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Poetry.

PRIMROSES.

Hail! lovers of the winding stream,
Sequestered vale and hedge-row green ;
Hail ! chosen of delightful spring,
That halcyon promise smiling bring,
Of gentle airs and azure skies,
And countless radiant witcheries :
Welcome to Flora's budding bowers,
Ye heralds of enchanting hours,
When winter shall have passed away,
And soft the southern breezes play,
Where late the storm, with giant stride,
Careering, spread destruction wide.

Ye wooers of the sheltered nook,
Of mossy bank and babbling brook ;
All hail! and may no envious storm
Your witching loveliness deform;
No chilling frost or blighting hail,
In evil hour, your haunts assail ;
No rude ungenial breezes blow,
And prostrate lay your beauties low.
Welcome ! from viewless regions borne,
To whisper sweet of spring's return,
And usher in the season bland
That emulates Elysian land,
In all of pure, or bright, or rare,
Imagination pictures there.

Hail! chosen of simplicity,
And though forbid of destiny
To shine 'mid prouder troops of flowers,
The boast of summer's gorgeous bowers ;
Though yours to garland but the reed,
The shepherd's oaten pipe decreed;
And high-born beauty own you not,
By all, save village maid, forgot ;
Yours, yours the mystery refined,
The spell omnipotent of mind;
For, linked with your loved presence dear,
Come dreams of all most pure and fair ;
Sweet childhood's recollected joys,
Hope, happiness, whate'er we prize;
The sylvan grove, the rustic seat,
The sunny bank, the calm retreat ;
The shade of by-gone years, when all
Was bright as Eden ere the Fall.

Loved monitors of fadeless bloom,
And of that happier world to come,
While showing Nature's heavenly face
Beaming with renovated grace !
Fair offspring of a season bright
As when from chaos broke the light!
Be yours, still yours, beyond the scope
Of Time's receding horoscope ;
Be yours to lead the sorrowing breast
To contemplate its final rest ;
And whisper, as of death the prey,
Seemed late the briar that skirts the way,
Now clothed with bloom and foliage fair;
So, bursting from its prison here,
The spirit to its God shall soar,

The sport of change and death no more !
Liverpool.

No. XIV.

If I have freedom in my love,

And in my soule am free ;
SPECIMENS OF THE ELDER POETS.

Angels alone, that soare above,
BY PERCIVAL MELBOURNE.

Enjoy such libertie.
RICHARD LOVELACE.

THE ROSE
This accomplished and elegant poet was descended from

Sweet, serene, sky-like flower, an ancient family in Kent, in which county he was born

Haste to adorn her bower : about the year 1618. He was educated at the Charter.

From thy long cloudy bed house, and became a gentleman commoner of Gloucester

Shoot forth thy damask head. hall, Oxford, in the year 1634; and was created M. A.

Vermilion ball that's given two years afterwards; at which time, says Anthony Wood,

From lip to lip in heaven;

Love's couch's coverlid; "he was accounted the most amiable and beautiful person

Haste, haste, to make her bed. that eye ever beheld; a person also of innate modesty, virtue, and courtly deportment, which made him then,

See! rosy is her bower,

Her floor is all thy flower ; but especially after, when he retired to the great city,

Her bed a rosy nest, much admired and adored by the female sex.”. Upon

By a bed of roses prest. retiring from the University he became a soldier, serving first in the capacity of an ensign, and afterwards a captain ; TO LUCASTA, ON GOING TO THE WARS. but at the pacification of Berwick he retired, and went to

Tell me not, sweete, I am ubkinde, reside upon his estate. Upon presenting a petition from

That from the nunnerie the county of Kent, in April, 1642, to the House of Com.

of thy chaste breast and quiet minde, mons, that honourable body imprisoned him in the Gate

To warre and armes I die. house, Westminster; and during his confinement there

True, a new mistresse Dow I chase, he wrote the greater part of his poems, which were printed

The first foe in the field; in 1649, under the title of “Lucasta.” He obtained his

And with a stronger faith imbrace release upon giving bail not to leave the precincts of Lon.

A sword, a horse, a shield. don without permission ; and during this restriction he Yet this inconstancy is such, expended the whole of his estate in the Royal cause.

