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A man, whose name Munting once knew, but could recollect, won, by this trade, (the sale of tulips) more
60,000 florins in the course of four months.”-In rt, the traffic and gambling in tulips was carried to as at a height as that in lottery tickets ever was. a Thornton's Botanical Illustrations it is slated, that, so at was the rage for tulips once, in Holland, that the gomasters found it necessary to enact a law that no one ald give more than fifty pounds for a single root. The following is an extract from Carr's Tour through land. The passion of the Dutch for flowers is well wn. M. Dutens, in his very entertaining and insting Memoirs of a Traveller in Retirement, says, that ne Kerms, or fair, held at the Hague, in the month of 4, "I was witness to a circumstance which I could not rwise have believed, respecting the price of flowers in and. I saw 475 guineas offered, and refused, for a inth. It was, to be sure, the most charming flower ever was seen. It belonged to a florist, at Haerlem; another florist offered this for it. The reason which owner gave me for refusing the offer was, that the inth was known to all the amateurs of Europe, and he sold the bulbs every year for more than the interest 0 guineas. These bulbs produced the same sort of - in all its beauty. This singular passion has not ded. At Haerlem, fine narcissuses and jonquils sell a immense price ; and parties are made every summer sit the roses which grow in great perfection at Noord-Page 173.
HERBACEOUS PLANTS. 1 Cypripedium calceolus
Mrs. Falkner 2 Schirzanthus pinnatus
Bannerman and Co. 3 Primula cortusoides.....
Ditto 4 Cypripedium pubescens. Mr. Whalley 5 Dodecatheon Media alba
Mr. Davies 6 Astragalus montana
. Bannerman and Co. First basket of Cut Flowers. Mr. Whalley Second ditto ditto
Ditto Third ditto ditto
Mrs. Falkner First basket of Plants....
Mr. Horsfall Second ditto ditto
Mrs. Pyke Third ditto ditto
Wm. Earle, Esq. The best Orange Tree...
Mrs. Rathbone The best Peonia Montana.......... Mr. Whalley
FRUITS AND ESCULENTS. The best Pine, Mr. Powell. Second Ditto, Mr. Davis.- Best Black Grapes, Mr. Tayleur. Second Ditto, Mr. Smith, Pul. wood Lodge.-Best White Grapes, Mr. Cunningham, Second Ditto, Mr. Tayleur.-Best Melon Silver Rock, Mr. Sandbach. -Best Strawberries, Mr. Roskell.-Best plate of Apples, Mr. Manifold. Second Ditto, Mr. Sandbach.-Best brace of Cauliflowers, Mrs. Rathbone. Second itto, Ir. Tayleur.-Best brace of Cucumbers, Mr. Powell. Second Ditto, Ditto.- Best dish of Mushrooms, Wm. Earle, Esq. Second Ditto, Mr. Tayleur.-Best Dish of French Beans, Mrs. Rathbone. Second Ditto, Ditto.—Best bunch of Asparagus, Mr. Roskell. Second Ditto, Mr. J. A. Yates.-Best brace of Lettuces, Mr. Isaac Cooke. Second Ditto, Mrs. Dyson.
FLORAL AND HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY.
A plate of Pears, Wm. Earle, Esq.-A plate of Nuts, Mr. Whalley.-Best Rhubarb, Mr. Barnes.- Artichokes, Mr. J. A. Yates.-Cabbages, Mrs. Rathbone.
Apples of last year, remaining on the branch, Mr. Roskeil..
A fine specimen of the Palm, Sabal Black Burniana, with Fruit and Flowers, John Blackburne, Esq. M.P.
Fig Tree, Mr. Powell.
1 Monday the 26th ultimo, the annual show of s, flowers, hothouse plants and fruits, was held te large room at the York Hotel, the room being fully decorated with evergreens in addition to the ant display of the favourites of Flora, and a band usic being in attendance. The fruits were displayed anti-room, by which arrangement the luscious gifts of ona were inspected with much greater convenience
attended former exhibitions. Notwithstanding the nourable state of the weather, the attendance of visitors
umerous and highly respectable ; yet though the room requently crowded, no inconvenience was experienced,
promenaders were obliged to walk in one direction, bere was, consequently, no meeting or jostling with other. The appearance of the room, and the arranges altogether, were admirable.
LIST OF THE PRIZES.
The Beauties of Chess.
“ Ludimus effigiem belli."-VIDA.
PEATHERED ROSES. 1 Wallworth
Mr. Hey 2 Doo Little
...Mr. Appleton 3 Count de Vergennes.
Mr. Whalley 4 Unknown
..Mr. Butler 5 Harvey's Rose.
.. Mr. Whalley 6 Hero of the Nile...
Mr. Boardman, Leigh 7 Triumph Royal. ............ Mr. T. Pyke
PLAMED BIZARDS. 1 Phenix
. Mr. Appleton 2 Superb
Mr. Hey 3 Lecantique
..Mr. Appleton 4 Captain White
Mr. T. Pyke 5 Grand Cairo
· Mr. Whalley 6 Beauté Frappante.. .......Mr. Falkner 7 Seedling
......... Mrs. James
FLAMED BYBLOMEN. 1 Unknown
.. Mr. Whalley 2 Duc de Florence.
Mr. Bruce 3 Unknown
Mr. Appleton 4 Transparent Noir..
Mr. Bruce 5 Triumph de Lisle
Mr. Leighton 6 Alexander Magnus ........ Mr. Boardman 7 Seedling
BLAMED ROSES. 1 Rose Unique
....... Mr. Whalley 2 Incomparable..
Ditto 3 Lord Hill.
Mr. Leighton 4 Rose Grand..
Mr: Bruce 5 Rose Quarto
Mr. Leighton 6 Roi de Cerise
Mr. Boardman 7 Triumph Royal... ............ Mr. Leighton
DOUBLE TULIPS. 1
..... Mr. Bruce
..... Mr. Whalley
SELF COLOURBD. 1
.... Mr. Harrison 2
Mr. Butler 3
· Ditto 1 and 2 Feathered Byblomen.... Ditto 1 and 2 Flamed ditto.
