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the same check with the queen at A 5; and if the On one occasion, the ship, when at Liverpool, was partly and the flames subdued with that admirable order : white, in the first case, should cover the check with laden with rock-salt, and as that commodity was then dear, presence of mind which are never more apparent than the queen at D2, the black must bring his bishop to the mistress of a house which the crew frequented, very ships of war during moments of danger; and on the B 4; and, on the white's moving pawn to C 3, the black ashore in his handkerchief. After some entreaty, the youth stood out to sea.
improperly enticed Clapperton to bring her a few pounds February, the Asia and Superb weighed their anchors i must take pawn E 4 with his knight, by which he will complied, probably from his ignorance of the revenue laws; While lying at Bermuda, and on the passage out, remain with a better game; but if the white, instead of was caught in the act by a Custom house officer, and me thing could exceed Clapperton's diligence in discharg covering the check with the queen at D 2, should cover naced with the terrors of trial and imprisonment unless he the duties of his own occupation. Officers
, as well as to with the bishop at D 2, which would be his best move, chose the latter alternative, and, after being sent round to and his manly form, and sailor-like appearance on
consented to go on board the Tender. He immediately received instructions from him in the cutlass exerd the black must withdraw the queen to C 5, offering the the Nore, was draughted on board the Clorinde frigate, quarter-deck, tended, in the opinion of all who saw exchange of queens with a certainty of being able to push commanded by a very gallant officer, the honourable to fix the attention, and improve the patriotic spirt his pawn to D 5, without losing any thing in position ; Captain Briggs. Here he was ranked as a man before crew. At bis own, as well as the other messes, where from which it may be supposed that the above author, in the mast, but feeling a desire to better his situation, he had the honour of being a frequent guest, he was the asserting the probable loss of the black, in consequence of addressed a letter, detailing his mishap
and recent history, soul and life of the paris; sung a good song, told a al
to our friend Mr. Scott, banker, in Annan, who had al- tale, painted scenes for the ship's theatricals, skee his second move, foretels an unmerited defeat. Rui ways taken a warm interest in the family. Mr. Scott, as views, drew caricatures, and, in one word, was an exe Lopez, a celebrated Spanish writer, made use of the same the likeliest channel that occurred to him, applied to Mrs. ingly amusing and interesting person. Even the Ade move; and Carrera, who has rigidly criticised it, has General Dirom, of Mount-Annan, who happens to be re- became very fond of him, and invited him to rerna found no reason for condemning it.
lated to Captain Briggs; and through the influence of that board the Asia, under the promise of speedy prowa
amiable lady, combined with his own professional merit, But the warm work going forward on the Lakes bado (To be continued.)
the brave Clapperton was speedily promoted to the rank of attraction for his enterprising mind, and, having proce
midshipman-a circumstance which tended, in no mean a passage to Halifax, he bade adieu to the flagshin Biographical Notices.
degree, to fix his destiny, and shape his future fortunes in the regret of every individual on board, from the venza life. It has often been remarked, that what at first ap. Admiral down to the cabin-boys. From Halifax be
pears to be a misfortune, is sometimes the happiest thing ceeded to Upper Canada, and shortly after his arrival BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR OF CAPT. CLAPPERTON,
that can befal us; and so it chanced in the present in- made a lieutenant, and subsequently appointed to THE AFRICAN TRAVELLER.
stance. It was Shakspeare's curiosity-love of nature, or mand the Confiance schooner, the crew of which poaching propensities, combined with the zeal of a Justice composed of nearly all the unmanageable character
Shallow, as a staunch upholder of the Game Laws, that the squadron. To keep these men in order was net Our distinguished countryman, Captain Hugh Clap- induced him to repair to the city of London, become a task; yet his measures were at once so firm and judici perton, whose melancholy fate we lately recorded, was link-boy, consort with the players, visit the green-room, that although he rarely had recourse to flogging, and el born at Annan, in the
year 1788, where his father was long and ultimately bequeath to the latest posterity the most held or disbursed allowances of grog as the least retai established as a surgeon, though his habits, latterly, be glorious dramas that ever were penned by mortal man; medium of rewards and punishments, his crew, in came irregular, and his means not a little impaired. For a and on the same principle we may
safely say, that
if Clap- end, became so subordinate, that the Confiance was alla considerable period he was the only medical man of repute perton had not smuggled a few
pounds of salt, the chances to be one of the smartest barques in the water. While in the place, and performed various operations and cures, are, that he never would have figured as an African tra. rode at anchor on the spacious shores of lake Erie
, ar la that spread his fame over a considerable district. Captain veller. Had he stuck to the American or coasting trade, Huron, the commander occasionally repaired to the way Clapperton's grandfather, who lived in Lochmaben, was he might have become first a mate, then a master, then and, with his gun, kept himself in fresh provisions also a surgeon of some eminence; and the pains he be ship’s husband and part-owner, and, finally, returned to these excursions he cultivated an acquaintance with stowed on his son's education, proved so good a passport his native burgh with a fortune of a few thousand pounds, aborigines, and was so much charmed with a mode ai to public favour, that he might have acquired an indepen- and vegetated
tranquilly for ten or twenty years, reading full of romance, incident, and danger, that he at one i dency, if not a fortune. Unfortunately, however, for him the newspapers
, or playing at billiards, in the forenoon, entertained serious thoughts of resigning his comma self and others, he was careless rather than careful of and smoking cigars and drinking whiskey-punch, or negus
, when the
war was ended, and becoming a denizen di money; but, on the other hand, it is due to him to state, in the evening. But where would have been his laurels forest himself. But the fit, fortunately, was not paid chat he married early;-became a widower,-married where his glory-where his zeal in the cause of science- nent; his country had stronger claims on his tales, again, and was the father of no fewer than twenty-one where his defiance of death and danger-where his niche the tinge of romance, which formed a part of tot children. Of the fruit of the first marriage, six sons and in the annals of Britain ?