As you too shall adore;

I could not love thee, deare, so much,
Immediately upon his liberation, he, in 1646, for the ser-

Lov'd I not honour more.
yice of the French King, formed a regiment, of which he
was colonel, and was severely wounded at Dunkirk. In

CHIMNEY-SWEEPS.
1648 he returned to England, and was again committed
to Peters-house, in London, where he remained a prisoner

TO THE EDITOR. until the death of the King, when he was liberated. He SIR,_In the absence of any thing more impa died in extreme poverty, at a mean lodging in Gunpowder- relation to poor chimney-sweepers, the anderet alley, near Shoe-lane, in 1658; and was buried in the to keep alive the subject in the breast of every west end of St. Bride's Church. Besides the poems before however, you deem it undeserving admission alluded to, he wrote two plays, “ The Scholar," a comedy, columns of your paper, you are welcome to see and “ The Soldier,” a tragedy.

Your constant reader,

HUMANA The poems of Lovelace are remarkable for their smoothness and elegance ; but they are rather deficient in sim. Mr. Montgomery, in a beautiful poem, relates plicity; nevertheless, they are every way worthy of being ventures of the child of a person of respectability, admitted into the collections of English poetry.

was stolen from its parents when not four years

sold by gipsies to a chimney-sweeper for five TO ALTHEA, FROM PRISON.

the boy was incidentally called to sweep the elit

his father's house, a dwelling by him long forg When love with unconfined wings

His discovery is thus pathetically related : Hovers within my gates,

Now from the chimney top did Edwin peepy And my divine Althea brings

And, midst the howling tempest shouted

, "Set To whisper at my grates;

As the pale moon burst through a parting close When I lye tangled in her haire,

Awhile the wind was hushed, again be shouted And fetter'd with her eye,

A fearful tremor shook his mother's frame, The birds that wanton in the aire

And all the powers of reasoning overcame; Know no such libertye.

She seized her husband's arm, and with a grip When flowing cups run swiftly round

Strong and convulsive, seemed for breath to With no allaying Thames,

“ Hark, hark," she cried : the wind appeared Our carelesse heads with roses crown'd,

Again poor Edwin shouted, "Sweep! sweep! Our hearts with loyal flames;

*My child! my child !” she cried, with transpar When thirsty griefe in wine we steep,

“O Heaven! it is, it is, my child, my child 1 When healths and draughts go free, Fishes that tipple in the deepe,

HOME-BREWED BEER AND HOMEBREW20
Know no such libertie.

LITERATURE
When, linnet-like, confined I

ADDRESSED TO CERTAIN PUFFING SCRIABLEIS WAO ABB
With shriller note shall sing

BOASTING OF THE ORIGINALITY OF THEIR COMPOSITE
The mercye, sweetness, majestye,
And glories of my king ;

“My beer is all home-brewed," quoth Puf, When I shall voyce aloud how good

Ay,” said another, “ like enough; He is, how great should be,

“ Do mix it with some better stingo, Th' enlarged windes, that curle the flood,

“Or I will take no more; by Jingo." Kaow no such libertie.

Thus puffers of the scribbling train,
Stone walls doe not a prison make,

Illit'rate, spiteful, pert, and vain,
Nor iron barres a cage;'

Deluge us with their weak stale wash,
Mindes, innocent, and quiet, take

Till all are nauseated with the trash. That for an hermitage :

[graphic]

G.

A PRINTERS

Barometer

Extreme Thermo-Extreme State of

meter 8 heatdu- tbe Wine Night. morning mmg Day, at noon.

Remarks

at noon.

noon.

S.S.W. Fair.

16 17 18 19 20 21 22

29 48 46 0
29 37

44 0
29 47 43 0
29 69 44 0
29 90 44 0
29 76 41 0
29 53 38 0

50 0 60 0
48 0 55 0
47 0
50 0
50 0
43 0 47 0
41

E.

Rain.