..Ditto 1 Flamed Bizard.. . Mr. Whittingham 1 and 2 Feathered Roses........ Mr. Wheeler 1 and 2 Flamed ditto............ Ditto
STOVE PLANTS. 1 Onoeydium Andersonia........ Mr. Rd. Harrison 2 Maranta zebrina
..J. Blackburne, Esq. 3 Onocydium flavinum.......... Mr. Rd. Harrison 4 Thunbergia alata...
Bannerman and Co. 5 Birchellia capensis
• Mr. Dyson 6 Dodymocarpos rhexia .. .....Mrs. Falkner 7 Ixera coccinea
Mr. Dobson 8 Erythrina cristagalli ....... Mr. Powell
GREENHOUSE PLANTS. 1 Calceolaria corymbosa ....... Mrs. Cropper 2 Fuschia conica
· Ditto 3 Calceolaria rugosa...
....Ditto 4 Melaleuca fulgens
... ... Bannerman and Co. 5 Fuschia gracilis ..........J. Blackburne, Esq. 6 Polygala latifolia
.... Mr. Davis 7 Correa speciosa
Ditto 8 Ruseus androgynus ............ Mrs. Cropper
PELARGONIUMS. 1 Commander-in-Chief, .......... Mrs. Dyson 2 Spectabile purpureum
Ditto 3 Macranthon ..
. Ditto 4 Lady Rowley
Mr. Davies 5 Waverley
... Mrs. Cropper 6 Decora,
ERICAS. 1 Unknown
.J. Blackburne, Esq, 2 Vestita superba,
Mr. Davies 3 Odorata
Mr. Whalley 4 Tricolor .....
Dr. Davies 5 Hybrida
..... Ditto 6 Vestita coccinea ............... Ditto
HARDY SHRUBS. 1 Azalea frontica carnea .......... Mr. Whalley 2 Ditto ditto alaba ...... .......Ditto 3 Rhododendron cataw biense...... Ditto 4 Ulex Europea, flore pleno........ Bannerman and Co. 5 Azalea pontria.
... Mr. Whalley 6 Rbododendron var ......, · Mr. Davies
SOLUTION TO STUDY CLXXXIII.
BLACK. 1 Kniglit ...D-2
1 Queen ......B-2 2 Cassle...C 1 I to B 1
2 Queen .....D-2 3 Queen ......B-5 3 Castle ......C-7 or(a) 4 Queen.........E-8X 4 King ......A-7 5 Castle .......A-6
5 Pawn ..A–6 6 Queen ......B—8XMATE.
3 Castle...... B-8 4 Queen.........A-6X 4 Pawn ......A-6 3 Castle .........A-6X MATE.
TULIPS. le premier prize for the best pair of Tulips, a Silver
value five guineas, gained by William Leighton, of on, with the following: žurpasse Catafalque... . . Feathered Bizard De Roi .......
..... Flamed ditto Black Bouquet
Feathered Byblomen Roi de Siam..
.. Flamed ditto Iriumph Royal.............. Feathered Rose Taylor's Seedling
• Flamed ditto Second best pair, Mr. Thomas Pyke. Duc de Savoy..
.. Feathered Bizard Earl St. Vincent
... Flamed ditto Washiogton
... Feathered Byblomen Alien
.... Flamed ditto Triumph Royal...
Feathered Rose Turner's Lord Hill .......... Flamed ditto
Third best pair, Mr. T. Butler, Manchester. Earl St. Vincent
Feathered Bizard Grandeur Superb ........ Flamed ditto Bienfait
... Feathered Byblomen Transparent Noir. ........ Flamed ditto Sheridan's Rose.. ....... Feathered Rose Triumph Royal..
FEATHERED BIZARD. Due de Savoy
.. Mr. Leighton Goud Buers..
Mr. T. Pyke Sarpasse Catafalque..
Mr. Pulford Sir Sydney Smith
Mr. Whalley Duke of Manchester
Mr. Falkner, Manchester Trafaigar
... Mr. Appleton Collingwood
...... Mr. Bruce
PEATBERED BYBLOMEN. Neat and Clean
.. Mr. Appleton Bienfait...
Mr. Falkner Violet Quarto
Mr. Leighton Blaek Bouquet
Mr. Butler Incomparable
Mr. Falkner Washington
Mr. Bruce Malgre Partout
... Mr. Appleton
RUSSIA AND TURKEY.
The Investigator. orders, and the pride of upstarts ; then he forces a laugh (Comprehending Political Economy, Statistics
, Juris at the folly of being governed by an exterior appearance, dence, occasional passages from Parliamentary Spe [ORIGINAL.]
and, casting an anxious look to the corner where is de. of a general nature, occasional Parliamentary I MEDITATIONS ON AN OLD HAT. posited the article that has occasioned this discourse, he ments, and other speculative subjects, excluding
Politics. ] sips his malt liquor, with something of satisfaction at hav. Talk not to me of the rewards attendant upon long at- ing thus given vent to the bitterness of his feelings. When, tachments, and the gratitude awaiting those who have however, the hat is in reality unfit for any manner of ser
(From the New Times.] served faithfully; I boldly assert that all, or almost all, vice on the head, it is made to serve the heel; for often are glad to get rid of an old servant and supply the vacancy does its thrifty master, annihilating every vestige of its
The advance of the Russians to Jassy, the capi with a new one. In support of my assertion, I ask, what former shape, convert it into a sock ; and thus to the last Moldavia, coupled with their formidable preparata object is more universally dreaded or despised than an old does it still endeavour to preserve the understanding; and attack the Oitoman empire, and carry their arms as hat? and, on the contrary, what is more treasured and ho. thus, though soulless itself
, do its remains occupy a place the ancient seat of government of the Greek empere noured than a new one? A new hat is carefully preserved betwixt two soles—the sole of the foot and the sole of the in themselves, circumstances of so important a natu
likely to affect the general interests of the other kan from the "pelting of the pitiless storm;" yea, even a gloomy shoe.