ture, yielded to more patriotic impressions, and one daughter grew to man and woman's estate, and the Previous to 1813, our sailors, in boarding, used the cut-spirit-stirring scenes in which he was engaged. A:8 youngest of these was the justly
celebrated African travel- lass after any fashion they pleased, and were trained to no time he occasionally dined on shore, and, as ten ei ler, the subject of the present imperfect memoir. In his particular method in the management of that formidable excelled him in swimming, he not unfrequently place person, he resembled his father greatly,-stood at least six weapon. It was suggested, however, that this was a defect, into the water, and made for the schooner, vide feet high,—had great breadth of chest and expansion of and,
with the view of repairing it
, Clapperton and a few either undressing or calling for a boat. This he del shoulders,-nerves of steel and sinews of iron,--and was other clever midshipmen, were ordered to repair
to Ports the double purpose of showing
his manhood, and kerge circumstances that need not be detailed here, he received Angelo
, in what was called the improved cutlass exercise. and allowed him to approach the ship uncbalete no classical instruction, and could do little more than read When taught themselves, they were distributed as teachers something like
a court-martial was held, and the ofcode and write indifferently, when he was placed under the care over the feet, and our countryman's class-room was the were reprimanded, if not punished. But this eventie of Mr. Bryce Downie, a man of general information, deck of the Asia seventy-four, the fag ship of Vice-Admi- and contempt of danger nearly cost the lieutenant bis li though chiefly celebrated as a mathematician. Mr. Dow? ral Sir Alexander Cochrane. The Asia was then lying at Having dined on shore, and spent the evening.ru nie, like Milton, has been stricken with blindness in his Spithead, and continued there till
the end of January, jovially, he proceeded to take a plunge in lake" Ernie old age; but his memory and judgment are vigorous 1814; but
our Admiral had been entrusted with the como usual." 'Immersion soon sent the blood to his best, still; and, with affection, he speaks of the lamented Clap- mand of our whole naval force on the coast of North before he had swam a hundred yards from shore
, kelle perton... Under him, the deceased acquired a knowledge America, and was making every thing ready to sail for his came so weak, that he was unable either to retreat are of practical mathematics, including navigation and trigo- final destination. Clapperton's services as a drill sergeant vance. In this situation he contrived to float, o as a most obliging boy, was almost constantly about his and he was afterwards to make the best of his way to the cries were totally disregarded, and heoften expressed teacher's house, and as his eye-sight was always very weak, Canadian lakes, which had then, or were just about to be conviction, that the watch were anxious to lease he read to him at intervals every day, both from his own come the scene of important naval operations. At the his fate, as the best means of ridding themselves dare thirst of knowledge, and the affection he cherished for his period we speak of, and before the Asia weighed anchor, disciplinarian. In this emergency, a lurking fear theft earliest friend. Fergusson, the lecturer, makes particular an incident occurred strikingly illustrative of his coolness would get back to the shore
, or that the friends be bet mention of his toils and privations while a miller's ser- and intrepidity. One evening, the alarm was given that would become alarmed, induced the crew, at last, to pala Clapperton was every whit as hardly reared. Winter and quarters, and the firemen were piped away to the gun. drowning, in such a state of weakness and exhausia summer, he scampered along without either shoes or stock- room, where an immense quantity of luggage had been that he never risked the experiment again. familiar with all the hardships of the peasant's lot. But and increasing volumes of smoke. The after-magazine, lakes was dismantled, Lieutenant Clapperton returned the extremes of temperature made little impression on his containing some hundred barrels of gunpowder, was under England, to be placed, like many others, on hal-pay, iron frame. When at school, his favourite place by the this spot, and the appearance of the combustion had be- ultimately returned to his grandfather's native barda proof of this, his teacher states
, that his pencil
, penknife, lence, under an impression that the ship would speedily self chiefly with rural sports, when he removed to La or any other good conductor of heat, if accidentally
lifted be blown to atoms. At this awful moment, an officer, who | burgh, and shortly after became acquainted with the ar when it came out of his pocket, dropped immediately had occasion to pass through the cock-pit, observed a mid- able and lamented Dr. Oudney. It was at Dr.0.'s s from the bolder's fingers. At the age of seventeen, Clapperton was bound an ap- quietly smoking a cigar
. The sight surprised him, and, covery; and through all the varieties of untoward fere Smith, of the Postlethwaite, of Maryport, to whose notice he could not help marvelling at his seeming apathy. The friend with the constancy of a brother. After closing di prentice to the
sea, and became the cabin-boy of Captain on discovering that the smoker was his friend Clapperton: -suffering and sorrow, sickness and death, he dang xe Port-Annan. The Postlethwaite, a vessel of large burthen, only a supernumerary; that no particular station had been forts of Britain, he even assisted to dig his grave, and all her he repeatedly crossed the Atlantic-distinguished even very likely to him, it was of little consequence where he service of the Church of England. His future preparang when
a mere youth, for coolness, dexterity, and intrepidity. Iwas.". But the seat of the fire was fortunately discovered, I discoveries, and dangers have already become mase al
retty evident from circumstances, which, from their smile of this beautiful girl that reminds one of the sweet dience, and which did not conclude without many profes
ristory, and need not be recapitulated in our columns. casional parts of them, a great improvement would be the
advertiseinents. Is his papers have been preserved by his servant, Lander, consequence. hose story we should like to see sifted to the bottom, Purtrait of Daniel Grant, Esq. 111, A. Perigal.—This
MR. WEBBE, mething yet remains to be told, and the result, we trust, pis an admirable likeness of one of the worthiest and most ill, ere long, be given to the public.-Dumfries Courier. public-spirited men of this town. The flesh is well co- Intending to pass part of the summer in Liverpool, purposes
loured, the drapery neatly arranged, and the position is to devote a portion of his time to the assistance of students
easy and graceful. Fine Arts.
Fresh Arrivals, 99, H. Pidding. This is an exceed. in Music. Those who may be disposed to honour him with ingly well conceived and excellenily painted picture, full their commands, will be pleased to leave a line, addressed to
of life and animation. The expression of the man's face is him, at any of the Music shops, or at the Mercury-office. (ORIGINAL)
good, and the truth and reality with wliich the fish are
AT THE LYCEUM, BOLD-STREET,
o'clock in the Evening, LIVING BRITISH ARTISTS. this is the best. The colours are bold and clear, and the HISTORY, &c. &c. illustrated by an exhibition of large
REPETITION of Mr. WOOD'S LECTURES on scene is correctly delineated.
