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A man, whose name Mupting once knew, but could recollect, won, by this trade, (the sale of tulips) more

60,000 florins in the course of four months.”—In rt. the traffic and gambling in tulips was carried to as at a height as that in lottery tickets ever was.

Thornton's Botanical Illustrations it is stated, that, so it was the rage for tulips once, in Holland, that the gomasters found it necessary to enact a law that no one ald give more than fifty pounds for a single root. The following is an extract from Carr's Tour through land. The passion of the Dutch for flowers is well wn. M. Dutens, in his very entertaining and insting Memoirs of a Traveller in Retirement, says, that ne Kerms, or fair, held at the Hague, in the month of 1, "I was witness to a circumstance which I could not rwise bave believed, respecting the price of flowers in and. I saw 475 guineas offered, and refused, for a inth. It was, to be sure, the most charming flower ever was seen. It belonged to a florist, at Haerlem; another florist offered this for it. The reason which owner gave me for refusing the offer was, that the inth was known to all the amateurs of Europe, and be sold the bulbs every year for more than the interest 0 guineas. These bulbs produced the same sort of er in all its beauty. This singular passion has not ded. At Haerlem, fine narcissuses and jonquils sell o immense price ; and parties are made every summer sit the roses which grow in great perfection at Noord

- Page 173.

PEATHERED ROSES. 1 Wallworth .......... ....... Mr. Hey 2 Doo Little ....................Mr. Appleton 3 Count de Vergennes............ Mr. Whalley 4 Unknown

..... Mr. Butler 5 Harvey's Rose....

..... Mr. Whalley 6 Hero of the Nile.... ...... Mr. Boardman, Leigh 7 Triumph Royal................ Mr. T. Pyke

FLAMED BIZARDS. 1 Phenix .....

....... Mr. Appleton 2 Superb ........

...... Mr. Hey 3 Lecantique .....

.... Mr. Appleton 4 Captain White ..

..... Mr.T. Pyke 5 Grand Cairo

...... Mr, Whalley 6 Beauté Frappante.............. Mr. Falkner 7 Seedling ....

..... Mrs. James

FLAMED BYBLOMEN. 1 Unknown .................... Mr. Whalley 2 Duc de Florence................ Mr. Bruce 3 Unknown ......... ......Mr. Appleton 4 Transparent Noir.............. Mr. Bruce 5 Triumph de Lisle ...... ..... Mr. Leighton 6 Alexander Magnus .... ..... Mr. Boardman 7 Seedling ...................... Ditto

PLAMED ROSES. 1 Rose Unique ................. Mr. Whalley 2 Incomparable....

..... Ditto 3 Lord Hill ......

....... Mr. Leighton 4 Rose Grand.....

...... Mr. Bruce 5 Rose Quarto ...

..... Mr. Leighton 6 Roi de Cerise ....

....... Mr. Boardman 7 Triumph Royal..... ......... Mr. Leighton

DOUBLE TULIPS. 1 ............

....... Mr. Bruce 2 .............................. Ditto

...... Mr. Whalley
........... Mr. Bruce
.............. Mr. Harrison

........ Mr. Butler

...... Ditto
............. Mr. Wakefield

1 and 2 Feathered Bizard ......Mr. Wheeler

2 Flamed ditto .........Ditto 1 and 2 Feathered Byblomen... . Ditto 1 and 2 Flamed ditto............ Ditto

1 Flamed Bizard .......... Mr. Whittingham 1 and 2 Feathered Roses........ Mr. Wheeler 1 and 2 Flamed ditto............ Ditto

HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 1 Cypripedium calceolus .......... Mrs. Falkner 2 Scbirzanthus pinnatus .......... Bannerman and Co. 3 Primula cortusoides.............. Ditto 4 Cypripedium pubescens.......... Mr. Whalley 5 Dodecatheon Media alba ........ Mr. Davies 6 Astragalus montana ............ Bannerman and Co. First basket of Cut Flowers ........ Mr. Whalley Second ditto ditto ........ Ditto Third ditto ditto .... ... Mrs. Falkner First basket of Plants.............. Mr. Horstall Second dittoditto .... .... Mrs. Pyke Third ditto ditto .............. Wm. Earle, Esq. The best Orange Tree.............. Mrs. Rathbone The best Peonia Montana.......... Mr. Whalley

FRUITS AND ESCULENTS. The best Pine, Mr. Powell. Second Ditto, Mr. Davis.- Best Black Grapes, Mr. Tayleur. Second Ditto, Mr. Smith, Ful. wood Lodge.-Best White Grapes, Mr. Cunningham, Second Ditto, Mr. Tayleur.-Best Melon Silver Rock, Mr. Sandbach. -Best Strawberries, Mr. Roskell.-Best plate of Apples, Mr. Manifold. Second Ditto, Mr. Sandbach.-Best brace of Cauliflowers, Mrs. Rathbone. Second Ditto, Mr. Tayleur.-Best brace of Cucumbers, Mr. Powell. Second Ditto, Ditto.- Best dish of Mushrooms, Wm. Earle, Esq. Second Ditto, Mr. Tayleur.-Best Dish of French Beans, Mrs. Rathbone. Second Ditto, Ditto.-Best bunch of Asparagus, Mr. Roskell. Second Ditto, Mr. J. A. Yates.-Best brace of Lettuces, Mr. Isaac Cooke. Second Ditto, Mrs. Dyson.

EXTRA PRIZES. A plate of Pears, Wm. Earle, Esq.-A plate of Nuts, Mr. Whalley.-Best Rhubarb, Mr. Barnes.-Artichokes, Mr. J. A. Yates.-Cabbages, Mrs. Rathbone.

Apples of last year, remaining on the branch, Mr. Roskeil.

A fine specimen of the Palm, Sabal Black Burniana, with Fruit and Flowers, John Blackburne, Esq. M.P.

Fig Tree, Mr. Powell.
Specimen of the Cactus speciosissimus, Earl Grosvenor.


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1 Monday the 26th ultimo, the annual show of s, flowers, hothouse plants and fruits, was held le large room at the York Hotel, the room being - fully decorated with evergreens in addition to the

ant display of the favourites of Flora, and a band usic being in attendance. The fruits were displayed anti-room, by which arrangement the luscious gifts of ona were inspected with much greater convenience attended former exhibitions. Notwithstanding the rourable state of the weather, the attendance of visitors umerous and highly respectable; yet though the room requently crowded, no inconvenience was experienced,

promenaders were obliged to walk in one direction, bere was, consequently, no meeting or jostling with other. The appearance of the room, and the arranges altogether, were admirable.