States, in so essential a manner, that the subject d
Gentle reader! do not toss up thy nose, and turn away absorbs a large portion of public attention, and, cloud will drive its owner into the nearest shelter, in order to keep its sleek covering and glossy hue from being tainted with an air of contempt from this little sketch of the vicissi- quently, calls for the best elucidations it is in the poll by a single spot ; and when its master, at last, reaches his tudes of an old hat, for, even from so trifling a subject, thou the journalist to afford, as a guidance to his read home, how tenderly does he brush it with the sleeve of his mayest draw a moral lesson for thine own conduct through Under this impression it is that a general outline coat! with what an eye of minute curiosity does he exa- life. Thou hast seen how prone man is to despise in ad. military probabilities in her favour, her secret policy mine its every part, to see whether it has sustained the versity those whom he has prized in prosperity; then let war, together with the means of defence proses slightest injury, and when, with a glad heart, he finds it thy mind be prepared, and thy spirit strengthened, to bear Turkey, and the manner in which the other Aled still faultless, how carefully does he place it in its paper up against the evils of thy destiny, instead of yielding will be affected by the issue of the contest, are disquit tenement! Alas! how different is the fate of an old hat! camely, like that which is senseless and inanimate, to the which cannot fail to be particularly acceptable at the After having, in its plenitude of youth and beauty, served scorn and contumely that may encompass thee. Thou
On the North, that is, on the side facing Rusi as a shield and guardian to the temple of the mind ; after hast seen how the ruined hat, in its final and worst mis- European dominions of Turkey may be consider having, perchance, by adding its strength to the thickness fortune, though to the mortification of its body, labours bounded by the River Danube, at least as fe as e of its master's skull , preserved him from the attack of for the good of the sole, and verily. I say unt othee, “Go military operations. By the peace made between the
sians and Ottomans, in 1812, the former obtained pasa some midnight ruffian; after having protected and saved thou and do likewise.”
of Bessarabia, the fortresses of Kilia and Ismail him harinless from the blows of the drunken brawl, and
thereby secured the navigation of the Danube.
these facilities the principalities of Moldavia and Wo the descending staves of the watchmen; after having, by
became so much exposed, that it would be imposed its shining and fashionable appearance, gained him admittance into the gayest circles of society,– I say, after having excited, during the short
period it has been open to the nube as soon as the Russians move forward in fons The picture now exhibiting at this establishment has must, consequently, withdraw to the other side of the
the Turks to make any efficient stand there, performed these, and numberless other pieces of service, public
, in Liverpool
, the greatest interest and admiration the latter make a rapid advance into Bulgaria equally important, when falling to decay, abroad it is in all who have seen it. We are also informed, that it Varna, the former would, inevitably, be cute exposed by its ungrateful master to all the inclemencies of was one of the most successful of the series exhibited in their resources. The Danube being thus terded the seasons, to the rain, the blast, or the snow; and, at the Regent's Park, London, We do not feel surprised at first line of attack and defence, the nature of the yield to the rude kicks and buffets of unfeeling servants. which the effects of perspective, united with great truth situated at the confluence of the Missovo, and has ad home, it is thrown carelessly aside, and obliged quietly to otherwise ; –for, whether we view it as a work of art, in requires that the Turks should take up a positie Nay, sometimes, when its place has been occupied by a and harmony of colouring ; extraordinary discrimination taking care, at the same time, to guard the operang spruce rival, it is forced again to appear on duty, and in characterizing every object and component part of this Babatag and Istere, on the right, and the passage di exercise its functions throughout the dreariness of a rainy splendid production: the wonderful truth and force in Danube, between Viden and Orsova, on the left day, while the new-comer glides on and basks amidst the which the refected lights are managed and dispersed over the picture; the extraordinary clearness, transparency, and pected from the Turks, unless it has been determina
In this position, it is, that the first stand may sunshine and gladness of blue skies,
A man with an old hat steals along, in the broad light the lights; with the no less scientific, we had almost said abandon a bulwark formed by nature and art, and see of day, almost like an escaped convict, afraid of being re. magical, effect produced by those gradations which belong scarcely be expected, as it is well known that a ren cognised ; and would, if possible, never quit his own walls, to aëtial
perspective, altogether combining to make the able Ottoman force is assembled on the Danube, except shrouded by the murky night, that concealer of contemplate it as a specimen of magnificent and richly. and Shumbla. This first position is, however, thread-bare garments, and cloak of evil practices. A friend decorated architecture, exhibiting a grand display of massy more hazardous by the peculiar course of the river, or acquaintance, on the opposite side of the street, he pre- clustered columns, curiously-wrought capitals and archí, there forms an arch, the convexity of which is tends not to see, for fear he should be seen in return, and traves; the roof rich in chiselled ornaments and carved towards the Ottomans. The assailants having have to cross to him, when all attempts to conceal the de projections, affording examples of the taste of the four. Wallachia, and arrived between Bucharest and fects of his upper covering he well knows would be in ture of Roslin Chapel cannot fail to excite the most unqua- of which rest on Orsova, on the one side, and Goals vain. If a titter be heard in the street while he is passing, lified admiration and delight. If we add to these the ma- the
other; both positions noted in the wars of de he dares not turn his head either to the one side or the other, gical effect of sunshine introduced through the door and the first by its defence against the Austrians, for he believes it to be at the expense of his hat, and con- windows, and on the distant vista, now enlivening the scene second against the Russians. By the advantag sequently, with a face glowing with the ruby rint of shame and giving it additional splendour, then, as the luminary mentioned, the wing-movements
of an assailing is supposed to be gradually obscured, by a passing cloud, consequently rendered more easy and rapid tu and vexation, he quickens his pace, muttering a curse on its rays being withdrawn, leaves a solemn gloom, creating counter-movements of the enemy attacked, by the supposed object of ridicule. All the pretty females an affecting sensation, a delicious feeling, which, forget, means the former, if well prepared with boats, ut with whom he is intimate he shuns, as though they were ting that the whole is an illusion, produced by a powerful chance of forcing the passage of the river, with les his mortal foes, and would rather go a mile from his road effort of art, we are disposed to cherish, and believe, that position, being more readily ably to select the last than run the risk of meeting one of them. Though, when this, and such places as this, are the solitudes
advance. It is, nevertheless, an arduous undertaking his “old hat was new," he was the most gallant of men, “Where heav'nly pensive contemplation dwells." cross the Danube,
in front of an enemy, the river in he now dares venture nothing more, at furthest, than a
In short, if the picture of Roslin Chapel be not the ne quarter being both deep and wide, and the operation side-long glance at the sweet forms and faces that pass plus ultra of painting, we must confess that we know not itself liable to accidents.
