing, the owing to its upper stratum being composed of lime-stone, Aker death, the placidity and dignity of expression which more I gazed, the stronger and deeper the sentiment and its base of soft slate-stone, which has been eaten away qataged to occupy the features, rendered them eminently became. Yet this scene of sadness was strangely mingled by the constant attrition of the recoiling waters. Tke barnful, and the admiration of all who looked on them. with a kind of intoxicating fascination. Whether the cavern is about 120 feet in beight, 50 in breadth, and 300

Soch was Napoleon's exterior. His personal and phenomenon is peculiar to Niagara, I know not; but cer- in length. The entrance was completely invisible. By private character was decidedly amiable, excepting in one tain it is, that the spirits are affected and depressed in a screaming in our ears, the guide contrived to explain to paricular. His temper, when he received, or thought he singular manner by the magic influence of this stupendous us that there was one more point which we might have recived, provocation, especially if of a personal character, and eternal fall.

reached had the wind been in any other direction. Un. Fas Farm and vindictive. He was, however, placable in “ About five miles above the cataract the river expands luckily it blew full upon the sheet of the cataract, and to case even of his enemies, providing that they submitted to the dimensions of a lake, after which it gradually nar- drove it in so as to dash upon the rock over which we to his mercy; but he had not that species of generosity rows. The Rapids commence at the upper extremity of must have passed. A few yards beyond this the precipice Wicha respects the sincerity of a manly and fair opponent Goat Island, which is half a mile in length, and divides becomes perpendicular, and, blending with the water, Os the other hand, no one was a more liberal rewarder of the river at the point of precipitation into two unequal forms the extremity of the cave. After a stay of nearly Hic attachment of his friends. He was an excellent hus. parts; the largest is distinguished by the several names of ten minutes in this most horrible purgatory, we gladly tud, a kind relation, and, unless when state policy inter. the Horseshoe, Crescent, and British Fall, from its semi- left it to its loathsome inhabitants, the eel and the water. veel, a most affectionate brother. General Gourgaud, circular form and contiguity to the Canadian shore. The snake, who crawl about its recesses in considerable num. Bline communications were not in every case to Napoleon's smaller is named the American Fall. A portion of this bers,-and returned to the inn."




The Kaleidoscope. Monsieur G. Beavjeux, professor of gymnastics at Dublin,

winere le superintends a most respectable establishment, is

now on a visit to Liverpool, and purposes to remain The following communication has been ha ON THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE EIGHTH VOLUME during the long vacation of two or three months. He by Dr. Albert, and we shall feel obliged if

wishes to establish a gymnastic school here, and those gen. literary correspondents would favour us with a

tlemen who think proper to patronise the undertaking are tion of the inscription attached. This day's publication commences the eighth vo- requested to leave their names and address with Mr. On a découvert récemment, près de Nismes, lume of the New Series of the Kaleidoscope ; and our Beaujeux, No. 45, Mount-pleasant.-Mons. B. has a series de granit brut représentant un carré, oblong gratitude to our friends for the continued patronage of gymnastics particularly applicable to females, and also bassin, Sur l'un de ses cotés on a déchiffré i

suivante, que les archéologues n'ont pas enca with which they have honoured us, will, we trust, ap. and to improve their carriage. It may be necessary to add, CEB. Lo. Caes. Tev. Ne. Avg. En. AG.

to children, admirably adapted to strengthen their frame, expliquer : pear by the exertions we shall make to render our that Mons. B. is furnished with numerous and most fawork still more worthy of the public approbation.

vourable testimonials as to his professional talent, and the The Index, which we expect to deliver gratuitously respectability of his private character. We shall subjoin

The cauties of Ches with our next number, will be the best advertisement two of these, taken indiscriminately, in the hope that they we can put forth to show the varied contents of the may promote the object of Mr. Beaujeux's visit to Liver

Ludimus effigiem belli."-VIDA. seventh volume of the Kaleidoscope. We shall, there- pool. fore, here merely recapitulate a few of the original and revived articles which are to be found in our

MY DEAR SIR,- I beg leave to introduce to your kind White to win, with the pawn, in five more last volume, and which are alone of considerably and favourable attention, Mr. Beaujeux, a French gen taking any of the black pawns, or compel the bl greater value than the price which we set upon our tleman, formerly an officer in the army of his native country, with a pawn, in eight moves. whole annual work.

who has been for these two years teaching the new system Independent of several hundred original commuof Gymnastic Exercises, so much in vogue in London, as