THE DECLARATION.-BY I. NEALE. of dried fish, filled with smoke, and having scarcely an session of a swallow's nest, and had laid some eggs pre

article of furniture. Such is life in North Rona : and viously to the swallow's appearing to claim her castle. My heart is gone, I can't tell how,

though the women and children were half naked, the The sparrow firmly seated, and thus attached to the But pure's the flame I feel ;

mother old, and the wife deaf, they appeared to be con- sheltering, shade of its approaching brood, resisted the To richer girls let others bow,

tented, well fed, and little concerned about what the rest claim of the swallow : a sharp skirmish ensued, in which To Mary Ann-1 Neale.

of the world were doing. The only desire that could be the swallow was joined by its mate, and, during the con. is jeu de mot brings to our recollection the following, discovered, after, much inquiry, was that of getting his Aict, by several of their

comrades. The sparrow, howappeared originally in the Liverpool Mercury of had intended to visit Lewis when his period of residence herself

against the joint and repeated efforts of the assem21, 1815, from which it was copied very generally was expired. Yet I shall not be surprised if, after the bled swallows, to dislodge her. Finding themselves consgh the country.

accomplishment of his only wish, he should again long pletely foiled in their endeavours to regain possession,

for bis now habitual home; and expect that some future they, after some consultation, had recourse to an expeIMPROMPTU

visitor will, twenty years hence, find Kenneth M'Cagie | dient of a most extraordinary nature and singularly re. # ONeill i performance of Mrs. Haller, in the Stranger, et wearing out his life in the subterranean retreat of his better vengeful, and one which showed that it proceeded from the Liverpool Theatre. days."

a deliberate determination of the whole group that no

thing short of the death of the intruder could satisfy them, I thy soul is not callous to pity divine,

Natural History.

or atone for this usurpation of a property unquestionably If thy heart for love's sorrows can feel,

the legitimate right of its original constructor. The In offering here tender at nature's chaste shrine,

ANECDOTES OF THE SWALLOW TRIBE.

swallows, for a time, departed, leaving the sparrow ap

parently in the full enjoyment of her conquest. This This is nature's own daughter-O, KNEEL! rpool.

The following curious anecdotes are gleaned from Mr. prospect of repose, however, was only delusive; for the

Gavin Douglas's communications to the Philosophical swallows returned with accumulated numbers, each bearPortland (Maine,) Mr. John Cram, to Miss Mobi. particular attention to the habits of the swallows, among instantly set to work and built up the entrance into the Magazine. This diligent observer of nature having paid ing a beak full of building materials;

and without any

further attempt to disturb or beat out the sparrow, they Villions.

many interesting facts respecting them records the folA gormandizing tale I tell, lowing:

nest, inclosing the sparrow within the clay tenement, and Nor is my tale a sham;

When a situation has been once fixed for a new nest, leaving her to perish in the garrison she had defended. For Millions at one altar fell

before a particle of building material is laid, every bear-
To sate a single Cram.
ing of the intended site is minutely examined by a few of

METEOROLOGICAL DIARY.
the sages, during which a great deal of conversation and
Miscellantes.
reasoning goes on ; plans are proposed, and one ultimately

(From the Liverpool Courier.]
fixed upon, before proceeding to the work. Matters being
thus far adjusted, a number collect, sometimes above a

during
SAVAGE LIFE.

dozen, and form themselves into divisions, for the disfollowing sketch of savage life, with more than its number assembled is always in proportion to the extent of

tribution of labour, before commencing operations; the April orrors, desolation, and abandonment, will not be work and number of nests to be carried on at the same

S.S.E. Cloudy.

53 0 N.N.E. Fair. thout some degree of interest. The island where time. There are often from two to five nests in a pro

54 0 N.N.E. Cloudy. described below occurred is North Rona, one of gressive state of forwardness, all carrying forward at the

53 0 E.N.E. Cloudy. st remote and inaccessible of the Hebrides, and the same time by the

same associated band of operators. s from Dr. Maculloch's Description of the Western

0 46 0 N.N.W. Rain. When a place for mortar-making has been selected, the of Scotland. whole band commence operations by gathering a beakful

16th, Eight, p.m. heavy rain. now inhabited by one family only, consisting of of chopped straw or hay, generally taken from dry horse.

17th, Eight, p.m. heavy rain. viduals, of which the female patriarch has been droppings, either about the field or from the high road ;

18th, Heavy rain during night. cars on the island. The occupant of the farm is a with this they repair to the place appointed, and commence

19th, Five, p.m. rain.