DRAWINGS and PANORAMIC VIEWs. that the inhabitants of Manchester are making a very Portrait of a Flower Girl, 66, W. Bradley.-- There is
of id advancement both in moral and mental excellence an enchanting witchery in the dark eye and bewitching repetition of these Lectures
, which have afforded so high faces we sometimes meet in a wild and desolate part of the sions of regret at their termination, Mr. Wood gives notice at notoriety, it would be superfluous to enumerate; but, country. This artist has great reason to be proud of his that he will commence a Second Course on Wednesday next, d as is the progress of refinement, much remains to abilities, which are of a first-rate order, and, as a fair crite- and continue them duily.
Six transferrable Tickets for a Course, One Guinea. accomplished before it can be ranked with less popu- rion of what he can do, I refer the visitor to this picture.
Admission to as ngle Lecture ....... Four Shillings. 1, and certainly not more opulent towns. There are The colours are bold and deep, yet clear ; the conception of
Young persons under 14 years of age. . Two Do.
N. B. The four shillings paid at the first Lecture, may ba w individuals to whom this spirit of enterprise ought the figure is grand; and the effect of the whole picture is surprising.
considered as part of the subscription of one guinea to those ustice to be attributed; but as the adoption of such a Portruits of the Children of T. Sherratt, Esq. 142, J. who wish to continue the course.
Tickets, &c. to be had of Mr. Grapel and Mr. Dawson. rse might display a degree of partiality, and wound Green.—This is another picture worthy the attention of feelings of some, who, more from adverse circum- our artists: it is well conceived and beautifully painted.
IMPORT ANT TO PERSONS GOING TO SEA, cices than from inclination, do not patronize any public. The colours are clear and sparkling, and the figures are well drawn.
PASSENGERS IN STEAM-BOATS, &c., AND TO PER. ertaking to promote the arts and sciences, I shall rePortrait of an Old Man, 161, J. Potts.—There is life,
SONS LEARNING TO SWIM. from giving publicity to the names of the most real life, in this picture : the venerable expression of the ited and praiseworthy individuals.
old man's countenance cannot fail to please those who love I was with feelings of no inconsiderable pleasure that nature. The stick might actually be put upon the can
MARINE ailed the formation of such a body as the members vas, and the thin and silvery locks straggling over the
forehead are exquisitely finished. he Royal Institution compose, and that gratification
Hot Porridge, 188, W. M.Call.-The vivacity, the greatly enhanced when I ascertained that there would gladness, the every thing of happiness depicted in the face
PRESERVERS, in annual exhibition of paintings, both ancient and of this child is exquisite. I like both the conception and Jern, for, although not an artist myself, no person can the execution of this painting, because it is simple and une fully appreciate the beauties of an exquisite paint- world has seen repeatedly: in short, it is a picture after my Warranted to support the wearer in the water, either naked
affected, and a real picture of nature; such a face as all the -, or derive more real gratification from it, than I do.
own beart. tre cannot be a richer mental treat than to view a fine A Geologist, 16, T. H. Illidge.--I love to meet with the
or with his clothes on, and with a considerable weight ure, the conception and execution of which excites a portrait of a friend, especially when I have to recognise
of money, or other articles in his pockets. 11 of admiration for the fulness of its beauty, and the his features from the picture before me, and more especially
EGERTON SMITH & Co. when the features are those of a worthy and talented man, Have on Sale, at their General PRINTING OFFICE, Lord. mony and richness of its colouring.
drawn by a clever artist. This portrait is the best of IlSerhaps there is no science upon which judgment solidge's contributions, and, as a likeness, does him infinite
street, Liverpool, erially differs as painting; for a composition that credit. It is well painted, but is placed in rather an awkle may appear rich and gorgeous, is, in the opinion of ward situation for being seen to advantage.
LIFE PRESERVERS. ther, the veriest daub that ever disgraced a canvas, and A Wild Flower, 105, J. Inskipp.—This is an admirable
These Preservers may be put on as readily as an ordinary picture, well conceived and executed. The features have this contrariety of opinion cannot be accounted for that pleasing simplicity which cannot fail to attract and waistcoat, and they will sustain the wearer in the water, with iny other way than that different minds have different please ; and there is a freshness and richness about the the head and shoulders above the surface, without the slightis of beauty and excellence. I conceive it would be a composition that indicates the hand of an able and expe- external bruises, and keep the wearer much warmer than 1 task to endeavour to reconcile the various opinions rienced artist.
he would be without them. They form no impediment to vecting this, but even were the matter less abstruse,
the swimmer; and any person may readily learn to swim by re are but few minds that could properly elucidate it. shall proceed to notice the pictures, and shall take care
To persons wrecked at sea, they will be of the utmost im. METEOROLOGICAL DIARY.
portance, as it is not necessary to take off any part of the void the imputation of partiality.
wearing apparel; and the wearer may thus not only preserve he most attractive picture in the exhibition is A viero
[From the Liverpool Courier.]
his clothes, but also any money he may be possessed of. Rochester, 85, A. W. Callcott, R. A. which is, most
Extreme, Thermo-Extreme State of
To Boats' Crews, and especially those of Life Boats, there idedly, the best picture I ever saw of this artist. He
Marine Preservers would be most invaluable, as they serve 2 peculiar style of painting his sea pieces, which are
Night Dioruiug rung Day. at uoou.
to keep the body warm and dry; nor do they, in the slightivalled for the brilliant effect and truth of their colour
est degree, prevent the wearer from using the oars; whilst, · Tlie water in the present picture is beautifully trans.
by inspiring confidence, they may be the means of (inducing ent, and the figures are animated and striking.
seamen to venture where it would be unsafe, or fatal, to go Portrait of M. Ward, M. D. 177, Hazlitt. --The co.
without them. ring of this portrait is admirable, and the likeness is June
They are equally adapted for females, and supersede the netainly one of the best that ever came under my obser.
cessity of taking off any part of the apparel. They would 29 72
W. Fair. The artist, who is brother to the celebrated 3 29 80 / 50
meter 8 hextu: the Wind
66 64 62
also be found most agreeable to Ladies, to be used over their
0 S.S.W. Cloudy. Hazlitt, is a clever draughtsman, and one of the best
ordinary bathing dresses. trait painters in this town.