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BLACK 1 Knight ......D-2

1 Queen ......B-2 2 Cassle...C i to B 1

2 Queen .....D-2 3 Queen ......B-5

3 Castle ......C-7 or(a) 4 Queen.........E-8X 4 King ......A-7 5 Castle .......A-6

5 Pawn ......A-6 6 Queen ......B—8XMATE.

Or, (a)

3 Castle...... B-8 4 Queen..........A-6X 4 Pawn ......A-6 5 Castle .........A-6X MATE.

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TULIPS. le premier prize for the best pair of Tulips, a Silver

value five guineas, gained by William Leighton, of fon, with the following: žurpasse Catafalque.......... Feathered Bizard De Roi .......

... Flamed ditto Black Bouquet ....

... Feathered Byblomen Roi de Siam.......

... Flamed ditto Iriumph Royal...... ...Feathered Rose Taylor's Seedling ......... ... Flamed ditto

Second best pair, Mr. Thomas Pyke. Duc de Savoy........ ... Feathered Bizard Earl St. Vincent ..... ... Flamed ditto Washington ......

... Feathered Byblomen Alien ..........

... Flamed ditto Tramph Royal.............. Feathered Rose Turper's Lord Hill .......... Flamed ditto

Third best pair, Mr. T. Butler, Manchester. Earl St. Vincent ............ Feathered Bizard Grandeur Superb ..... ... Flamed ditto Bienfait ......

...Feathered Byblomen Trangparent Noir........... Flamed ditto Sheridan's Rose.............. Feathered Rose Triumph Royal.............. Flamed ditto

FEATHERED BIZARD. Due de Savoy................. Mr. Leighton Goud Buers....................Mr. T. Pyke Sarpasse Catafalque.... ...... Mr. Pulford Sir Sydney Smith ...... ..Mr. Whalley Duke of Manchester .. ..... Mr. Falkner, Manchester

...... Mr. Appleton Collingwood ..................Mr. Bruce

Nese and clean ................ Mr. Appleton

...... Mr. Falkner Violet Quarto .....

..... Mr. Leighton Black Bouquet ..

.....Mr. Butler Incomparable...

.... Mr. Falkner Washington

....Mr. Bruce Malure Partout ................Mr. Appleton

STOVE PLANTS. 1 Onocydium Andersonia........ Mr. Rd. Harrison 2 Maranta zebrina ..............J. Blackburne, Esq. 3 Onocydium flavinum.......... Mr. Rd. Harrison 4 Thunbergia alata........ ...... Bannerman and Co. 5 Birchellia capensis ........... Mr. Dyson 6 Dodymocarpos rhexia ....... Mrs. Falkner

Ixera coccinea ............... Mr. Dobson 8 Erythrina cristagalli .. ....... Mr. Powell

GREENHOUSE PLANTS. 1 Calceolaria corymbosa ....... Mrs. Cropper 2 Fuschia conica ................ Ditto 3 Calceolaria rugosa..... ...... Ditto 4 Melaleuca fulgens ............. Bannerman and Co. 5 Fuschia gracilis ..... ......J. Blackburne, Esq. 6 Polygala latifolia ... ...... Mr. Davis 7 Correa speciosa ................Ditto 8 Ruseus androgynus ............ Mrs. Cropper

PELARGONIUMS. 1 Commander-in-Chier, .......... Mrs. Dyson 2 Spectabile purpureum .......... Ditto 3 Macranthon .................... Ditto 4 Lady Rowley ..

...... Mr. Davies 5 Waverley ................... Mrs. Cropper 6 Decora, ....

...... Ditto

ERICAS. 1 Unknown ....

....J. Blackburne, Esq, 2 Vestita superba,

..... Mr. Davies 3 Odorata ........

..... Mr. Whalley 4 Tricolor ......

...... Dr. Davies 5 Hybrida .......... .........Ditto 6 Vestita coccinea ............... Ditto

HARDY SHRUBS. 1 Azalea frontica carnea ..........Mr. Whalley 2 Ditto ditto alaba................ Ditto 3 Rhododendron cataw biense.....Ditto 4 Ulex Europea, flore pleno........ Bannerman and Co. 5 Azalea pontria ................. Mr. Whalley 6 Rbododendron var .............. Mr. Davies


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The Essayist.


let an occasion slip,) he rails at the ignorance of the lower

The Investigator. orders, and the pride of upstarts; then he forces a laugh | Comprehending Political Economy, Statistics, Joel

at the folly of being governed by an exterior appearance, dence, occasional passages from Parliamentary Spel [ORIGINAL.]

and, casting an anxious look to the corner where is de of a general nature, occasional Parliamentary I MEDITATIONS ON AN OLD HAT. posited the article that has occasioned this discourse, he

ments, and other speculative subjects, excluding

Politics.] sips his malt liquor, with something of satisfaction at hav- |

RUSSIA AND TURKEY. Talk not to me of the rewards attendant upon long ating thus given vent to the bitterness of his feelings. When, tachments, and the gratitude awaiting those who have however, the hat is in reality unfit for any manner of ser

[From the New Times.] served faithfully; I boldly assert that all, or almost all, vice on the head, it is made to serve the heel; for often are glad to get rid of an old servant and supply the vacancy does its thrifty master, annihilating every vestige of its

The advance of the Russians to Jassy, the capid with a new one. In support of my assertion. I ask, what former shape, convert it into a sock ; and thus to the last | Moldavia, coupled with their formidable preparati object is more universally dreaded or despised than an old

does it still endeavour to preserve the understanding ; and attack the Oitoman empire, and carry their arms as hat ? and, on the contrary, what is more treasured and ho. I thus, though soulless itself, do its remains occupy a place the ancient seat of government of the Greek emperen noured than a new one?

Ethel in themselves, circumstances of so important a Datu A new hat is carefully preserved betwixt two soles-the sole of the foot and the sole of the

" likely to affect the general interests of the other kun from the “pelting of the pitiless storm;"yea, even a gloomy S shoe.