Some skirmishing and movements, on a large over this lower world, like earthly comets, lighting all susceptible hearts with the blaze of passion. If he enters an
Bathing at Boarding Schools. It has been suggested the Russians can cross the river, and convey ovet af
may, therefore, be expected, before the invading army inn, almost before he has passed the door, his hat is in his to us, that the cork collar jacket would be most useful artillery, heavy baggage, stores, and provisions, neem hand, not through his extraordinary politeness
, but merely from our own experience, that in spite of the strictest in bravery and military skill may be able, in the interi to hide it from observing eyes ; he next looks around the junctions, or the most severe punishment, boys will bathe effect, it would be impossible to foresee. In format room for a retired corner, or dark nook, and, if he can find in hot weather; and the pits to which they resort are often when not organized as they now are; when not over one obscure enough, there it is deposited; but he would very deep in some parts; and extremely dangerous : but if by so extraordinary a character as the present Salle rather place it under the table than on it. He has gene- every school was supplied with one or more of the cork roused to so high a pitch of fanaticism, the Turks de rally met with some illiberal remark from the vulgar, or turn with the luxury of bathing; and we do not hesitate ing
the Danube, the Russians have still many stele some slight from a ci-devant friend ; therefore, if he has, to say, that he must be an uncommonly stupid boy who sitions to take, in order to secure the line of their care by any means, an opportunity, (and he will, on no account, would not acquire the art
of swimming in a very few trials. nications, and, when taken, they will still have to partie
FIGURE OF THE EARTH.
, and, besides, leave a large moveable force in the own ingenuity and exertions for every meal they had. I important advantage, namely, that of being a dead level, bbourhood, to meet all emergencies. The Turks, Circumstanced as they were, it was natural for them to or nearly so, the adjoining wall being erected on what is btless, will avoid, as much as possible, general actions, keep a constant look-out for ships, and they saw several, ascertained to be a level by the mason's plumb. This
wall in driven to the plains, and endeavour to harass the
as- but at a great distance, during the first month of their is marked into fifty-nine compartments, (I presume of ten ibts by that species of guerilla warfare for which they residence on the island. The last they saw was the Hope, yards each, but that is not material,) and is numbered from so well suited. The Russians, however, cannot pro- bound to Hobart Town, Van Dieman's Land, which, in south to north, and at each end there are iron posts of three till they have effected the reduction of Varna, by November, 1826, approached within
a few miles of the to four feet in length, and tapering from the base upwards. h means only can the conquest of Bulgaria be com- shore, and sent out a boat to fish. Paine and Proudfoot I rubbed some whiting over the base of one of these, at
This operation will, most probably, be confided to ran with alacrity to the beach, and, hailing the boat, com- the north end of the walk, about two inches deep, and, re. ang detachment of the main army of the Russians, municated their situation to the officer, who, in reply, told tiring from it, when I arrived opposite the compartment 1, in all likelihood, will advance towards the line of them that when he returned to the ship he would inform No. 15, I could no longer see the
white part with the naked atains bounding the province of Romelia, in three the captain of the circumstances, and act according to his eye : I then retired to the end of the walk, and taking out ons. The basis of operations, for the capture of orders. He did return to the ship, and the unhappy men my spy-glass, I could see it, certainly, but it was suffi2, (for
the defence of which the Turks have a strong bad soon the mortification to see the boat hoisted in, and ciently indistinct to prove that it would, at last, become clied position) must be formed between Nicopoli and the vessel making all sail, in prosecution of her voyage. invisible, even with the best glass, it proper distance could ria; and here, certainly, some fighting may be ex- From that period to the appearance of the Palmira, twelve be obtained. The experiment, however, may be considered 1, as the Turks will, no doubt, be there in consider months afterwards, they had not seen a single ship. complete, on the well-known principle, that what once be. orce. It may, perhaps, be deemed advisable to turn
comes invisible to the eye, will, at last, become invisible osition, which certainly could be done by marching
with the glass. This was about seven o'clock in the morn. from Hezargrad to Adrianople, proceeding from
ing. At noon of the same day, when the sun was full on oli on Kaizanlik, or by crossing the Danube, above
the parade, I could not see the white part with the naked low Viden, and advancing to Philipopoli, either
eye when I arrived opposite the compartment No. 10; gh Servia, or in a direct line. The Russians, how.
whilst, in both these instances, the tops of the posts, which vill be cautious what positions, and what enemies'
TO THE EDITOR.
are dark coloured, were distinctly visible, without the they leave behind them. Notwithstanding, if they obtain a body of Servians, as auxiliaries, they would Knowledge, (under the head · Mathematical Geography, that what is stated to take place on a surface supposed to
SIR.-In a periodical work, entitled “ Library of Useful glass, from one end of the walk to the other: thus proving tem extremely useful in that particular species of Treatise 1.") published under the superintendence of the be convex, actually takes place on a surface known to be e, against which they will have to contend. The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, second flat. ns are restless, brave, fond of their independence, edition, 1827," whereof Henry Brougham, Esq. F.R.S.
Again; if, from the same spot, you turn your eyes toite the Turks. This combined aid would also enable M. P. is Chairman, and the Rev. W. Shepherd, Dr. Traill
, wards the signal poles on Bidston Hill, and remark, that faders to hold the Pachas of Bosnia and Upper Ali and J. Ashton Yates, Esq. of this town, are members of they are fixed in ground considerably higher than your hori. in check, in case they should send reinforcements to the committee; the first chapter treats of the spherical zontal line, you will find, that, though the bottom part of coman army, for the defence of St. Sophia, and by figure of the earth, and after an allusion to the voyages of these poles is much
larger than the top, the very same apcans, also, would access to the valley of Maritza be Columbus, Magellan, and Sir Francis Drake, it is added pearances will be observable in reference to them, as were ited , as well as to the roads of Philipopoli and Adri- (page 3)" After these voyages, the spherical figure of observable in reference to the post on the parade ; and that
, the earth was generally admitted by the philosophers of if the lower part of any one of them was painted any glaring
Europe. A spirit of investigation soon after arose, and colour, (say to the extent of several feei, according to the NT OF TWO MEN RESCUED FROM A DESERT furnished an abundance of satisfactory proofs, which, state of the atmosphere at the time of trial,) it could not ISLAND IN THE SOUTHERN OCEAN.