29th, Rain during night; ten, a.m. heavy rain.
They may be had either lined or padded, and so made as to Bargaining for Fish, 50, J. Tennant.-This picture is
31st, Showers during day.
adjust themselves to persons of all sizes. June 1st, Three, p.m. showers. rior to pone in the room, except Callcott's: in fact, it is
Persons in the country, who are desirous of becoming pur.
2d, Heavy rain during night. arkably like one of that great artist's productions. The
chasers, are requested to state about their weight, and their 3d, Six, a.m. heavy rain; half past five, p.m. rain.
stature and bulk. sparency of the water is admirably managed, and the
The prices of the Preservers vary from One Pound to ires are well introduced, and spiritedly painted.
REMARKS FOR MAY.
Twenty-five Shillings, or upwards, according to their finish; The Right Hon. Lady de Tabley, 30, J. Simpson. I Monthly mean of atmospherical pressure, 29:82 ; mean and any person remitting the money (post-paid) may have
w not which to admire most, the careless, yet easy and temperature,-extreme during night, 48:28; extreme at 8, one of the most complete description forwarded to his adceful position, or the admirable painting of this picture. a.m. 53:29; extreme at noon, 60:17; general mean, 56:11; dress. e flesh is certainly the most brilliant and true that I extreme during day, 62:2; prevailing winds, westerly ; An allowance made for a wholesale order, or for exporta
saw, and the drapery, a secondary consideration with highest temperature during the month was on the 17th,—tion. et artists, but undoubtedly a most essential one to all, 69; lowest temperature was on the 8th,-44; heavy falls E. Smith and Co. pledge themselves to return the purchase ue to nature. This picture, and another, by the same of rain on the 6th, 11th, 24th, 25th, and 29th ; thunder money, if these Marine Preservers do not answer the descript. which I shall presently notice, ought to have the storm on the 6th.
tion they have here given of them. tast attention of our native artists, for, if proper atten. Summary of the Weather.--23 days fair, 3 days cloudy, It is presumed that these Marine Preservers would sell very were paid to the drawing, colouring, and all the oc- and 5 days rain.
And some,-the gayest with impatient word
receipt of your very kind letter a few days since, and giv you joy, my dear Maria, on the increase of your family You have now three boys, and I hope they will live i make you very happy when you are an old woman. la truly sensible of the kind regard which you have show to me in giving my name to your infant; he will brin me to your remembrance often ; and then you will thin of a friend who loves you and all your family very mue With a kind and affectionate husband, and three stil children, all boys, you are happy, and I hope will ever 80. But three boys !-let me tell you, the chance is te much against you, unless you are for ever on your gua The temper and disposition of most people are form before they are seven years old ; and the common cause bad ones is the great indulgence and mistaken fondo which the affection of a parent finds it difficult to me though the happiness of the child depends upon it. Yo measures must be systematic: whenever they do sre never omit to reprove them firmly, but with gentle Always speak to them in a style and language rather perior to their years. Proper words are as easily learnt improper ones, and when they do well when they desar commendation, bestow it lavishly.
Let the feelings of your heart flow from your eyes a tongue; and they will never forget the effect which the good behaviour has upon their mother, and this at earlier time of life than is generally thought. I am much interested in their prosperity, and that they may come good and virtuous men. I am glad that you thi my daughters are well behaved girls. I took much pa with them the little time I was at home. I endeavoa to give them a contempt for the nonsense and frivolity fashion, and to establish, in its stead, a conduct found on reason. They could admire thunder and lightning any other of God's stupendous works, and walk through churchyard at midnight without apprehension of meet any thing worse than themselves. I brought them up to make griefs of trifles, nor suffer any but what were i evitable.
Selina, gaudy maid,
Soon, soon thy charms will fade,
Beauty is like the rose,
But, ah! before day's close,
But Virtue never dies;
And wind and rain defies,
Then nourish in thy breast,
"Twill make thee truly blest, Superior to each adverse storm, And all the Ills which life deform.
And, in that awful day
Angels will smooth the way,
The Beauties of Chess.
There is a light within those eyes
It rends my heart to see;
And I'must part with thee.
The rose in summer bloom;
Of burial and the tomb.
There is a charm retined;
Powerful, but undefined.
It rings Hope's funeral knell ;
Felt, understood, too well!
In trembling, and with fear,
" Brief, brief her sojourn here!
It walts the flowers of spring:
For, lo! on seraphic wing,
Thy Marian to convey
Nay, wipe those tears away.
Apd many a hidden woe;
God and herself but know!
To weariness and pain;
She feels 'to die is gain!
And soon, supremely blest,
Sweet, sweet will be her rest!"
The prey of sure decay,
Nor weep my life away?
WW school each conscious look ;
Nor own my heart is brokę !
“Ludimus effigiem belli."-VIDA.
SOLUTION TO STUDY CLXXXIV.
BLACK 1 Queen .....F-6X i King........... 2 Castle .........G-7X
2 King .....H3 Queen ....... H-4X
3 Queen....... 4 Bishop .....G-1
4 Queen.....H 5 Castle .........G-6
5 Queen......H-7 6 Castle.........G-5
6 Queen......H7 Castle..... B-8X
7 King ......H-1 8 Castle.........B 8 to G8
8 Queen.....H9 Castle.........G 5 to 6 6
9 Queen ...... 10 Castle.........G 6 to G7X 10 King ......H11 Castle ........ F-7
THE OLD MAN'S COMFORT.
BY R, SOUTHEY, ESQ.
You are old, father William, the young man cried,
The few locks which are left you are gray:
Now tell me the reason, I pray.
I remembered that youth would fly fast,
That I never might need them at last.
And pleasures with you pass away;
Now tell me the reason, I pray.