States, in so essential a manner, that the subject cloud will drive its owner into the nearest shelter, in order

der Gentle reader! do not toss up thy nose, and turn away absorbs a large portion of public attention, and,

Ge to keep its sleek covering and glossy hue from being tainted

hue from being tainted with an air of contempt from this little sketch of the vicissi. quently, calls for the best elucidations it is in the me by a single spot; and when its master, at last, reaches his roschee histudes of an old hat, for, even from so trifling a subject, thou the journalist to afford, as a guidance to his read

| Under this impression it is that a general outline home, how tenderly does he brush it with the sleeve of his ... his mayest draw a moral lesson for thine own conduct through

mode of attack to be pursued by Russia, the politia life. Thou hast seen how prone man is to despise in ad- military probabilities in her favour, her secrei polici coat! with what an eye of minute curiosity does he examine its every part, to see whether it has sustained the

be/versity those whom he has prized in prosperity ; then let | war, together with the means of defence possess slightest injury, and when with a glad heart. he finds it thy mind be prepared, and thy spirit strengthened, to bear | Turkey, and the manner in which the other Allied still faultless, how carefully does he place it in its paper up against the evils of thy destiny, instead of yielding will be affected by the issue of the contest, are disgai

which cannot fail to be particularly acceptable at the tenement! Mas ! how different is the fate of an olähit! tamely, like that which is senseless and inanimate, to the

sent moment. After having, in its plenitude of youth and beauty, served scorn

ved scorn and contumely that may encompass thee. Thou On the North, that is, on the side facing Rusi as a shield and guardian to the temple of the mind; after hast seen how the ruined hat, in its final and worst mis- European dominions of Turkey may be consider having, percbance, by adding its strength to the thickness

fortune, though to the mortification of its body, labours bounded by the River Danube, at leasi as far as to of its master's skull, preserved him from

military operations. By the peace made between the the attack of okofl for the good of the sole, and verily I say unt othee, “Go

sians and Ottomans, in 1812, the former obtained po some midnight ruffian ; after having protected and saved thou and do likewise."

of Bessarabia, the fortresses of Kilia and Isinail him harinless from the blows of the drunken brawl, and



thereby secured the navigation of the Danube. the descending staves of the watchmen; after having, by

these facilities the principalities of Moldavia and We

became so much exposed, that it would be imposed its shining and fashionable appearance, gained him admit.

THE DIORAMA. tance into the gayest circles of society, I say, after having

The picture now exhibiting at this establishment has

the Turks to make any efficient stand there, and 8 excited, during the short period it has been open to the

must, consequently, withdraw to the other side of the performed these, and numberless other pieces of service, public, in Liverpool, the greatest interest and admiration

nube as soon as the Russians move forward in forts equally important, when falling to decay, abroad it is in all who have seen it. We are also informed, that it

the latter make a rapid advance into Bulgaria exposed by its ungrateful master to all the inclemencies of was one of the most successful of the series exhibited in

Varna, the former would, inevitably, be cut

their resources. The Danube being thus the seasons,-to the rain, the blast, or the snow; and, at the Regent's Park, London. We do not feel surprised at home, it is thrown carelessly aside, and obliged quietly to this indeed it would have been surprising if it had been

first line of attack and defence, the nature of the yield to the rude kicks and buffets of unfeeling servants. I which the effects of perspective, united with great truth otherwise ;-for, whether we view it as a work of art, in

requires that the Turks should take up a positie

it, between Rugzezuk and Silistria, which latter Nay, sometimes, when its place has been occupied by a land harmony of colouring ; extraordinary discrimination I taking care, at the same time. to guard the opening

situated at the confluence of the Missovo, and has sai spruce rival, it is forced again to appear on duty, and in characterizing every object and component part of this

Babatag and Istere, on the right, and the passage de exercise its functions throughout the dreariness of a rainy splendid production ; the wonderful truth and force in

Danube, between Viden and Orsova, on the left. day, while the new-comer glides on and basks amidst the whic!

the which the reflected lights are managed and dispersed over
the picture; the extraordinary clearness, transparency, and

| In this position, it is, that the first stand may sunshine and gladness of blue skies. depth of the shadows; the amazing force and brilliancy of

pected from the Turks, unless it has been deterea A man with an old hat steals along, in the broad light the lights; with the no less scientific, we had almost said

abandon a bulwark formed by nature and art, and fed

a number of important military positions, whid of day, almost like an escaped convict, afraid of being re.magical, effect produced by those gradations which belong

scarcely be expected, as it is well known that com cognised : and would, if possible, never quit his own walls, / to aërial perspective, altogether combining to make the

able Ottoman force is assembled on the Danube, except shrouded by the murky night, that concealer of

whole a masterpiece of pictorial illusion; or, whether we
contemplate it as a specimen of magnificent and richly.

further reinforcements can readily be had from Adres thread-bare garments, and cloak of evil practices. A friend

and Shumbla. decorated architecture, exhibiting a grand display of massy

This first position is, however, red or acquaintance, on the opposite side of the street, he pre- clustered columns, curiously-wrought capitals and archí.

more liazardous by the peculiar course of the rivet, tends not to see, for fear he should be seen in return, and traves; the root rich in chiselled ornaments and carved

there forms an arch, the convexity of which 19

towards the Ottomans. The assailants having have to cross to him, when all attempts to conceal the de- projections, aitoraing examples of the taste of the four. Wallachia, and arrived bety fects of his upper covering he well knows would be in

he in teenth century; in either of these considerations, the pic-
| ture of Roslin Chapel cannot fail to excite the most unqua.

e pic-find themselves in the centre of a chord, these vain. If a titter be heard in the street while he is passing, lified admiration and delight.

qua. I of which rest on Orsova, on the one side, and Gous.

If we add to these the ma- I the other: both positions noted in the wars of he dares not turn his head either to the one side or the other, gical effect of sunshine introduced through the door and the

the first by its defence against the Austrians, for he believes it to be at the expense of his hat, and con- windows, and on the distant vista, now enlivening the scene

second against the Russians. By the advantage sequently, with a face glowing with the ruby tint of shame and giving it additional splendour, then, as the luminary and vexation, he quickens his pace, muttering a curse on is supposed to be gradually obscured, by a passing cloud,

mentioned, the wing-movements of an assailing a its rays being withdrawn, leaves a solemn gloom, creating

consequently rendered more easy and rapid the supposed object of ridicule. All the pretty females an affecting sensation, a delicious feeling, which, forget.

counter-movements of the enemy attacked, b. with whom he is intimate he shuns, as though they were ting that the whole is an illusion, produced by a powerful

means the former, if well prepared with boats, ]

chance of forcing the passage of the river, with a his mortal foes, and would rather go a mile from his road effort of art, we are disposed to cherish, and believe, that

position, being more readily ably to select the le tban run the risk of meeting one of them. Though, when this, and such places as this, are the solitudes

advance. It is, nevertheless, an arduous undertake his “ old hat was new," he was the most gallant of men,

“Where heav'nly pensive contemplation dwells." cross the Danube, in front of an enemy, the rire he now dares venture nothing more, at furthest, than al,"

In short, if the picture of Roslin Chapel be not the ne quarter being both deep and wide, and the onero side-long glance at the sweet forms and faces that pass

plus ultra of painting, we must confess that we know not itself liable to accidents. » what is.