21st, Continual rain throughout the day. cultivating it and tending fifty sheep for his em- mortar-making, by mixing this with clayey soil, rendered 22d, Heavy rain during night. to whom he is bound for eight years; an unnecessary additionally unctuous by their working it with their beaks ; lon, since the nine chains of the Styx could afford and all, as ready, fly off with their load, and begin build The Beauties of Chess. ater security than the sea which surrounds him, as ing. When the foundation has attained the size of a not allowed to keep a boat. During a residence now small walnut, one experienced builder remains stationary, years, he had, with the exception of a visit a proportionate number at the mortar hole, and a division

Ludimus effigiem belli."-VIDA. he boat of the Portunii, seen no face but that of straw.gatherers and carriers carry on the work till the

SOLUTION TO STUDY CLXXVIII. employer and his own family. Twice in the year, weight and softness of the new-made materials endanger it of the crop which is not consumed on the farm, the falling of the whole. Then, this nest is left off, and

1 Castle ..H-8X with the produce of the sheep, and the feathers time, in proportion to the state of the weather, is given for

1 King ......G-6

2 Castle ......G-8X hd from the sea-fowl, which he is bound to procure, it to harden firm and dry, and the whole band goes to the

2 King ......H-5 3 Castle ......

..G-5X 3 King en away by the boat from Lewis, and thus his next; and after carrying it a similar length, leaves it in 4 Pawn ...... B-6

4 Pawn ....... nication with the external world is maintained. the same manner, for the same purpose, and goes to the

.G-3 5 Pawn ....

5 Pawn ......G-2 appearance of our boat, the women and children third, the fourth, a fifth, and again returns in rotation to 6 Pawn ......B-8

6 Pawn ......G-1 en running away to the cliffs to hide themselves, the first, and so going repeatedly over the whole, till the

becomes a queen

becomes a queen. with the very little moveable property they pos labour is completely accomplished. During the whole of while the man and his son were employed in driving these operations, the grand master-builder, who is some

7 Queen ......G_8X, wins the queen, &c. be sheep. We might have imagined ourselves times relieved by turns, shows his skill and experience in on an island in the Pacific Ocean. A few words the art of building, by proportioning the radius of the

White to move and win. le soon recalled the latter ; but it was some time nest, the acuteness or obliquity of the angles, strict he females came from their retreat, very unlike in proportion to the distance and bearing of the abutments,

SITUATION FOR STUDY CLXXIX. the inhabitants of a civilized world. In addition and thickening the wall proportionately to the tenacity of

Black.
zain and potatoes required for the use of his family, the materials, every morsel of which be carefully examines
a is allowed one cow, and receives for wages the before it is laid on.
£2 sterling annually in the form of clothes. With

V
A nest, built in the west corner of a back room window,

Я o a

. H family, consisting of six individuals, must contrive facing the north, was so much softened by rain beating in ke themselves; how they are clothed it is scarcely that direction, from the severity of a violent storm from by to say: covered they are not, nor did there ap- the north-east, as to render it unfit to support the weight be a blanket in the house; the only substitute for of a superincumbent load of five well-grown young swal. being an excavation in the wall, strewed, as it lows: during the storm, the nest fell into the corner be

with ashes and straw. Such is the violence of the low, leaving the young brood exposed to all the incle. 6
a this region, that not even the solid mass of a high, mency of the blast. To save the poor things from
it can resist it. The house is therefore excavated untimely death, a covering was thrown over them till
earth, the wall required for the support of the roof the severity of the storm abated. This had no sooner
rising two feet above the surface. The entrance subsided than the sages assembled, fluttering round the
wabterranean retreat is through a long, dark, nar. window, and hovering over the temporary coveriog of the
nd tortuous passage, like the gallery of a mine, fallen nest, which was removed as soon as this careful
acing by an aperture not three feet high, and very anxiety was discovered, and the utmost joy evinced by the
t to find. With little trouble it might be effectually group on finding the young ones alive and unhurt.
led; por, were the fire suppressed, could the exist. After feeding them, the members of this assembled com-
f a house be suspected, the whole having the ap- munity arranged themselves in working order ; each
Ice of a collection of turf-stacks and dung hills. division, taking its appropriate station, fell to instant
agh our conference had lasted some time, none of the labour, and before nightfall they had jointly completed
Liscovered that it was held on the top of the house. an arched canopy over the young, and securely covered
nterior strongly resembles that of a Kamschatkan them against a succeeding blast.