though of daily or frequent occurrence, had hitherto been be discerned with the naked eye, and would be so indis
unobserved or unheeded. These proofs consist in certain tinct, when viewed through a good glass, as to convince he 4 h of November, 1827, the Palmira made the remarkable appearances, either
of objects on the surface you, that nothing but distance was wanted, to destroy its sland of Amsterdam, or, as it is sometimes called, of the earth itself, or of the heavenly bodies. They are of visibility altogether, whilst the upper parts of the poles al's; the two islandssituated in the same longi. the following description :-If a person were situated upon might be distinctly seen without the glass : thus proving, 17 deg. 53 min. east, and in 37 deg. 52 min.
an open and extensive plain, he would find, that, as he that what is stated to take place in reference to objects on atitude-being often described by either name, in departed from objects, the view of which were not hindered a surface that is supposed to be convex, or continually and it maps and
charts. At a distance of about five by any unevenness in the plain, they would gradually dis- gradually bending or curving downwards, actually takes a quantity of smoke was distinguishable on the appear from their buse upwards: in like manner, the hull place in reference to objects on a surface known to be conide, which induced the captain to run in as close as of a ship, proceeding out to sea, becomes invisible first, cave, or continually and gradually bending or curving up, supposing that some sufferers from shipwreck and afterwards the masts and rigging. The order in which wards. have lit the fire by way of signal; and when within the parts of these objects successively disappear, cannot be
Again : if you take a walk into the country, and select of the shore, two men were distinctly seen standing explained by the mere supposition, that the distance be- some object placed on an eminence, in any exposed situa. ttle eminence near it.. A boat was immediately tween the object and the spectator gradually increasing, tion, and paint its base as before, whether you ascend some
down, and Mr. Addison, the chief officer, pro; the object becomes first indistinct, and, at last, invisible; distant hull yet higher, and so leave the object below your to ascertain the condition of the men, and afford because, with respect to bodies, whose bulk is the same horizontal line, or go down into a valley, and so leave the isistance as might
be required. in less than an from the top to the bottom, this reason is applicable to all object above your horizontal line, precisely the same aple boat returned with the two strangers. Their the parts alike, and would not account for the highest part pearances will be observable, though in different degrees, hee, at the first glance, was truly squalid and mic of them being always the
last visible; and with respect to of course, according to circumstances : thus proving, that they had long beards: their old ragged clothes bodies, the bottom part of which is the largest
, (as in the what is stated to take place, exclusively, in reference to tebed with seal skins, with the furon. The bristly case of a ship.) it would not
only be insufficient to explain objects on a surface which is supposed to be convex, actu(wild bog, fastened together, served for the breeches the fact, but would be directly contrary to experience ; by ally takes place, indifferently, in reference to objects on of them. Their shoes were also made of hog's which we are taught, that where distance alone is the cause surfaces which are known to be concave, convex, and fiat. the form called mocassin, which consists of a cir- of a body becoming first indistinct and then invisible, the
That distance, alone, is not sufficient to account for ce, with the hair outside, and when the foot is larger and more bulky parts of it are seen the longest. these appearances, is proved by the fact, that the car of a & the middle
of it, a cord, rove through the edges, The only supposition which can account for the order in balloon is frequently invisible, when the balloon itself be leather together round the ankle and instep which the parts of an object disappear, is, that the surface can readily be seen; but, that the only supposition be of one was James Paine, about 22 years of age of the earth is continually and gradually bending or curv- which can account for the order in which the parts of an le other, Robert Proudfoot, about 40, both
sailors, ing downwards; in other words, that it is a convex sur- object disappear is, that the surface of the earth is conLives of Edinburgh. They had been fourteen face: and the circumstance that these appearances are the inually and gradually bending or curving downwards, on the island. It appeared, from their own ac. same, both in kind and degree, all over the earth, and in in other words, that it is a convex surface,” ! positively themselves, that they had joined the Governor, whatever direction the spectator moves from the object, deny; and, in opposition thereto, I. affirm, without the a schooner of about sixty tops, belonging to Van or the object from the spectator, proves that this convex least fear of contradiction, that the increasing density of Land, at the Isle
of France, that vessel being surface is everywhere, and in all directions, precisely, or the atmosphere towards the surfuce of the earth, and of ved off the northernmost island above men is a sphere. on a sailing voyage ; and in September, 1826, very nearly, the same, and, consequently, that the earth the sea, is the true solution of this phenomenon.
It is unnecessary to enter into any elaborate proofs of It is customary for these ships to land a num
Now, Sir, I shall assume these to be the generally re- this; it is so palpable, it can be seen. You have only to jeir crew at the different islands, where seals ceived and acknowledged proofs of the spherical figure of step abroad into the fields, or visit our piers and parades, lions are procurable, and to take them up the earth ; these, at least, are the proofs that are submitted early in the morning, and in the evening, in order to obfew months afterwards, with the oil and skins by the teachers of geography in all schools. I shall, there- tain the most indubitable evidence, both on land and on
have been able to obtain. It happened to be fore, proceed to demonstrate the fallacy of such proofs, rening that Paine and Proudfoot went ashore, and enable you to ascertain, without the possibility of error,
I say nothing about the shape of the earth; but I think provisions were landed at a convenient point, that what is so triumphantly asserted to take place, ex? it must now be conceded, that the appearance observable
comfortable huts were discovered, roofed with clusively," on a surface supposed to be conver, actually when ships approach each other at sea, is no proof what, e habitations, doubtless, of some former adven- takes place, indifferently, on surfaces known to be concave, ever of the spherical figure of the earth, precisely the same f more provisions, and four other men; but, phenomenon. The boat had to return again to the schooner, conver, and Nat; and I shall, afterwards, account for this appearance being observable, indifferently, on convex, con
cave, and flat surfaces; only the distances, of course, being, og on board, a smart breeze sprung up, the ves
It so happens, Sir, that one of the best pieces of ground unequal : the increasing density of the atmosphere totoards iven to lee ward, and nothing more was seen or for the experiment, with which I am acquainted, is situated the surface of the water being the proximate cause l ben her at the island. The two sufferers were thus at your own doors ; namely, that beutiful maarine parade lieve I'may say so) of such a phenomenon, and distance, in to have husbanded their little store of bread cient
fully to develop all the proofs, it possesses one most made, in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, acmselves. Their only clothing was on their backs. at the Prince's Dock; and, though the length is nol suffi- the remote and auxiliary one.