Some skirmishing and movements, on a large sa over this lower world, like earthly comets, lighting all sus

may, therefore, be expected, before the invading arm ceptible hearts with the blaze of passion. If he enters and Bathing at Boarding Schools. It has been suggested the Russians can cross the river, and convey opet inn, almost before he has passed the door, his hat is in his to us, that the cork collar jacket would be most useful artillery, heavy baggage, stores, and provisions, a hand, not tbrongh his extraordinary politeness, but merely to teach the boys at country schools to swim. We know, for 300,000 men, independent of envalr. de

y from our own experience, that in spite of the strictest in- bravery and military skill may be able, in the inter to hide it from observing eyes; he next looks around the junctions, or the most severe punishment, boys will bathe effect, it would be impossible to foresee. In forma room for a retired corner, or dark nook, and, if he can find in hot weather; and the pits to which they resort are often when not organized as they now are; when not putere one obscure enough, there it is deposited ; but he would very deep in some parts, and extremely dangerous: but if by so extraordinary a character as the present Salle rather place it under tbe table than on it. He has gene. I every school was supplied with one or more of the cork roused to so high a pitch of fanaticism, the Turks rally met with some illiberal remark from the vulgar, or

collar jackets, the master might indulge all his boys in fought ipanfully in defence of their country. ART

turn with the luxury of bathing; and we do not hesitate ing the Danube, the Russians have still many strots some slight from a ci-devant friend ; therefore, if he has, to say, that he must be an uncommonly stupid boy who sitions to take, in order to secure the line of the by any means, an opportunity, (and he will, on no account, would not acquire the art of swimming in a very few trials. 'nications, and, when taken, they will still have to go

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7, and, besides, leave a large moveable force in the own ingenuity and exertions for every meal they had. (important advantage, namely, that of being a dead level, sbbourhood, to meet all emergencies. The Turks, Circumstanced as they were, it was natural for them to or nearly so, the adjoining wall being erected on what is btless, will avoid, as much as possible, general actions, keep a constant look-out for ships, and they saw several, ascertained to be a level by the mason's plumb. This wall a driven to the plains, and endeavour to harass the as- but at a great distance, during the first month of their is marked into fifty-nine compartments, (I presume of ten bts by that species of guerilla warfare for which they residence on the island. The last they saw was the Hope, yards each, but that is not material,) and is numbered from so well suited. The Russians, however, cannot pro bound to Hobart Town, Van Dieman's Land, which, in south to north, and at each end there are iron posts of three

till they have effected the reduction of Varna, by November, 1826, approached within a few miles of the to four feet in length, and tapering from the base upwards. h merns only can the conquest of Bulgaria be com- shore, and sent out a boat to fish. Paine and Proudfoot I rubbed some whiting over the base of one of these, at d. This operation will, most probably, be confided to ran with alacrity to the beach, and, hailing the boat, com- the north end of the walk, about two inches deep, and, re. mng detachment of the main army of the Russians, municated their situation to the officer, who, in reply, told tiring from it, when I arrived opposite the compartment h, in all likelihood, will advance towards the line of them that when he returned to the ship he would inform No. 15, I could no longer see the white part with the naked stains bounding the province of Romelia, in three the captain of the circumstances, and act according to his eye: I then retired to the end of the walk, and taking out ons. The basis of operations, for the capture of orders. He did return to the ship, and the unhappy men my spy-glass, I could see it, certainly, but it was suffia, (for the defence of which the Turks have a strong bad soon the mortification to see the boat hoisted in, and ciently indistinct to prove that it would, at last, become Iched position) must be formed between Nicopoli and the vessel making all sail, in prosecution of her voyage. invisible, even with the best glass, if proper distance could ria; and here, certainly, some fighting may be ex- From that period to the appearance of the Palmira, twelve be obtained. The experiment, however, may be considered 1, as the Turks will, no doubt, be there in consider-months afterwards, they had not seen a single ship. complete, on the well-known principle, that what once beorce. It may, perhaps, be deemed advisable to turn

comes invisible to the eye, will, at last, become invisible osition, which certainly could be done by marching

with the glass. This was about seven o'clock in the mornfrom Hezargrad to Adrianople, proceeding from


ing. At noon of the same day, when the sun was full on oli on Kaizanlik, or by crossing the Danube, above

the parade, I could not see the white part with the naked low Viden, and advancing to Philipopoli, either


eye when I arrived opposite the compartment No. 10; zh Servia, or in a direct line. The Russians, how.

whilst, in both these instances, the tops of the posts, which vill be cautious what positions, and what enemies'


are dark coloured, were distinctly visible, without the they leave behind them. Notwithstanding, if they

SIR, --In a periodical work, entitled “ Library of Useful glass, from one end of the walk to the other: thus proving obtain a body of Servians, as auxiliar


Knowledge, (under the head · Mathematical Geography, that what is stated to take place on a surface supposed to tem extremely useful in that particular species of Treatise 1% published under the superintendence

icular species of Treatise I.') published under the superintendence of the be convex, actually takes place on a surface known to be e, against which they will have to contend. The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, second | 11a ns are restless, brave, fond of their independence, ledition 180 " whereof Henry Broncham. E . E.B.S. Again; if, from the same spot, you turn your eyes toite the Turks. This combined aid would also enable MP

iso enable | M.P. is Chairman, and the Rev. W. Shepherd, Dr. Traill. wards the signal poles on Bidston Hill, and remark, that raders to hold the Pachas of Bosnia and Upper Al.

and J. Ashton Yates, F 1. of this town, are members of

mbers of they are fixed in ground considerably higher than your hori. in check, in case they should send reinforcements to

the committee: the first chapter treats of the spherical zontal line, you will find, that, though the bottom part of loman army, for the defence of St. Sophia, and by

figure of the earth, and after an allusion to the voyages of these poles is much larger than the top, the very same ap. cans, also, would access to the valley of Maritza be Columbus, Magellan, and Sir Francis Drake, it is added pearances

added pearances will be observable in reference to them, as were ted, as well as to the roads of Philipopoli and Adri

(page 3)-_* After these voyages, the spherical figure of observable in reference to the post on the parade; and that,
the earth was generally admitted by the philosophers of if the lower part of any one of them was painted any glaring

A spirit of investigation soon after arose, and colour, (say to the extent of several feet, according to the 'XT OF TWO MEN RESCUED FROM A DESERT

furnished an abundance of satisfactory proofs, which, state of the atmosphere at the time of trial,) it could not ISLAND IN THE SOUTHERN OCEAN. though of daily or frequent occurrence, had hitherto been

be discerned with the naked eye, and would be so indisunobserved or unbeeded. These proofs consist in certain tinct, when viewed through a good glass, as to convince he 4 h of November, 1827, the Palmira made the

e remarkable appearances, either of objerts on the surface you, that nothing but distance was wanted, to destroy its sland of Amsterdam, or, as it is sometimes called, of the earth itself, or of the heavenly bodies. They are of visibility altogether, whilst al's: the two islandssituated in the same longi. lah

the follow

PrintinIf a person were situated upon might be distinctly seen without the glass: thus proving, 7 deg. 53 min. cast, and in 37 deg. 52 min.