I remembered that youth could not last;
That I never might grieve for the past. You are old, father William, the young man replied,
And life must be bastening away; You are cheerful, and love to converse upon death,
Now tell me the reason, I pray,
Let the cause thy attention engage
And he has not forgotten my age.
ON THE EMBLEMATIC FIGURE OF TIME.
* Behold him when past by; what then is seen
Old man with wrinkled brow, they pictur'd him
ADVICE TO MOTHERS. The following letter, from the late Lord Collingwood to Mrs. Hall, contains some valuable advice to mothers: "I had great pleasure," writes his Lordship, “ in the
A B C D E F G H
propagated from the species named after that learned man, Munting has given, from some of the books kept during to whom natural history is so much indebted, the Linnæus that trade, a few of the prices then paid, of which I shall
of the sixteenth century, Conrad Gesner, who first made present the reader with the following. For a root of that I have here only made a nosegay of culled flowers, and have
the tulip known by a botanical description and a figure. species called the Viceroy, the after-mentioned articles, 'broseght nothing of my own but the thread that ties them."
In his additions to the works of Valerius Cordus, he tells valued as below expressed, were agreed to be delivered.
us, that he saw the first in the beginning of April, 1559,
Two lasts of wheat
Four ditto rye brought from Constantinople, or, according to others, from
Four fat oxen
.480 The following entertaining, and, perhaps, we may say, Cappadocia. This flower was then known in Italy, under
Eight fat swine...................... E: ructive chapter (as it exhibits human folly in a striking the name of the tulipa, or tulip, which is said to be of
Twelve fat sheep
.......................120 * It of view) is taken from Beckmann's History of In- Turkish extraction, and given to it on account of its re.
Two bogsheads of wine er tions. It was suggested to us by the late flower show sembling a turban. +,
Four tubs beer iverpool; a short editorial article on which we pro- roots to Prague, from which they were afterwards spread Balbinus asserts that Busbeque brought the first tulip
Two tons butter ..........................
One thousand pounds of cheese ...... 120 d to follow up with some curious instances of the all over Germany. This is not improbable: for Bus
A complete bed...
...................100 ia for flowers, which once prevailed in Holland and beque says, in a letter written in 1554, that this flower was
A suit of clothes
........................ 80 2: there, to an extent which, were it not well attested, then new to him; and it is known that, besides coins and
A silver beaker.........
60 YL., 6 d stagger credulity itself.-Edit. Kala
manuscripts, he collected also natural curiosities, and
lips; but I do not find he anywhere says that he was the These tulips were afterwards sold according to the weight ie greater part of the flowers which adorn our gardens first who brought them from the East. In the year 1565 of the roots. been brought to us from the Levant. A few have there were tulips in the garden of Mr. Fugger, from whom cost 4400 florins; 446 ditto of Admiral Von der Eyk,
Four hundred perits of Admiral Lietken procured from other parts of the world, and some of Gesner wished to procure some. They first appeared in 1620 forins ; 106 perits Schilder cost 1615 florins ; 200 swn indigenous plants, that grow wild, have, by care Provence, in France, in the garden of the celebrated Pey- ditto Semper Augustus, 5500 forins ; 410 ditto Viceroy, cultivation, been so much improved as to merit a place resc, in the year 1611.|| ir parterres. Our ancestors, perhaps, some centuries
3000 florins, &c. The species Semper Augustus has been After the tulip was known, Dutch merchants, and rich often sold for 2000 forins; and it once happened, that paid attention to flowers ; but it appears that the Ori- people at Vienna, who were fond of flowers, sent, at dif- there were only two roots of it to be had, the one at Am. s, and particularly the Turks, who, in other respects, ferent times, to Constantinople
, for various kinds. The sterdam, and the other at Haerlein. For a root of this fot very susceptible of the inanimate beauties of na. first roots planted in England were sent thither from species, one agreed to give 4600 forins, together with a new were the first people who cultivated a variety of them Vienna, about the end of the sixteenth century,
according carriage, two gray horses,
and a complete set of harness. eps, therefore, have been procured the most of those Clusius the honour of having first introduced them into those who had not ready money, promised their moveable h decorate ours, and amongst these is the tulip.
Europe; for that naturalist only collected and described and unmoveable goods, house and land, cattle and clothes. "w plants acquire, through accident, weakness, or dis all the then known species. so many tints, variegations, and figures, as the tulip. These flowers, which are of no further use than to orna- recollect, won by this trade more than 60,000 forins, in
A man, whose name Munting once knew, but could not nuncultivated, and in its nataral state, it is almost ment gardens, which are exceeded in beauty by many the course of four months. It was followed not only by. sice vie colour; has large leaves and an extraordinarily long other plants, and whose duration is short, and very pre mercantile people, but also by the first nublemen, citizens
When it has been weakened by culture, it becomes carious, became, in the middle of the last century, the of every description, mechanics, seamen, farmers, turfagreeable in the eyes of the florist. The petals are object of a trade, such as is not to be met with in the hisa diggers, chimney-sweeps, footmen, maid servants, old
paler, more variegated, and smaller ; the leaves as- tory of commerce, and by which their price rose above clothes-women, &c. At first every one won and no one ya fainter or softer green colour: and this masterpiece that of the most precious metals. An account of this
trade lost. Some of the poorest people gained, in a few months, Üture, the more beautiful it turns, grows so much the bas been given by many authors; but by all late ones it houses, coaches, and horses, and figured away like the first - ter, so that, with the most careful skill and attention, has been misrepresented. Pcople laugh
at the Tulipoma characters in the land. In every town some tavern was a scarcely be transplanted, and even scarcely kept nia,** because they believe that the beauty and rarity of selected, which served as a change, where high and you
the flowers induced florists to give such extravagant traded in flowers, and confirmed their bargains with the at the tulip grows wild in the Levant, and was thence prices: they imagine that the tulips were purchased so
TIIT species of the tulip, botanists are acquainted only with Hist. strip. ii. p. 115. 036) Or, at most, three, of which scarcely one is indigenous than the common tulipa gesneriana, though propagated from tulips would have, in a short time, been formed in Hol. t. The tulipan, however, bave little or no smell, but are 2 vol. fol. ii. p. 780, and Megiseri Diction. Turico-Lat. where the dealers in tulips confined themselves to their own
most sumptuous entertainments. They formed laws for ght to us, may be proved by the testimony of many excessively dear, in order to ornament gardens; but this themselves, and had their notaries and clerks.