Now, Sir, let inquiry be instituted ; let experiment be sions with great care, having made them last five After that they were thrown entirely on their
Distinctly understood, or no proof at all. cording to the ever-varying state of the atmosphere ; it
will be found that the appearances, which I have decrest the crust more fantastically than pigeons' feet. After yet have we, with reference to the evening in question scribed, will be the same, ** both in kind and degree, all a while they might be declared game by the legislature, old-fashioned liking for calm retirement, with our v over the earth, and in whatever direction the spectator which would materially expedite their extirpation.".
house in peace, ere moves from the object, or the object from the spectator. We may mention, en passant, the singular relish for “ The iron tongue of Midnight hath told twelve."
I have heard of the persisting and ineradicable nature living maggots in decayed cheese and for high-flavoured It is true we need not attend the play unless we cha of human opinion.” I cordially agree with the writer, game, which may be nosed across the street; the canni. but there are temptations to a lover of the drama who says,—. The obstinacy of individuals in maintaining bal-like fashion of eating shell-fish alive; and the French render his going to the Theatre something more the their own opinions, is not less conspicuous among men of and Swiss custom of eating frogs and snails. We could, voluntary act, that are absolutely irresistible. And the science than among those of less pretensions ;" but I call indeed, almost fill our journal with instances, in illustration this influence may operate only in a very limited de upon every member of the Committee of the Society for of the proverb we have already quoted; but we shall con. still the occasion engenders a necessity for otherwise the diffusion of Useful Knowledge; and, especially, I call tent ourselves with one more, which we have reserved as a less fatigue, if nothing more, to servants (as well the upon the members resident in this town or neighbourhood, climax to our enumeration of delicacies. Holcroft, in his the auditory as those of the players) already wearied from actual experiment, publicly to refute and overturn Travels in France, relates, that La Lande, the celebrated their multifarious labour of the week. Adding, then may positions, or, to afford me the weight of their respeci- French astronomer, was remarkable for hunting and eating this “ last, but not least," consequence, to an oh able names, to establish and confirm them.
spiders; and, however disgusting the very mention of such train of et ceteras, alike condemnatory of the inne I remain, Sir,
a diet may be, we place the fullest reliance upon the cir- and its tendency, we are not without hope that the Your most obedient Servant, cumstance, as we know a most respectable German who gers will abandon this their humour. Not, od 5. Upper Stanhope-street.
R. G. HÙNT.
assures us that one of his tutors at the University was very out of any deference to what we bave here advanced
fond of spiders, the flavour of which he used to assimilate from the evident-shall we say, impropriety ? of the 07 In our next we shall insert the letter of Mathematicus, to that of the raspberry. That these insects may be safely ceeding. It is the business, and should be the pa questioning Mr. Hunt's reasoning.-It is only fair to let Mr. swallowed, no one can doubt, who has seen the avidity of the stage " to show virtue her own feature;" bi Hunt speak for himself, in the first instance.
and impunity with which the starling will pounce upon know that
“ The jewel, best enamelid,
Will lose his beauty." verted to in the letter of An Epicure, and who is very Beware, then, ye guardians of its lustre ! However “ De gustibus non disputandum est."
well known to us, has paid us a visit, in consequence of wise sullied, tarnish it not by any deed of yours.
the allusion made to him, last week, amongst our notes to The dramatis persona, strangers as well as old any The following brief editorial article appeared in the correspondents. So far from being offended at that allu. ance, must this week content themselves with w Liverpool Mercury of Friday last, as a preface to the sion, after having read the letter signed An Epicure, he have said for them, awaiting our leisure and a letter of a correspondent, which we omit." He informed avowed that it was literally true, as far as he was con opportunity to hear “our say of them. They wil us that there was a gentleman in Liverpool, who was of what was considered his depraved taste. The dishes, but little knowledge; while the mere nates of
cerned, and that he did not care if all the world beard lose aught by delay, especially those of whom we te partial to the flesh of dogs, cats, and rats, which were he maintained, were excellent, and it was a subject of enumerated in the bills, will be an adequate notifi often served up to his table. By the sequel of the fol- regret, that, in consequence of a ridiculous prejudice, that what they were respectively advertised to do wa lowing article, it will be seen that the truth of this they were thrown away as useless.
done. In justice, nevertheless, to ourselves and statement has been fully confirmed by the individual
Westerne, we must say of him that he has more to whom this extraordinary taste has been ascribed, and
realized our expectations, which were not a little sue whose letter, which we have just received, shall be given
as our readers may recollect. in our next:
We have, on more than one occasion, neticed by
(FROM A CORRESPONDENT.) The letter of An Epicure, which we have at length con
and well-merited compliments which have been te trived to decipher, will afford our readers some amusement
upon Mr. Westerne, and we now congratulate mingled with surprise, and will forcibly remind them of
upon the engagement of this gentleman at ar the old proverb, “ One man's meat is another man's
where he made his debut on Tuesday last, in the
"Good, my Lord, will you see the players well bestow'd ?" poison. The gentleman who forms the subject of that
of Count Belino, in the Devil's Bridge. It is there
"My Lord, I will use them according to their desert." letter, has, it seems, so completely surmounted ordinary “God's bodikins, man, much better. The less they deserve, singer never appeared on the Liverpool boards
of the most competent judges, that a more accura prejudices, and departed from ordinary habits, as to relish the more merit is in your bounty." certain dishes from which more squeamish folks would re
voice and enunciation are excellent, and his tard volt with horror. Rats, cats, and sucking puppies are said
The theatrical amusements of the past week have been abilities of Mr. Webbe, his musical tutor, she
refined ; equally creditable to his own genius, and to be amongst the favourite dainties of this eccentric epi- somewhat more diversified, but not
less pleasing, than pre- the rare merit of directing the professional studies cure; and, however singular his penchant may, at first viously., On Monday Othello was performed; on Tuesday favourite of the
public, and of the matchless Mix sight, appear to people of ordinary taste, we shall show we had the Devil's Bridge; Wednesday reintroduced us There never was a more flattering first appearane that the dishes we have named, and many other still more to Venice Preserved; on Thursday we were presented with that of Mr. Westerne, who was encored in almost epicures of other countries and other ages. The
notions ginius. We deem Saturday, at least in Liverpool, without songs.-Edit. Kal. of beauty amongst different nations do not differ more re- the pale of dramatic legitimacy; “ not of note," there. markably than their notions of good eating. There is a fore, nor " likelihood." "To the frequenters of the Theatre, To Correspondents. beau idcal of the epicure as well as of the lover ; and if indeed, it is matter of astonishment, and equally so of our townsman, superior to vulgar prejudice, can relish a complaint with the corps dramatique, that
the short inter- VALUABLE REPRINT.-A correspondent, who subscribe roasted bozo word, he may have acquired his relish from val of this unfruitful evening is not, as it was wont to be,
self An Old Friend, reminds us of our promise to me the writings of the ancient "Prince of Physicians," Hip- allowed the performers for repose. We entertain no abpocrates, who highly extolled dogs' flesh as superior to stract veneration for the abuses of " times by-gone,” from
the Kaleidoscope a valuable scientific work, wilde
We have not forgotten our piade mutton or pork. The Romans, too, held sucking puppies the too prevalent notion that age sometimes sanctifies error,
as our present volume is within a month of its com in such esteem that they used to sacrifice them to their and antiquity, like charity, pleads trumpet-tongued,” in
we shall reserve the commencement of the top deities, as an incense grateful to the nostrils of the very extenuation, if not for the perpetuity, of " a multitude of gods. sins :" neither are we sufficient enthusiasts to regard each
of the work in question for the first number of D'Arnay, who wrote a most amusing and esteemed modern alteration as an improvement, simply because it LEASOWE CASTLE-We shall defer the appearane dal
volume. The engravings are now preparing work on the private lives of the Romans, assures us that chances in our day. While, then, we hail, with un.