52 mio. / an open and extensive plain, he would find, that, as he that what is stated to take place in reference to objects on atitude-being often described by either name, indeparted from obiects the view of which were not hindered a surface that is supposed to be convex, or continually and t maps and charts. At à distance of about five by any unevenness in the plain. they would gradually dis. I gradually bending or curving down tourds, actually takes

takes I quantity of smoke was distinguishable on the l appear from their buse upwards: in like manner, the hull p

ear from their buse uwards: in' like manner. the bull place in reference to objects on a surface known to be con. ide, wbich induced the captain to run in as close as of

of a ship, proceeding out to sea, becomes invisible first, cave, or continually and gradually bending or curving up

shit s, supposing that some sufferers from shipwreck and afterwards the masts and rigging. The order in which wara save lit the fire by way of signal; and when within the parts of these obiects successively disappear, cannot be Again : if you take a wal

select of the shore, two men were distinctly seen standing lexplained by the mere supposition, that the distance be

e supposition that the distance be some object placed on an eminence, in any exposed situa.

rue ouect pa • A boat was immediately I tween the obiect and the spectator gradually increasing. tion, and paint its base as before, whether you ascend some I down, and Mr. Addison, the chief officer, pro. the chiect becomes first indistinct and at last. invisible to ascertain the condition of the men, and afford | because, with respect to bodies, whose bulk is the same | the object becomes first indistinct, and, at last, invisible; distant hull yet higher, and so leave the object below your

distant hull yet higher, and

e, with respect to bodies. 'whose bulk is the same horizontal line, or go down into a valley, and so leave the sistance as might be required. In less than an from the

| from the top to the bottom, this reason is applicable to all object above your horizontal line, precisely the same ap. le boat returned with the two strangers. Their the

the parts alike, and would not account for the highest part pear

Id not account for the highest part I pearances will be observable, though in different degrees, ace, at the first glance, was truly squalid and mi.

of them being always the last visible; and with respect to of course, according to circumstances : thus proving, that they had long beards; their old ragged clothes bodies, the b

1es bodies, the bottom part of which is the largest, (as in the what is stated to take place, exclusively, in reference to tehed with seal skins, with the fur on. The bristly

urisuy | case of a ship. it would not only be insufficient to explein objects on a surface wbich is supposed to be conver, actu. wild bog, fastened together, served for the breeches the fact, but would be directly contrary to experience; by a

Serience by ally takes place, indifferently, in reference to objects on of them. Their shoes were also made of hog's which we are taught, that where distance alone is the cause su

se surfaces which are known to be concave, convex, and flat. the form called mocassin, which consists of a cir- of a body becoming first indistinct and then invisible the Tuat distance, alone, is not sufficient to account for e. with the hair outsid

atside, and when the foot is larger and more bulky parts of it are seen the longest. I these appearances, is proved by the fact, that the car of a & the middle of it, a cord, rove through the edges, | The only supposition which can account for the order in

balloon is frequently invisible, when the balloon itself

a be leather together round the ankle and instep. which the

ang instep / which the parts of an object disappear, is, that the surface can readily be seen; but, that “the only supposition be of one was James Paine, about 22 years of age, ! of the earth is continually and gradually bending or curv.

cury which can account for the order in which the parts of an le other, Robert Proudfoot, about 40, both sailors, ing downwards. in other words that it is a convex sur object disappear is, that the surface of the earth is conlives of Edinburgh. They had been fourteen

ourteen | face: and the circumstance that these appearances are the linually and gradually bending or curving downwards, on the island. It appeared, from their own ac.

v same, both in kind and degree, all over the earth, and in / in other words, that it is a convex surface." I positively themselves, that they had joined the Governor, whatever direction the spectator moves from the obiect. Igeny: and,"

deny ; and, in opposition thereto, I affirm, without the

"PPOSLO a schooner of about sixty tops, belonging to Van or the object from the spectator, proves that this convex

least fear of contradiction, that the increasing density of Land, at the Isle of France, that vessel being surface is e surface is everywhere, and in all directions, precisely, or

v. of the atmosphere towards the surfuce of the earth, and of

ne at on a sailing voyage; and in September, 1826, verva

| very nearly, the same, and, consequently, that the earth the sea, is the true solution of this phenomenon. ved off the northernmost island above men-lig i sphere."

It is unnecessary to enter into any elaborate proofs of It is customary for these ships to land a num

Now, Sir, I shall assume these to be the generally re- this; it is so palpable, it can be seen. You have only to heir crew at the different islands, where seals

ceived and acknowledged proofs of the spherical figure of step abroad into the fields, or visit our piers and parades, lions are procurable, and to take them up the earth: these, at least. are the proofs that are submitted early in the morning, and in the evening, in order to obfew months afterwards, with the oil and skins

s by the teachers of geograpby in all schools. I shall, there- tain the most indubitable evidence, both on land and on have been able to obtain. It happened to be rening that Paine and Proudfoot went ashore, and enable you to ascertain, without the possibility of error. | fore, proceed to demonstrate the fallacy of such proofs. / water.