Busbeque found them on the road between supposition is false, as I shall show hereafter. anople and Constantinople ;* Shaw found them in
When one reflects seriously on this trade, one will rea
This trade was not carried on throughout all Europe ; dily perceive, that to get possession of these flowers was sv , in the plains between Jaffa and Rama; and Char but in some cities of the Netherlands, particularly Am not the real object of it, though many have
represented it on the northern confines of Arabia. The early sterdam, Haerlem, Utrecht, Alkmar, Leyden, Rotterdam, in that light. The price of tulips rose always higher from sing kinds, it appears, were brought to Constantinople, Hoorn, Enkhuysen, and Meedenbliek and rose to the the year 1634, to the year 1637; but had the object of the
Cavala, and the late blowing from Caffa ; and on this greatest height in the years 1634, 1635, 1636, and 1637.7t | purchaser been to get possession of the flowers, the price, ; 4-ant the former are called by the Turks, Cavalá lalé,
in such a length of time, must have fallen instead of risen. s the latter Cuffe laté. Caval is a town on the eastern historia, Antverpiæ, 1569. 8vo. p. 204. In Thracia et Capadocia “ Raise the prices of the productions of agriculture, when
ont of Macedonia, of which Paul Lucas gives some ac. tulipa exit; Italiæ et Belgio peregrinus est filos. you wish to reduce them,” says Young; and in this he is But it; and Caffa is a town in the Crimea, for peninsula alicubi in Gallia Narbonensi nasci feruntur. Linnæus reckons undoubtedly right, for a great consumption causes a greater
yazaria, as it was called, in the middle ages, from the it among the Swedish plants, and Haller names it among those reproduction. This has been sufficiently proved by the ares, a people very little known.s
of Swisserland, but says, afterwards, I do not believe it to be price of asparagus at Gottingen. As it was much sought hough Alorists have published numerous catalogues of indigenous, though it is found here and there in the meads. after, and large prices paid for it, more of it was planted,
It the price has . . || All those found in our gardens have it. The useless roots thrown perhaps from Gesner's garden land, and florists would have been able to purchase flowers
have grown up in a wild state, and become naturalized, as at a much lower price. But this was not done; and the As we passed, we saw everywhere abundance of flowers, the European cattle have in America." See Miller's Gardener's chimney-sweeper, who threw aside his besom, did not bei as the narcissus, hyacinth, and those called by the Turks Dictionary, iv. p. 518.
• Stettin, in his History of the arts of Augsburg, celebrates Roots would have been imported from distant couotries,
come a gardener, though he was a dealer in Aowers. pan, not without great astonishment, on account of the of the year, as it was then the middle of winter, a seaHerwart's gardens and his collection of coins. See Stettin's
as asparagus was from Hanover and Brunswick to Gottinunfriendly to flowers. Greece abounds with narcissuses Kunst,Geschichte der Reichs-Stadt Augsburg." Augsb. 1779, 8vo. gen; the high price would have induced people to go to hyacinths, which have a remarkably fragrant smell: it p. 122 and 509. + See Martini Lexicon philologicum. Trajecti Batav. 1711, to Golconda and Visapour to procure precious stones : but
Constantinople to purchase roots, as the Europeans travel Indeed, so strong as to hurt those who are not accustomed aired for their beauty and the variety of their colour. The the word tulbent, a turban, is derived from the Chaldaic.
Balbini Miscellanea Bohemiæ, p. 100.
country, without thinking of long journeys. I will allow sks pay great attention to the cultivation of flowers; nor
Gesneri Epistolæ medicinales. Tiguri 1577, 8vo. p. 79 and dearer ; but it would have been impossible for the price to
that a flower might have become scarce, and, consequently, they hesitate, though by no means extravagant, to expend
eral aspers for one that is beautiful. I received several * sents of these flowers, wbich cost me not a little. Busbe Viti Peirescil, auctore Gassendo. Hagæ Comitum, 1655 rise to a great height, and continue so for a year. How
ridiculous would ii have been to have purchased useless i omnia quæ extant. Basiliæ 1740, 8vo. p. 36.
4to. p. 80. * Voyages. A. Rouen, 1723, 8vo. iv. 59.
Hukluyt says, And now within these four years, there Hartenus tullparum bulbi nobis Byzantio missi sunt, have been brought into England, from Vienna in Austria, di Marquard, De jure mercatorum, p. 181, has taken bis informaecocis quidem café laté, serotinæ vero Cavalá lalé, a locis vers kind of flowers called tulipas, and those and others tion. Naauwkeurige beschryving der aardgewassen, door Abranirum unde primum Constantinopolim illati sunt, appel- procured thither a little before, from Constantinople, by an ham Munting. Leyden en Utrecht, 1696, folio, P. 907. De done indita. Caffa urbs est in peninsula Gazaria dicta, excellent man, M. Carolus Clusius. See Biographia Britannica, Koophandel von Amsterdam, door Le Long, ii. p. 307, Le Negoce æ inter Propontidem et Euxinum pontum sita est; Cavana ii. p. 164.
d'Amsterdam, par J. P. Ricard. A Rouen, 1723, 4to, P. 11. ro in Macedonia urbs maritima. Clusii rariorum plantarum # This word was coined by Menage.
Breslauer Samlung von Natur-und Kunts-Geschichten, 1721, May, storia. Antverpiæ, 1691. fol. p. 150.