Black, nications in prose and verse, upon various subjects, Duke of York, and the Duke of Wellington. Mr. Beau

taught by Capt. Clias, under the patronage of the late our last volume was illustrated by upwards of fifty jeux was some short time assisting Capt. Clias, at Land

у 8 a a

d 5 engravings on wood; also upwards of fifty prime hurst College, if I am not mistaken. studies at Chess, taken from the best works on the He was patronised here by Mr. Goulbourn, and taught subject extant; twenty-four pieces of Music are also in his family and in several other private families and comprehended in the volume, and about fifty tales schools; and with much credit at the Royal Military or stories, either original or selected, from the most School in the Phænix Park. He has given instructions

$2 approved modern publications; amongst these is to to my five children, and has been of great use to them in be found the whole of an American novel, called giving strength to their limbs, and an erect and graceful Charlotte Temple, or the Fatal Consequences of Se carriage. He finds that during the summer season in duction. These, with an original translation of Wil- Dublin he cannot command the attention of a sufficient liam Tell

, and a great variety of scientific literary number of scholars to make it worth his while. He is, articles, in French and English-Monthly Lists of therefore, induced to make a short tour through EngPatents, and descriptions of the Fashions, form a appreciated as it deserves

, and perhaps obtaining some

land, in hopes of inaking his system better known, and mass of amusing and instructive matter not to be scholars. We expect his return very anxiously in Sepfound, we believe, in any periodical work of the same tember. In addition to his undoubted abilities in teachprice in the kingdom. ing the system of gymnastics, I feel much pleasure in


introducing him to you as a perfect gentleman; and, I
hope, that you will have it in your power to introduce him

Where there are no Agents for the Kaleidoscope, and who are so widely among your pumerous friends in Liverpool, as
desirous of becoming Subscribers.

will indúce him to make some stay there. And I am con

vinced. that it will be a valuable acquisition to all the To Correspondents. In consequence of frequent applications for the young people there to obtain the benefit of his instruction. Kaleidoscope, from places in the country where we This will, I trust, be a sufficient apology, on my part, LITERATURE.— The communication of our correspond have no agents , we take this opportunity of inform for troubling you with this letter. With my kind te

Literat (we cannot exactly decipher the signature) ing those who wish to take the work, that they may remain, my dear Sir, yours, very faithfully,

spects to all your family at Liverpool and elsewhere, I received, and shall be perused forthwith. The w be supplied by any bookseller who receives parcels

so singular a mode of arranging his manuscript Dublin, June 4, 1827.


with difficulty we can understand what part of from Lundon. Messrs. Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper, Paternoster row; Mr. Marlborough, Ave-Maria-lane; good effects of the exercises taught by Monsieur Beaujeux,

I bave had abundant opportunity of witnessing the

and three columns in the same page.

munications, by the same writer, would it not b and Mr. Clerc Smith, St. James's-street, have now a in his Gymnastic school, and have myself practised those

to adopt the ordinary mode of arrangement? regular stock; and as all the London booksellers are exercises with much benefit to my health and bodily LIVERPOOL SCIENTIFIC Society. We have received a in the habit of supplying each other with the works strength.

communication on this subject.

Dublin, June 1, 1827. ROBERT BELL, M.D. they respectively publish, an order given to any book

The search we have made hitherto for the manus seller will ensure the forwarding of the work to any Extraordinary Occurrence.- When the Kent Indiaman W. R. has been fruitless; but we have no doubt of part of the kingdom. This, of course, is a circuitous was on fire in the Bay of Biscay, Colonel Macgregor, of it. Owing to circumstances which we need not

our correspondent, our editorial room has been m mode of supply to some parts of the country, but it is the 31st regiment, hastily wrote a memorandum of the

circunstance, and threw it overboard in a well-corked bottle turbed, and many of our papers mislaid. Our correst not on that account less regular or certain, as a few (previously to the fortunate rescue by the Cambria brig) will, we trust, consider this some kind of apolog days' delay is a circumstance of no consequence with addressed to his father in Scotland. This officer now be. seeming, but certainly unintended, slight on our pa such a work as the Kaleidoscope, which does not longs to the 93d regiment, stationed at Barbadoes, and contain news. while on a visit to a gentleman's estate on the windward

THE GERMAN Musk.-We have no doubt, judging by It is necessary to observe, that the side of that island, in October last, the identical bottle,

sient glance, that the translation of J. B. Dr Will Kaleidoscope, being an unstamped work, cannot be with the paper in it, was washed ashore there, liaving, in sent free through the Postoffice like a newspaper.

nineteen months, crossed the Atlantic in a south-west di. W.R-n, of Manchester, is informed that we were not rection. –Edinburgh Observer.

of the liberties taken with his last communication. GYMNASIA.