I say nothing about the shape of the earth; but I think provisions were landed at a convenient point, that what is so triumphantly asserted to take place, ex.

it must now be conceded, that the appearance observable, comfortable huts were discovered, roofed with clusively on a surface supposed to be conver actually when ships approach each ot e habitations, doubtless, of some former adven-I takes place, indifferently, on surfaces known to be concave, ever op toe sp

ever of the spherical figure of the earth, precisely the same The boat had to return again to the schooner,

CE, conver, and fat: and I shall, afterwards, account for this appearance being observable, indifferently, on convex, con. f more provisions, and four other men ; but, phenomenon.

cave, and flat surfaces; only the distances, of course, being og on board, a smart breeze sprung up, the ves." It so happens. Sir. that one of the best pieces of ground unequal : the increasing density of the atmosphere towards iven to leeward, and nothing more was seen or for the experiment, with which I am acquainted, is situated in

situated the surface of the water being the proximate cause (i ben her at the island. The two sufferers were thus

I at your own doors ; namely, that beutiful maarine parade Ilieve I may say so) of such a phenomenon, and distance, mselves. Their only clothing was on their backs. I at the Prince's Dock; and, though the length is not suffi

o suffithe remote and auxiliary one. m to have husbanded their little store of bread cient fully to develop all the proofs, it possesses one most

Now, Sir, let inquiry be instituted ; let experiment be sions with great care, having made them last five

made, in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, acAfter that they were thrown entirely on their

Distinctly understood, or no proof at all. cording to the ever-varying state of the atmosphere ; it

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will be found that the appearances, which I have de-crest the crust more fantastically than pigeons' feet. After 1 yet have we, with reference to the evening in question scribed, will be the same, “ both in kind and degree, all a while they might be declared game by the legislature, old-fashioned liking for calm retirement, with our over the earth, and in whatever direction the spectator which would materially expedite their extirpation.” house in peace, ere moves from the object, or the object from the spectator."| We may mention, en passant, the singular relish for “The iron tongue of Midnight hath told twelve."

I have heard of the persisting and ineradicable nature living maggots in decayed cheese-and for high-flavoured It is true we need not attend the play unless we chi of human opinion." I cordially agree with the writer, game, which may be nosed across the street; the canni. but there are temptations to a lover of the drama who says, -- "The obstinacy of individuals in maintaining bal-like fashion of eating shell-fish alive; and the French render his going to the Theatre something more ti their own opinions, is not less conspicuous among men of and Swiss custom of eating frogs and snails. We could, voluntary act, that are absolutely irresistible. And the science than among those of less pretensions ;" but I call indeed, almost fill our journal with instances, io illustration this influence may operate only in a very limited de upon every member of the Committee of the Society for of the proverb we have already quoted; but we shall con. still the occasion engenders a necessity for otherwise the diffusion of Useful Knowledge; and, especially, I call tent ourselves with one more, which we have reserved as a | less fatigue, if nothing more, to servants (as well thy upon the members resident in this town or neighbourhood, climax to our enumeration of delicacies. Holcroft, in his the auditory as those of the players) already wearied from actual experiment, publicly to refute and overturn | Travels in France, relates, that La Lande, the celebrated their multifarious labour of the week. Adding, they my positions, or, to afford me the weight of their respect. French astronomer, was remarkable for hunting and eating this " last, but not least," consequence, to and able names, to establish and confirm them.

spiders; and, however disgusting the very mention of such train of et ceteras, alike condemnatory of the inte I remain, Sir,

a diet may be, we place the fullest reliance upon the cir- and its tendency, we are not without hope that the Your most obedient Servant, cumstance, as we know a most respectable German who gers will abandon this their humour. Not, od .5, Upper Stanhope-street.

R. G. HUNT. assures us that one of his tutors at the University was very out of any deference to what we bave here advanced

fond of spiders, the flavour of which he used to assimilate from the evident-shall we say, impropriety? of the 0 In our next we shall insert the letter of Mathematicus, to that of the raspberry. That these insects may be safely ceeding. It is the business, and should be the M questioning Mr. Hunt's reasoning. It is only fair to let Mr. swallowed, no one can doubt, who has seen the avidity of the stage “to show virtue her own feature ; " Hunt speak for himself, in the first instance.

and impunity with which the starling will pounce upon know that
them, as its favourite diet.

"The jewel, best enamelrd,
In conclusion we should observe, that the gentleman ad.

Will lose his beauty." verted to in the letter of An Epicure, and who is very Beware, then, ye guardians of its lustre! However "De gustibus non disputandum est."

well known to us, has paid us a visit, in consequence of wise sullied, tarnish it not by any deed of yours.

the allusion made to him, last week, amongst our notes to The dramatis per sona, strangers as well as old are The following brief editorial article appeared in the correspondents. So far from being offended at that allu. ance, must this week content themselves with wil Liverpool Mercury of Friday last, as a preface to the sion, after having read the letter signed An Epicure, he have said for them, awaiting our leisure and a letter of a correspondent, which we omit. He informed

bed avowed that it was literally true, as far as he was con opportunity to hear “our say” of them. They di

cerned, and that he did not care if all the world beard lose aught by delay, especially those of whom we le us that there was a gentleman in Liverpool, who was of what was considered his depraved taste. The dishes, but little knowledge; while the mere natnes of partial to the flesh of dogs, cats, and rats, which were he maintained, were excellent, and it was a subject of enumerated in the bills, will be an adequate notifi often served up to his table. By the sequel of the fol- regret, that, in consequence of a ridiculous prejudice, that what they were respectively advertised to do wa lowing article, it will be seen that the truth of this they were thrown away as useless.

done. In justice, nevertheless, to ourselves and statement has been fully confirmed by the individual

| Westerne, we must say of him that he has more to whom this extraordinary taste has been ascribed, and

realized our expectations, which were not a little sunt The Drama.

as our readers may recollect. whose letter, which we have just received, shall be given in our next :

We have, on more than one occasion, Deticed the (FROM A CORRESPONDENT.)

and well-merited compliments which have beco be The letter of An Epicure, which we have at length con.

upon Mr. Westerne, and we now congratulate is trived to decipher, will afford our readers some amusement

THEATRE ROYAL. mingled with surprise, and will forcibly remind them of

upon the engagement of this gentleman at ar

where he made his début on Tuesday last, in the the old proverb, “ One man's meat is another man's "Good, my Lord, will you see the players well bestow'd ?"

of Count Belino, in the Devil's Bridge. It is the poison." The gentleman who forms the subject of that "My Lord, I will use them according to their desert."

of the most competent judges, that a more atten letter, has, it seems, so completely surmounted ordinary “God's bodikins, man, much better. The less they deserve, prejudices, and departed from ordinary habits, as to relish the more merit is in your bounty."

singer never appeared on the Liverpool boards

voice and enunciation are excellent, and his team certain dishes froni which more squeamish folks would re. volt with horror. Rals, cats, and sucking puppies are said The theatrical amusements of the past week have been

refined ; equally creditable to his own genius, and to be amongst the favourite dainties of this eccentric epi- somewhat more diversified, but not less pleasing, than pre- the rare me

| abilities of Mr. Webbe, his musical tutor, she

the rare merit of directing the professional state cure; and, however singular his penchant may, at first viously. On Monday Othello was performed; on Tuesday 16

favourite of the public, and of the matchless 2 sight, appear to people of ordinary taste, we shall show we had the Devil's Bridge; Wednesday reintroduced us The