A B C D E F G H receiving no other light than that from the smoke The same writer records the following extraordinary being covered with ashes, and festooned with strings.linstance of revenge. A sparrow had taken early pose

WHITE

WHITE.

BLACK

...

...... G-5

......B-7

[graphic]

OF NEGROES.

The Philanthropist. well known in the religious, political, and learned societies | tomed to a milder treatment and better nourishment

of different countries, it must powerfully contribute to only their features and physiognomy have undergo

basten, in all countries, the abolition of ihis unjust and visible change, but their moral habits are also impar [From the Genius of Universal Emancipation.] inhuman traffic.

Besides the uncontested fact that there are Albines “ May the day," says the translator, in the conclusion of mering proves, by various observations, that White GREGOIRE'S INQUIRY

his preface," soon arrive, when the defenders of justice assumed a black and yellow hue; and that Negroa INTO THE INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL FACULTIES in every country, shall have a right, like the eloquent whitened, or become of a pale colour, in conseque

Curran, to exclaim, I speak in the spirit of our laws, which disease. Nevertheless, Hunter affirms, that when i

makes liberty commensurate with, and inseparable from, of an animal whitens, it is a proof of degeneration, Injustice of Slavery. The word Negro considered.. Ought sojourner, the moment he sets his foot upon our wative has degenerated ? or is it necessary to say with Dr.

our soil; which proclaims even to the stranger and the does it follow, that, in the human species, the white all Blacks to be included under this term 2 Difference earth, that the ground on which he treads is holy, and that the colour of the Negroes is the result of a of opinion concerning their origin. Unity of the prim!. consecrated by the genius of universal emaneipation! No become hereditary, tide type of the human race. matter in what language his doom may bave been pro

"**All the difference among nations,' says nounced; no matter what complexion incompatible with consists in a line drawn from the conduits of the MESSRS. EDITORS, -As the subject of the Coloniza: freedom, an Indian or an African sun' may have burned the base of the nose, and another right line which tion Society of Cincionati -has elicited much inquiry upon him ; no matter in what disastrous battle his liberty the eminence of the coronal bone above the nose, among a great proportion of your readers, I have sent the may have been cloven down; no matter with what solem- tends to the most prominent part of the jawbone; i following extracts with the hope that you will give them nities he may have been devoted on the alcar of slavery : supposed that the head is viewed in profile. It is the a place in your literary and scientific paper.

They are the first moment he touches our sacred soil, the altar and formed by these two lines which constitutes not ol made from a work entitled " An Inquiry concerning the the god sink together in the dust; his soul walks abroad difference between nations, but that of different ar Intellectual and Moral Faculties and Literature of Ne. in her own majesty ; bis body swells beyond the measure Thus the head of an African Negro, as well as the groes ; followed by an account of the life and works of of his chains, tbal burst from around him, and he stands Calmuck, makes an angle of seventy degrees; and fifteen Negroes and Mulattoes, distinguished in Science, redeemed, regenerated, and disenthralled, by the irresisti- the European, one of eighty. This difference of Literature, and the Arts; by H. Gregoire, formerly ble genius of universal emancipation.

grees forms the beauty of European heads, beca Bishop of Blois, Member of the Conservative Senate, of • Under the name of Ethiopian, the Greeks compre. an angle of one bundred degrees which constitu the National Institute, and of the Royal Society of Gor- hended all men of a black colour. They are so named by great perfection of antique beads.? tinguen, &c. ; translated by D. B. Warden, Secretary Pliny, the elder, and Terence. But Rome, baving more Admitting that each people has a distinct ca to the American Legation at Paris : printed at Brooklyn, immediate relations with Africa than Greece, insensibly which is re-produced until it is altered or effaced New York, 1810."