article on this subject until next week, in order they sometimes ate, as a delicate morsel, water-rats, and mixed satisfaction, the increased activity, spirit, libe.
may, in the
meantime, supply a copy of the inscried certain white worms, short and thick, which are found in rality, and general judicious method which now happily decaying wood.
the monument erected on the spot where the learn pervades the management of our theatrical concerns,
Mrs. Boody was killed. The relish for dogs' flesh was by no means confined to we must be permitted, also, to question the justice, Mr. HUNT's TABORY.–As we find that the singular por the mistress of the world, as Rome was called. The sa. as well as the policy, of that arrangement which vouch
lately advanced by Mr. Hunt, as first communiente vages of North America, as Carver and other writers tell safes to us the gratification of a Saturday night's exhibi
letter in the Mercury, are likely to give rise to us, used, at their particular feasts, to use this flesh, to tion. It is unjust, we conceive, inasmuch as it seriously
cussion, we have transferred that letter to the Ladda which they gave a decided preference over other dishes ; abridges the comfort and convenience of the actors, than
and shall follow it up with some other communik and it is a matter of general notoriety, that, at this day, whom there are few persons of any other profession re
with which we have been favoured on the subject, the flesh of the dog is publicly exposed in the shambles in quiring more ease and opportunity for laborious study,
ing our privilege of saying a few words at the sequel China. Goldsmith informs us, that the dogs in that coun and none possessing less of both; and it is impolitic, for
discussion. try, when they see a dog butcher, will sometimes attack that this useless deviation from the good old custom (some MEDITATIONS ON AN OLD Hat.-The original light to and pursue him in the street. antiquated practices have virtue) has not yet been produc
our Manchester correspondent, J. Bolton, will be for We have mentioned water rats as a favourite dish of the tive of more than “ a beggarly account of empty benches.”
a preceding page; and his verses which accompanied Romans; then why may not land rats be equally pala. Nor is it probable, we think, even supposing it were de.
reserved for our next. table? In Southey's Omniana there is a whimsical short sirable, that any effort of the managers can possibly super. The verses of H. W. J. shall appear next week. To chapter entitled, " Three Methods of Lessening the Num: induce popularity to sanction this, comparatively, unprober of Rats;" the first of which modes is by cooking and fitable violation of ancient usage.
respondent is informed, that the note adserted
last is intended for him. eating them. We shall here quote the passage:
Independently, however, of the wrong hereby inflicted “ Introduce them at table as a delicacy :-they would on the performers, coupled with its inutility in a pecuniary G.W.W. received.-C. His music has also reacbet them so, the cook may. Rat pie would be as good as rook has 'attached to it a moral consideration, of rather a Printed, published, and sold, every Tuesday, by 2.Sep pie; and four tails intertwined like the serpents of the questionable" nature. We are not over fastidious on and Co., at their General Printing Office, Lædamu Delphis tripod, and rising into a spiral obelisk, would'the subject of suitable recreation for this particular night, Liverpool, and to be had of all Booksellers.
come very scarce.
trrary and Scicitific stirrror.
“ UTILE DULCI."
is familiar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, Mexand MANNERS, AMUSEMENT, elegant EXTRACTS, POETRY, ANECDOTES, BIOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, the DRAMA, Arts and SCIENCES, Wır and SATIRE, FASHIONS, NATURAL HISTORY, &c. forming handsome ANNUAL VOLUME, with an Index and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this work from London through their respective Booksellers.
D. 115 - Vol. VIII.
LIVERPOOL, TUESDAY, JUNE 10. 1828.
Price 3 d.
The author prefers the situation of the white, and I pre. shall distinctly point out when I come to those methods fer that of the black ; because, at the present move, the PHILIDOR NOT INFALLIBLE.
of play which are opposed to our system, in the first dis- black, instead of pushing his pawn to F 5, as he supposes,
engagement of the pieces, omitting the remainder,—which will advance pawn to B 3, threatening, at the same time, " Whoe'er expects a faultless piece to see,
is either more easy to understand, or less important to to move the knight to F 2, on which the white must play Seeks what nor is, nor was, nor e'er shall be." observe.
his knight to H 3; the black then takes the pawn H 2, In the first game this is his mode of attack :
with his knight; and, if the white should take the knight l'he following singular letter is not so generally
with the castle, the black gives check with queen at H 4, pwn as might naturally have been expected, when
ruining his opponent's game; and if the white, instead of importance and originality, as well as the celebrity
2 Bishop ......4 2 Bishop ......C-5 taking the knight with the castle, should take the pawn E 3 Mr. Philidor, are considered. We have spoken with 3 Pawn .......C-8 3 Knight ......F-6
with his bishop, the black should then take bishop F 1 with eral chess players who never read the letter of the 4 Pawn ......D-4 4 Pawn ......D-4 pnymous Modenese, although they are not wholly 5 Pawn ......D-4
the knight; and, in case the white retakes with his king, requainted with the writings of that celebrated It is a maxim of this writer, that he who is strongly at- he will lose the advantage of castling, having, besides, an sonage.