There never was a more flattering first appeara that the dishes we have named, and many other still more to Venice Preserved ; on Thursday we were presented with

that of Mr. Westerne, who was encored in almost extraordinary, have ranked amongst the luxuries of the Rob Roy; and to Friday appertains the restoration of Virepicures of other countries and other ages. The notions ginius. We deem Saturday, at least in Liverpool, without

songs.-Edit. Kalo of beauty amongst different nations do not differ more re- the pale of dramatic legitimacy; “pot of note," there. markably than their notions of good eating. There is a fore, nor " likelihood.” To the frequenters of the Theatre,

Co Correspondents. beau ideal of the epicure as well as of the lover ; and if indeed, it is matter of astonishment, and equally so of our townsman, superior to vulgar prejudice, can relish a complaint with the corps dramatique,—that the short inter

VALUABLE REPRINT.-A correspondent, who subsc roasted bow word, he may have acquired his relish from val of this unfruitful evening is not, as it was wont to be,

self An Old Friend, reminds us of our promise to me the writings of the ancient “ Prince of Physicians," Hip- allowed the performers for repose. We entertain no ab.

the Kaleidoscope a valuable scientific work, we pocrates, who highly extolled dogs' flesh as superior to stract veneration for the abuses of “ times by-gone,” from mutton or pork. The Romans, too, held sucking puppies the too prevalent notion that age sometimes sanctifies error,

e. We have not forgotten our p

as our present volume is within a month of its in such esteem that they used to sacrifice them to their and antiquity, like charity, pleads “trumpet-tongued,” in

we shall reserve the commencement of the top deities, as an incense grateful to the nostrils of the very extenuation, if not for the perpetuity, of is a multitude of sins :" neither are we sufficient enthusiasts to regard each

of the work in question for the first number

volume.The engravings are now preparing D'Arnay, who wrote & most amusing and esteemed modern alteration as an improvement, simply because it

LEASOWE CASTLE. We shall defer the appearance work on the private lives of the Romans, assures us that chances in our day. While, then, we hail, with un.

article on this subject until next week, in esa they sometimes ate, as a delicate morsel, water-rats, and mixed satisfaction, the increased activity, spirit, libe.

may, in the meantime, supply a copy of the ins certain white worms, short and thick, which are found in rality, and general judicious method which now happily

the monument erected on the spot where the decaying wood. pervades the management of our theatrical concerns,

Mrs. Boody was killed. The relish for dogs' flesh was by no means confined to we must be permitted, also, to question the justice,

| Mr. HUNT'S THEORY.-As we find that the singular the mistress of the world, as Rome was called. The sa. as well as the policy, of that arrangement which vouch.

lately advanced by Mr. Hunt, as first commune vages of North America, as Carver and other writers tell safes to us the gratification of a Saturday night's exhibi

letter in the Mercury, are likely to give rise us, used, at their particular feasts, to use this flesh, to tion. It is unjust, we conceive, inasmuch as it seriously

cussion, we have transferred that letter to the which they gave a decided preference over other dishes; abridges the comfort and convenience of the actors, than

and shall follow it up with some other como and it is a matter of general notoriety, that, at this day, whom there are few persons of any other profession re

with which we have been favoured on the subject, the flesh of the dog is publicly exposed in the shambles inquiring more ease and opportunity for laborious study,

ing our privilege of saying a few words at the seque China. Goldsmith informs us, that the dogs in that coun. and none possessing less of both; and it is impolitic, for

discussion. try, when they see a dog butcher, will sometimes attack that this useless deviation from the good old custom (some MEDITATIO

MEDITATIONS ON AN OLD HAT. The original light and pursue him in the street. antiquated practices have virtue) has not yet been produc

our Manchester correspondent. J. Bolton, WI We have mentioned water rats as a favourite dish of the tive of more than "a beggarly account of empty benches."

a preceding page; and his verses which accompe Romans; then why may not land rats be equally pala-Nor is it probable, we think, even supposing it were de.

reserved for our next. table ? In Southey's Omniana there is a whimsical short sirable, that any effort of the managers can possibly super.

The verses of H.W.J. shall appear nert we chapter entitled, “Three Methods of Lessening the Num- induce popularity to sanction this, comparatively, unpro

respondent is informed, that the note adre ber of Rats;" the first of which modes is by cooking and fitable violation of ancient usage.

last is intended for him. eating them. We shall here quote the passage:

Independently, however, of the wrong hereby inflicted “ Introduce them at table as a delicacy :--they would on the performers, coupled with its inutility in a pecuniary | G. W. W. recelved.-C. JI.'s music has also reacura probably be savoury food; and if nature hath not made way, the opening of our theatre on Saturday evenings, them so, the cook may. Rat pie would be as good as rook has attached to it a moral consideration, of rather a Printed, published, and sold, every Tuesday, by som pie; and four Lails intertwined like the serpents of the "questionable" nature. We are not over fastidious on and Co., at their General Printing Office, Love Delphis tripod, and rising into a spiral obelisk, would'the subject of suitable recreation for this particular night, Liverpool, and to be had of all Booksellers.

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c the note adrerted


Herrary and Sririttific Afitrror.


iis familiar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, Mexand MANNERS, AMUSEMENT, elegant EXTRACTS, POETRY, ANECDOTES, BIOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, the DRAMA, Arts and SCIENCES, Wit and SATIRE, FASHIONS, NATURAL HISTORY, &c. forming handsome ANNUAL VOLUME, with an INDEX and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this work from London through their respective Booksellers.

D. 115 -- Vol. VIII.


Price 3 d.


have spoken with less confidence, and more accuracy, as Il. The author prefers the situation of the white, and I pre.

shall distinctly point out when I come to those methods fer that of the black ; because, at the present move, the PHILIDOR NOT INFALLIBLE.

of play which are opposed to our system, in the first dis. black, instead of pushing his pawn to F 5, as he supposes,

engagement of the pieces, omitting the remainder,—which will advance pawn to B 3, threatening, at the same time, " Whoe'er expects a faultless piece to see, is either more easy to understand, or less important to

to move the knight to F 2, on which the white must play Seeks what nor is, nor was, nor e'er shall be." observe.

his knight to H 3; the black then takes the pawn H 2, In the first game this is his mode of attack :

with his knight; and, if the while should take the knight l'he following singular letter is not so generally


with the castle, the black gives check with queen at H 4,

BLACK. own as might naturally have been expected, when

1 Pawn ....E-4

1 Pawn ......E-5 ruining his opponent's game; and if the white, instead of importance and originality, as well as the celebrity