It The principal works lu which an account of this Tulipo. p. 521. Francisci Schaubuhne, vol. ii. p. 639. Tenzel; Monat. See some account of them in Memoriæ populorum ad Dä: mania is to be found, are, Eerste tzamenspraak tusschen Waerliche Unterredungen, 1690, Novemb. p. 1039. Année Literaire,
Martini Zeiler Miscellanca, p. 29. Blum, by Stritter.
mondt en Gaargoed nopens de opkomst en ondergang van Flora. 1773, xv. p. 16. 1 The tulipa sylvestris Linx: grows in the southern parts of Amsterdam, 1843, 1200. Meterani novi, or New History of Puncii Orbis politicus, p. 879. • rance. Dodonæus says, in his Florum coroniarum herbarum 'the Netherlands, part 4, Amst. 1640, folio, p.518, from which • A perit is a small weight less than a grain. Trans.
roots with their weight of gold, if the possession of the The more disgusted people became with this trade, the
MR. PITTS MIDNIGHT REHEARSALS. flower had been the only object! Great is the folly of more did complaints increase to the magistrates of the ditmankind; but they are not fools without a cause, as they ferent towns; but as the courts there would take no cogwould have been under such circumstances.
nisance of it, the complainants applied to the States of We have, for some time past, had in our portfolio of 1 During the time of the Tulipomania, a speculator often Holland and West Friesland. These referred the business serve some further selections from the amusing won offered and paid large sums for a root which he never
re- to the determination
of the provincial council at the Hague; Clubs of London,) from which the following is taken. ceived, and never wished to receive. Another sold roots which, on the 27th of April, 1637, declared, that it would which he never possessed or delivered. Oft did a noble. not deliver its opinion on this traffic until it had received man purchase of a chimney-sweep tulips to the amount of more information on the subject ; that, in the meantime, It must be premised, that, during the whole of Mr. På 2000 Aorins, and sell them at the
same time to a farmer; every vender should offer his tulips to the purchaser, and, political career, he was a complete slave to busines and neither the nobleman, chimney-sweep, nor farmer, had in case he refused to receive them, the vender should either indeed, so much was his mind occupied with affair roots in their possession, or wished to possess them. Be. keep them, or sell them to another, and have recourse on state, that, generally speaking, he went to bed at ni fore the tulip season was over, more roots were sold and the purchaser for any loss he might sustain. It was or. only to dream of the labours of the day. He took purchased, bespoke, and promised to be delivered, than, in dered also, that all contracts should remain in force till recreation; and when prevailed upon to go to a fashion all probability, were to be found in the gardens of Hol. further inquiry was made. But, as no one could foresee party, he seldom stayed long. Even whilst be did rem land; and when Semper Augustus was not to be had, what judgment would be given respecting the validity of his mind was so liable to revert to the business of the me which happened twice, no species, perhaps, was oftener each contract, the buyers were more obstinate in refusing ing, that though highly respected for his private worth purchased and sold. In the space of three years, as Mun payment than before ; and venders, thinking it much safer all who knew him, his company was not considered to ting tells us, more than ten millions were expended in this to accommodate matters amicably, were, at length, satis- entirely indispensible, particularly by the ladies. trade, in only one town of Holland.
fied with a small profit instead of exorbitant gain : and Fox, on the contrary, had a mind highly susceptibl To understand this gambling traffic, it may be necessary thus ended this extraordinary traffic, or, rather, gambling. the pleasures of society, which by no means detras to make the following supposition. A nobleman bespoke It is, however, certain that persons fond of flowers, par. from his capability of performing the arduous duties of a merchant a tulip-root, to be delivered in six months, ticularly in Holland, have paid, and still pay, very high longing to his public character.-But to return to at the price of 1000 forins. During these six months the prices for tulips, as the catal of flowers show. price of that species of tulip must have risen or fallen, or may be called the lesser Tulipomania, which has given It was his frequent custom, when he left the House remained as it was. We shall suppose, that at the expira- occasion to many laughable circumstances. When John Commons, to call at the residence of Lord Melville tion of that time the price was 1500 florins; in that case, Balthasar Schuppe was in Holland, a merchant gave a spend an hour or two, before retiring to Bachelor's-1 the nobleman did not wish to have the tulip, and the herring to a sailor who had brought him some goods. The as the Duchess of Gordon very aptly styled the minist merchant paid him 500 forins, which the latter lost and sailor, seeing some valuable tulip-roots lying about, which own lonely habitation. the former won. If the price was fallen when the six be considered as of little consequence, thinking them to One evening, fatigued by a speech of more than the months were expired, so that a root could be purchased be onions, took some of them unperceived, and ate hours in length, he arrived at his friend's house in a s for 800 florins, the nobleman then paid to the merchant with his herring. Through this mistake the sailor's break; of profuse perspiration. Lord Melville (then Mr. Du 200 florins, which he received as so much gain ; but if the fast cost the merchant a much greater sum than if he had das) instantly ordered clean linen to be provided, and price continued the same, that is, 1000 florins, neither party treated the Prince of Orange. No less laughable is the sisted on the Premier staying all night; as the damp gained or lost. In all these circumstances, bowever, no anecdote of an Englishman who travelled with Matthews. in going home, might prove injurious to him in sad one ever thought of delivering the roots or of receiving Being in a Dutchman's garden, he pulled a couple of condition. Mr. Pite complied, and soon afterwards reti them. Henry Munting, in 1636, sold to a merchant at tulips, on which he wished to make some botanical obser- to rest. Alkmar, a tulip-root for 7000 florins, to be delivered in six vations, and put them in his pocket; but he was appre- He had been in bed about an hour, when a female s months; but as the price during that time had fallen, the hended as a thief, and obliged to pay a considerable sum vant, passing the door of his chamber, heard a loud merchant paid, according to agreement, only ten per cent before he could obtain his liberty +
as of one talking with great rapidity and energy, “So that my father," says the son, "received 700 forins Reimman and others accuse Jusi. Lipsius of the Tulipo- immediately ran, in the most violent agitation and we for nothing ; but he would much rather have delivered mania ;# but, if by this word we understand that gam- into the butler's pantry, where that domestic and the root itself for 7000." The term of these contracts was bling traffic which I have described, the accusation is Pitt's valet were sitting comfortably over a glass of an often much shorter, and on that account the trade became unfounded. Lipsius was fond of scarce and beautiful punch. brisker. In proportion as more gained by this traffic, flowers, which he endeavoured to procure by the assistance “For God Almighty's sake!” she roared out, " Rider more engaged in it; and those who had money to pay to of his friends, and which he cultivated himself, with great run directly to your master, for he's a dying." one, had soon money to receive of another; as at faro, care, in his garden; but this taste can be by no means “Dying!" exclaimed the valet, rising ; " Good @ one loses upon one card, and at the same time wins upon called a mania.& Other learned men of the same age were what makes you think so, Betty ?” another. The tulip-dealers often discounted sums also, fond of flowers, such as John Barclay.!! Pompeius de "Oh!" returned the terrified girl, “I heard bine and transferred their debts to one another; so that large Angelis, and others, who would probably have been so, ing his prayers so loud and so fast, that I am st sims were paid without cash, without bills, and without even though the cultivation of flowers had not been the must be dead before this time." goods, as by the Virements at Lyons. The whole of this prevailin
It, however, cannot be denied, that " Lord bless the girl!” said the trade was a game at hazard, as the Mississippi trade was learned men may be infected with epidemical follies. In finish his punch, how could you go for to frighten afterwards, and as stock-jobbing is at present. The only the present age, many have become physiognomists, be- so ? He's no more a-dying than you are, Betri difference between the tulip-trade and stock-jobbing is, cause physiognomy is in fashion ; and even animal mag. only making a speech for the House to-morrow ; and!! that, at the end of the contract, the price in the latter is de- netism has met with partisans to support it.