The Musical Ropers. At the ropery in Rathbone-street, were hazarded, no doubt with the best intention, some of the ropers, who probably belong to one of the

compositors. As for dividing the lines, it was occa Choral Societies, are in the habit of singing in parts, as

by the length of the line, (fourteen syllables.) W t ey are at work, and the effect, at a little distance, is very

often seen this kind of verse so arranged. Chevy

bears some analogy to w. R's verses, and it is a Our townsmen and our townswomen have now an ex. pleasing. A few days ago a gentleman passing, observed cllent opportunity of acquiring some proficiency in the singers chime in so well in the chords, to which the other ... his friend that he was surprised to find these itinerant

printed in the four lines. modern, useful, and fashionable gymnastic exercises, as observed, it was quite in the line of ropemakers to produce Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAY taught with the greatest success in London and Dublin.'cords.

E. SMITH & Co. 75, Lord.street, Liverpool.


to consider as its commencement.

We have one,

In any futt

able to our work.


Literary and Scientific mirror.

bera in liged


biar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, Men and Niss, AMUSEMENT, elegant Extracts, PORTRY, ANECDOTES, BIOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, the DRAMA, Arts and Sciences, Wit and SATIRE, Fashions, NATURAL HISTORY, &e. forming : 004, kome ANNUAL VOLUNE, with an Index and TITLE-PAGK. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this work from London through their respective Booksellers.

168. – Vol. VIII.

TUESDAY, JULY 17, 1827.

Price 3d

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Chs The Investiga:or.

to maintain themselves at their own expense; and hence in the district was compelled to furnish provisions suffi

arose the frequent commotions and civil wars during the cient for them, though these provisions could not possibly thending Political Economy, Statistics, Jurispru- earlier periods of the Norman rule. It must be allowed, be used. To escape this the landowners generally com-VD. occasional passages from Parliamentary Speeches from the foregoing statement, that the feudal system placed pounded, by paying a large sum of money.

general nature, occasional Parliamentary Docu. and other speculative subjects, excluding Party a mighty engine in the bands of a proud and turbulent 5. The enjoyment of forfeited estates was perhaps the

aristocracy,-an engine which the Monarch could not most lucrative branch of the King's revenue. Not only

always resist. But the nobles themselves, by the pro- did the Monarch acquire possession of the estates of all (ORIGINAL)

visions of the feudal system, were held to be in as great convicted of high treason, but all possessions, whether real

vassalage to the King as the villains were to them. The or personal, reverted to the King, provided there was no STORICAL AND CRITICAL INQUIRY INTO THE claims of attendance in war, and attendance in peace, regular and legitimate issue to claim them, at the death IGIN OF THE CONSTITUTION OF ENGLAND. purveyorship, wardship, homage, and service, lay heavy of their owner; the claims of all relatives, noi sons or

on the nobles when the sceptre was swayed by a vigorous daughters, being held as not legal, unless sanctioned by BY ERASMUS GOWER.

hand; and if the villains groaned under their numerous the King's order in council.

obligations, the nobles themselves ofttimes felt the weight These were the means by which the King could derive (Continued from our last.) of vassalage.

revenue, but these means were at best but casual, and CHAPTER II.

Thus the feudal system, in its widest extent, placed the were totally inefficient. From causes which will be dete Norman Conquest swept away the Witenagemote, this power was negatived by a strange and

unaccountable man Monarchs were enabled to maintain their dignity by

most absolute power in the hands of the Sovereign ; but tailed in the course of the present inquiry, the early Norpirably adapted to the spirit and circumstances of the omission or denial of a right generally acknowledged by these means alone, at least they derived no other revenue da in which it Hourished. As it is my purpose to all civilized nations, viz: a right on the part of the Sove from England. But the evil day, though it was procras

. kk often of this system, it will be necessary to enter some reign to tax his people, in order to defray the expenses of tinated, did at length come, and the

Monarch was reduced # at large into an examination of its merits. When the state. The feudal system made no provision for the to the necessity of applying not only to the nobles but to kliam conquered the Saxons, the French had fully maintenance of the King's dignity, save what arose from all the freemen in the country, for a liberal grant of money,

in order to enable him to pay his debts and support his blished the feudal system, with its long train of ward the following privileges :

1. Private revenue. ps, obligations, soccages, tallages, &c. As was naturally

dignity. The consequences of this application will be 2. Voluntary contribution.

seen in the course of the present inquiry. be expected, the Conqueror introduced this system into gland, and from the introduction of it arose the liberties 3. Wardship

But here it is necessary to notice a power which has an England. But it is necessary before I proceed further 4. Purveyorship

important connexion with the present subject, and which 3. Forfeited estates.

possessed considerable influence in the state, from the enter into an examination of the system itself. · The fierce barbarians, who annihilated the Roman em.