2 Bishop ...... 4 2 Bishop ......C-5 taking the knight with the castle, should take the pawn E 3 Mr. Philidor, are considered. We have spoken with

3 Pawn .......C-8 3 Knight ......F-6

with his bishop, the black should then take bishop F 1 with eral chess players who never read the letter of the 4 Pawn ......D-4

4 Pawn ......D-4 pnymous Modenese, although they are not wholly 5 Pawn ......D-4

the knight; and, in case the white retakes with bis king, sequainted with the writings of that celebrated It is a maxim of this writer, that he who is strongly at-1:

he will lose the advantage of castling, baving, besides, an sonage. tacked is always embarrassed in his defence as if the ad

isolated pawn: but, should the castle take the knight, the Some of our friends, on a first perusal of this ex: vantage of the first move ought not to cease, at most, in 18

black, by taking knight H 3 with the bishop, and after. ordinary composition, were much astonished, and moves, as has been remarked by Marcus Aurelius Severi.

wards checking at H 4, will gain a pawn, and a better polost shocked, at the temerity of a writer, who

sition. Whether the white has profited by the second nus in the 18th chapter of his Theory of Chess. In the ed to question the dictum of Philidor, which has

move of the black, I leave you to determine: for my own present game, however, I really cannot perceive the slightest lerally been recognised as law by the most accom

part, I compare it to a man returning from a combat, in embarrassment on the part of the Black, who does not even ihed chess players of Europe, and, we may add,

want so many moves to destroy the mentioned advantage of| he world at large.

which he has been wounded.

| The bold assertion that it is bad, at the second move, to The anonymous Modenese has, however, examined the first move ;--if he will, instead of retiring at the fifth,

play king's knight to bishop's third square, always sur. I analyzed Philidor's openings of the game, which theme which | move bishop to B 6, regulating himself according to the

prised me, seeing that the author proves this by a worse le generally been considered as infallible, as so directions given in the first game of my Defence, thus :

move on the part of the white, as the second is, when he by mathematical demonstrations. In the con


BLACK. ling part of his letter he says, “ By what has

5 Bishop ......B-4X

defends the king's pawn with the queen's pawn, instead of a hitherto said, you will observe that the greater

6 Bishop ......D-2, as the 6 Bishop ......D-2X defending it with the queen's knight, as the best approved

(best move. of those maxims which Philidor approves or

writers do. I call this move worse, inasmuch as it confines 7 Knight......D

2 7 Pawn .......D_5 lemns in the opening of games, fail in their pre

| the king's bishop, which cannot speedily be placed in any certain of taking off the adversary's king's pawn, and attacking position, which it would be at queen's bishop, led success; and I should consider myself want

are thereby depriving the white of the strength of his two fourth square; and because it often happens that you are in that sincerity which I owe to my own charac- thereby depriving the white of the strength of his two lo

rice pawns on the fourth file, upon which this author relies, obliged to push the queen's pawn two squares, for which ow far this Modenese has succeeded in proving from which proceeds a perfect equality of game, so far as object you employ two moves, when one, only, might be startling positions, we shall leave our readers to regards the pieces ; moreover, the white will be in

ers to regards the pieces ; moreover, the white will be inferior insufficient; and, lastly, because, by defending with the rmine. To those who are partial to the noble position on account of having an isolated pawn on his queen's knight, at bishop's third square, you bring a piece e of chess, it must be superfluous to enlarge upon queen's file.

into play in a position to act much better than it certainly importance of opening the game correctly. In the second game he begins with the same opening, could be supposed to do at its own square, by which it is | order to facilitate the right understanding of but supposes that the black, at the second move, instead seen in practice, that he who defends at the second move, letter, one of our friends has done us the favour of answering with the bishop to C5, as he has done above, his king's pawn with that of the queen, has, at least, a anslate the moves into the simple phraseology plays pawn C6,--when the white, advancing his pawn to weak and a confined game for a long time. h we have adopted in the Kaleidoscope. This

his D 4, obtains a better position; upon which I do not find Upon reasons similar to these the same move of Lopez enable them to get through the letter of Modewith comparative ease.

any thing interesting or worthy of your attention. was condemned by the most celebrated academies at Naples,

In the third game, he decides, that after the two kings', who adopted that of the queen's knight; and I am satis. We scarcely need tell our readers that the board must be kept in the usual position, the pawns have been pushed two squares, he who has the fied, in my Treatise on the Defence, to follow their steps. at the bottom, and the black at the top.

move must not play the king's knight to bishop's third At the fourth game he pretends that he who plays first,

square, concluding that such a step would lose the attack, cannot, at the second move, push the queen's bishop's A LETTER and he gives it to the adversary.

pawn one square, as, if he does, he loses the attack, and, the celebrated anonymous Modenese, to a Friend, respect. It is truly admirable how the writer will discard the probably, the game. This assertion is also too bold, bea ing the book of Mr. Philidor. Guioco Piano Games, which have been approved of from cause


WRITE, DEAR FRIENDI send you tbe account you re- age to age by the best chess players in Europe. We may

1 Pawn ......E-5

i Pawn ...... E-4 concerning Mr. Philidor's book, entitled “ Analyse collect from this what influence the love of novelty has

2 Pawn ......C-6

2 Pawn ......D4 checs.” It contains nine games, in which he inva- upon the mind of man. But let us come to the moves by

(move censured directs the white: in the two first, where the White which he proves his assertion.

by Philidor. le move, he gives that sort of attack, which he seems



Here the black should not take pawn D 4, which that fer : in the third and fourth he gives the move to the

1 Pawn ...... E-5

i Pawn ...... E-4

author supposes to be his best move, but should play in which he shows two different openings to be bad.

2 Knight ......R-6

2 Pawn ......D-9 (move censured

his knight to R6, upon which, if the white take pawn : following four he gives the king's gambit; and in

by Philidor.)

E 6, the black should check with his queen at A5, inth, and last, the queen's gambit_finishing the 3 Ought to play

taking, afterwards, the doubled pawn, either with the with a beautiful demonstration of the victory of the Pawn .......D-5 3 Pawn.........F.

queen or knight, according as the white may play ; but if and rook, against the rook, for which all our schools

(as the author sup-
poses in his first

the white, instead of taking pawn E 6, should play bishop debted to this Frenchman; in which he has distin

Back Game.)

to G 5, the black will take pawn D 4; and, on the white ed himself by a brilliancy of play that is not to be + Pawn ...... E-4

4 Pawn ......E-5

retabing with his queen, or otherwise advancing pawn in his commencement of games. In these he might 5 Knight ......G_4

5 Pawn ......D_-4 to 'E 5, attacking the knight, the black will still give

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