say, that as he is speechifying so loud, he's a blogi termined by the Stock Exchange; whereas, in the former,
the old Fox and the Wigs. Ah, he's the boy for it it was determined by that at which most bargains were made. High and low-priced kinds of tulips were pro
In the year 1759, the dearest kinds in England were Don it 'em, right and left, I can tell you, Betty."
* Blowin' up the Fox and the Wigs, Master Die ble with them; and the roots were weighed by perits,
that in the German catalogues none of the prices are so high. The cured, in order that both the rich and the poor might gam. Quevedo and Valentinier; the former cost £2 2s. and the latter See Weston's Botanicus Universalis, part 2nd. Why, what's that, for Heaven's sake ?"
... Oh, Bet, my girl," answered Richard, " it's no an imagined whole might be divided, and that people might not only have whole, but half and quarter lots name Semper Augustus is not once to be found in new cata- telling you: women understands nothin' of pol'uickis logues.
they, Master Butler ?" Whoever is surprised that such a traffic should become
* No, Dick," responded the Butler,
" that they general, needs only to reflect upon what is done where lot.
+ Blainville's Travels. teries are established, by which trades are often neglected,
Reimman's Introductio, in Histor. Litterariam lli. 3. p. 92. what
, they'd soon wear the breeches, I know.
an' it isn't fic they should ; for if they knew what and even abandoned, because a speedier mode of getting $ That he might relax and refresh his
out by say, Dick, push about the grog, an" let us go fortunes is pointed out to the lower classes. In short, the study, he amused himself with the cultivation of his garden what
your master is going to say to old chuckleye tulip-trade may very well serve to explain stock.jobbing, and of flowers, and particularly of tulips, the roots of which morrow.' of which so much is written in gazettes, and of which so he was at great pains to procure from all parts of the world, ". No occasion for hurrying, man,” replied Richa many talk in company without understanding it; and I by means of Dodonæus, Clusius, and Boisotus, men
singularly emptying his glass, and filling another bamper much time in illustrating what I should otherwise have Here, at a distance from civil tumuit, with a cheerful counte
. bound. We've plenty of time-so sit down
, and let considered as below my notice.
At length, however, this trade fell all of a sudden.- Rowers, contemplating sometimes one declining, sometimes done. Lord! it'll do your heart good to hear hins fir Among such a number of contracts many were broken ; another springing up, and forgetting all his cares amidst the away at the rascally hopposition, just the self same 3 many had engaged 10 pay more than they were able; the pleasures which these objects afforded him. See the Life
of gives it 'em in the House. Bless you, he always ingat whole stock of the adventurers was consumed by the ex. Lipsius, prefixed to the edition of his works printed at Ant- bis speech for the next day, before he goes to sleep. Call werp in 1637. The like account is to be found in Adami Vita Mistress Betty, drink that
, my girl," handing her agil travagance of the winners; new adventurers no more en. gaged in it; and many becoming sensible of the odious philosophorum. This is confirmed by what Lipsius says him- " it'll warm you, and take away your fright. traffic in which they had been concerned, returned to their self in his book De Constantia, ii. 2, 3. in praise of gardening. former occupations. By these means, as the value of tulips
1 He rented a house near to the Vatican, with
a garden, in vived thereby, and her curiosity nothing abated, were
Betty drank the contents, and feeling herself greatly still fell, and never rose, the sellers wished to deliver
the which he had planted the choicest flowers, and those chiefly again to inquire what the valet meant by blowin' up roots in natura to the purchasers at the prices agreed on; which are not propagated from seeds and roots, but from Fox and the Whigs ! but as the latter had no desire for tulips at even such a bulbs. These flowers were not known about thirty years be
" Why, you fool!" answered Dick," don't you low rate, they refused to take them or to pay for them.- fore, nor had they been ever seen at Rome, but lay neglected that the Fox is that rascally Charley Fox, as wishes To end this dispute, the tulip.dealers of Alkmar sent, in in the Alps of these flowers, which have no smell
, but are bring in Boneypart and the French ?" the year 1637, deputies to Amsterdam; and a resolution esteemed only on account of their colours, Barclay was re
• What for, Master Richard ?" inquired Betty, was passed on the 24th of February, that all contracts markably fond, and purchased their bulbs at a great price.
What for," echoed Dick. “Why, to kill King Cart made
prior to the last of November, 1636, should be null Erythrai. Pinacotheca. Lipsiæ, 1712. 8vo. iii. 17. p. 623. See to be sure, and put the Prince o' Wales on his charge and void ; and that, in those made after that date, pur. also Pauli Freheri Theatrum, p. 1516.
ay, and to oust my master,
that he may get into his plu chasers should be fres on paying ten per cent, to the vender. Erythr, Pinacoth. ii. 24. p. 850.
an, sitting down