tacked is always embarrassed in his defence as if the ad- isolated pawn: but, should the castle take the knight, the Some of our friends, on a first perusal of this ex: vantage of the first move ought not to cease, at most, in 18 black, by taking knight
H 3 with the bishop, and afterordinary composition, were much astonished, and moves, as has been remarked by Marcus Aurelius Severi- wards checking at H 4, will gain a pawn, and a better pojost shocked, at the temerity of a writer, who nus in the 18th chapter of his Theory of Chess. In the
sition. Whether the white has profited by the second ed to question the dictum of Philidor, which has
move of the black, I leave you to determine: for my own terally been recognised as law by the most accom- present game, however, I really cannot perceive the slightest ihed chess players of Europe, and, we may add, embarrassment on the part of the Black, who does not even part, I compare it to a man returning from a combat, in
which he has been wounded. he world at large. want so many moves to destroy the mentioned advantage of
The bold assertion that it is bad, at the second move, to the anonymous Modenese has, however, examined the first move ;—if he will, instead of retiring at the fifth, analyzed Philidor's openings of the game, which move bishop to B 6, regulating himself according to the play king's knight to bishop's third square, always sur.
prised me, seeing that the author proves this by a worse e generally been considered as infallible, as so directions given in the first game of my Defence, thus :
move on the part of the white, as the second is, when he by mathematical demonstrations. In the conling part of his letter he says, “ By what has
5 Bishop ......B-4X
defends the king's pawn with the queen's pawn, instead of a hitherto said, you will observe that the greater
6 Bishop ......D—2, as the 6 Bishop .D-2X defending it with the queen's knight, as the best approved of those maxims which Philidor approves or
writers do. I call this move worse, inasmuch as it confines lemns in the opening of games, fail in their pre certain of taking off the adversary's king's pawn, and attacking position, which it would be at queen’s bishop,
7 Knight......D-2 7 Pawn .......D-5
the king's bishop, which cannot speedily be placed in any in that sincerity which I owe to my
own charac- thereby depriving the white of the strength of his two fourth square; and because it often happens that you are if I should recommend you to follow his advice." pawns
on the fourth file, upon which this author relies, obliged to push the queen's pawn two squares, for which ow far this Modenese has succeeded in proving from which proceeds a perfect equality of game, so far as object you employ ewo moves, when one, only, might be startling positions, we shall leave our readers to regards the pieces ; moreover, the white will be inferior in sufficient; and, lastly, because, by defending with the rmine. To those who are partial to the noble position on account of having an isolated pawn on his queen's knight, at bishop's third square, you bring a piece e of chess, it must be superfluous to enlarge upon queen's file.
into play in a position to act much better than it certainly importance of opening the game correctly. In the second game he begins with the same opening, could be supposed to do at its own square, by which it is I order to facilitate the right understanding of but supposes that the black, at the second move, instead seen in practice, that he who defends at the second move, letter, one of our friends has done us the favour of answering with the bishop to C5, as he has done above, his king's pawn with that of the queen, has, at least, a anslate the moves into the simple phraseology plays pawn C 6,--when the white, advancing his pawn to weak and a confined game for a long time. h we have adopted in the Kaleidoscope. This D 4, obtains a better position ; upon which I do not find enable them to get through the letter of Mode
Upon reasons similar to these the same move of Lopez with comparative ease.
any thing interesting or worthy of your attention. was condemned by the most celebrated academies at Naples, We scarcely need tell our readers that the
In the third game, he decides, that after the two kings' who adopted that of the queen's knight; and I am satisboard must be kept in the usual position,—the pawns have been pushed two squares, he who has the fied, in my Treatise on the Defence, to follow their steps
. at the bottom, and the black at the top. move must not play the king's knight to bishop's third At the fourth game he pretends that he who plays first,
square, concluding that such a step would lose the attack, cannot, at the second move, push the queen's bishop's and he gives it to the adversary.
pawn one square, as, if he does, he loses the attack, and, the celebrated anonymous Modenese, to a Friend, respect
It is truly admirable how the writer will discard the probably, the game. This assertion is also too bold, bea ing the book of Mr. Philidor.
Guioco Piano Games, which have been approved of from cause DEAR FRIEND. I send you the account you re. age to age by the best chess players in Europe. We may
1 Pawn ...... E-5
1 Pawn ......E-4 concerning Mr. Philidor's book, entitled “ Analyse collect from this what influence the love of novelty has
2 Pawn C-6
2 Pawn ......D. checs.” It contains nine games, in which he inva- upon the mind of man. But let us come to the moves by
(move censured directs the white: in the two first, where the White which he proves his assertion.
by Philidor. le move, he gives that sort of attack, which he seems
Here the black should not take pawn D 4, which that 1 Pawn ...E-5
1 Pawn ......E-4 fer : in the third and fourth he gives the move to the
2 Knight ......F_6 2 Pawn ......D-3
author supposes to be his best move, but should play in which he shows two different openings to be bad.
his knight to f 6, upon which, if the white take pawn ? following four he gives the king's gambit; and in
E 6, the black should check with his queen at A 5, inth, and last, the queen's gambit-finishing the 3 Ought to play
taking, afterwards, the doubled pawn, either with the with a beautiful demonstration of the victory of the Pawn .......D-5 3 Pawn.........F-4
queen or knight, according as the wbite may play; but if and rook, against the rook, for which all our schools
(as theauthor sup
the white, instead of taking pawn E 6, should play bishop debted to this Frenchman ; in which he has distin
poses in his first
to G 5, the black will take pawn D 4; and, on the white ed himself by a brilliancy of play that is not to be
+ Pawn E-4
4 Pawn ......E-5 retabing with his queen, or otherwise advancing pawn in his commencement of games. In these he might 5 Knight .....G-4 5 Pawn ......D_4 to E 5, attacking the knight, the black will still give