As it is of the first importance to the present inquiry reign of the Conqueror to the reign of Edward I. This s, when they had broken in pieces the mighty fabric of that the means and resources of the King should be fully power was the King's council of nobles and prelaces. Aman power, erected on its ruins a strange and incon- understood, it will be necessary to explain th nature of what

the exact jurisdiction of the King's council was,

has never been exactly ascertained. It would seem to bear nous system, in which the Roman jurisprudence was the above terms. fermingled with the rude institutions of their native 1. The private revenue of the early Norman Kings was some resemblance to the Saxon Witenagemote, though its antry. Hence arose the feudal system, with all its glar. ample

, and arose from the Saxon nobles. But, in the powers and privileges were much more extensive. The g defects, modified by its striking advantages to a rude course of time, these estates were bestowed upon the sub- council was composed of the King's vassals, who held

unpolished people. The first great feature in this jects, either as a mark of attachment, a reward for service, their lands from the Crown, either as a fief, or for suit and stem was the complete and absolute slavery in which it or as a bribe for support; so that by the end of the reign of service. All prelates who held lands of the Crown, indeid the common people, or, as they were styled, the Vil- Richard I. little or nothing of these estates remained in pendent of their ecclesiastical estates, were also members

of ins. By the practice of infangthef, the lord had the the King's possession, and of course he derived no revenue the council

. It will be thought, by a superficial obfrom them.

server, that in a council so constituted there could reside jwer of trying and executing bis vassals, without the lathaving the privilege of appealing for protection to the

2. The voluntary contributions of the pobles were tardy no positive power ; but such was not the case. The tur. rs of the land ; and by the practice of outfangthef, the and inefficient, and in depending upon these, the King bulent aristocracy who flourished under the first Norman ed had the still greater power of trying and executing rendered himself the slave of their caprices ; so that this Kings, held their lands by a more permanent and se

cure tenure than suit and service to the Crown, namely, Il offenders seized within his jurisdiction, wherever the means was a last and most disgraceful resource. fence might have been committed.+ But these powers,

3. By wardship was meant the power which the King by their own good swords, and by their warlike depend. hough great, by no means constituted the whole of the possessed of exercising the office of guardian to all minors ants.

In many a bloody field did the nobles defeat privileges enjoyed by the lords of manors, estates, town who were heirs, and whose parents were deceased ; and in their Sovereign ; and on many a memorable day did they hipe, &c. The villains upon an estate were considered cases where the minor was a female, the King had the dictate the terms of reconciliation. Thus the council, the complete and absolute property of their lord, nor could power of exercising his guardianship during her natural when unanimous, could defy the power of the King, and they dispose of themselves in any way without his consent life; nor could she dispose of herself in marriage without their advice and opinions were not to be disregarded with Thus

, for instance, no vassal could marry without the his consent. These powers the King generally relin- impunity: but, as before stated, the cases in which they sanction of his lord; nor could such sanction be obtained quished on payment of a sum of money.

claimed an interest has never been exactly ascertained ; without a servile obedience to the numerous obligations

4. Purveyorship was perhaps the obligation that was and whether the council was a permanent body, or only imposed by the feudal system. No vassal could, without most grievously felt by the nobles, and it was certainly assembled at distant intervals, is also a doubtful question. his lord's permission, leave the estate to which he belonged, the one they got the most speedily rid of. By purveyor- if only the latter, as is most probable, its power could be her could he gather the fruits of his industry until his ship was meant the obligations the King's vassals were but of short duration ; nor could its infuence be ex. Jord's claim of soccage and callage had been satisfied. under of providing him and his retinue with provisions tensively or permanently beneficial. The vasals were required to follow their lord in war, and and entertainment when he was upon a journey, and this But whatever were the exact powers of the council,

privilege the King generally exercised to a tyrannous extent. they at length merged into those of a superior and per. • Hallam's Middle Ages, &c.

Not only was the host for the time constrained to en. manent assembly, which, called into existence for the pur| Hallam.

tertain the Sovereign and his retioue, but each landowner pose of administering to the necessities of the Sovereign,

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