introduced the custom of designating the Blacks by the tual mixture, yet who can fix the lapse of time After dedicating his work “to all the men who have name of Africans,

to destroy the influence of those diversities here had the courage to plead the cause of the Blacks and “The denomination of African prevails; but the use of transmitted, and which are the effect of climate, Mulattoes, whether by the publication of their works, or these two names is equally improper ; seeing, on the one cation, of dietetic regimen, or of habit? Blue by discussion in national assemblies," of whom he names hand, that Ethiopia, the inhabitants of which are not of believes that the Europeans degenerate by a long te of Frenchmen, Adanson, Benezet, D'Estaing, Lafayette, the deepest black colour, is but a region of Africa ; and, in the two Indies, or in Africa. Somering dares to and six and thirty others; of Englishmen, Beattie, Bax on the other, that there are Asiatic

Blacks. Herodotus whether the primitive race of man, which once in ter, Mrs. Barbauld, Clarkson, Cowper, Fothergill, the names them Ethiopians with long hair, to distinguish some corner of the earth, be perfected in Europe two Foxes, Pitt, Wesley, Whitfield, and seventy-six them from those of Africa whose hair is frizzled; because ther it be adulterated in Nigritia, seeing that, others; of Americans, Franklin, Madison, Rush, and it was believed, formerly, that the latter belonged exclu- force and activity, the conformation of Negre many others too well known to be named; of Negrues sively to Africa, and that the Blacks with long hair were respect to their climate, is as complete, and perman and Mulattoes, a long list, among whom was Hannibal, only

found on the continent of Asia. But we find by the so, than that of Europeans. It is not denied, that who was a Lieutenant General and Director of Artillery narratives of travellers, that on the African continent, as have great corporeal strength; and as to beauty under Czar Peter the First ; besides Germans, Danes, well as at Madagascar, there are also Negroes with long does it result? Is white, as a colour, to enterre Swedes, Hollanders, Italians, &c.;--and after stating that hair. On the other hand, the natives of the Isle of Anda into that regularity of features which constitut Avendano, of the Spaniards, had taken the trouble to prove man, in the Gulph of Bengal, are Blacks with frizzled We know that different black tribes, to present that the Negro belongs to the great family of the human hair : in different parts of India, the inhabitants of the in the most unfavourable colour, paint him win

“Bosman boasts of the beauty of Negresti duties, and exercise all the rights, of this family,—he of hair. These considerations give support to the opinion Ledyard and Lucus that of the Negroes of all concludes this part of his work with the following warm that this race formerly bore sway over almost all Asia. that of the Negroes of Abyssinia. Those of Serie and impressive sentiments:

“ The Black colour forming the most marked character Adanson, are the finest men of Nigritia: tlid “Of philanthropic writers, a great number are now no which separates from the whites a portion of the human without defect; and there are no maimed meg more. On their tombs I present my homage ; and I offer race, less attention has been paid to that difference of con- Cosigny

saw at Goree Negresses of great beauty the same tribute to individuals still living, who, not have formation which establishes varieties among the Blacks posing form, with Roman features. Ligon ing abandoned their principles, pursue, with constancy, themselves. Camper alludes to this, when he says that Negress, of the Isle of St. Jago, who possessed sa their noble enterprise, each in the sphere in which

Pro- Rubens, Sebastinen, Ricci, and Vander-Tempel, in paint, gree of beauty and majesty, that he had never vidence has placed him. " Philanthropists ! no individual can, with impunity,

ing the Magi, represented Blacks, and not Negrees. equal. Robert Chasle applies this eulogium al

** Blumenbach has observed in the crania of mum- gresses and Mulattoes of all the isles of Cape V be just and benevolent. At the birth of time, war com mies that which characterizes the Negro race. Norden, "After such testimonies, Jedediah Morse will menced between virtue and vice, and will not eease but Niehbur, Cassas, Volney, and Olivier, by inspection of less, find some difficulty in explaining that eder with them. Devoured with the desire to do injury, the the sphinxes,

discover that the figure is Ethiopian;

from superiority which he sees imprinted on the face wicked are always armed against him who dares to reveal which Volney concludes, that to the black race, now slaves, White. their crimes, and prevent them from tormenting the hu. we are indebted for the arts and sciences, and even for “ Those systems which suppose an essential man race. Against their guilty attempts let us oppose a speech.

between Negroes and white men have been wall of brass, but let us avenge ourselves by benefits. “Gregory, in his Historical and Moral Essays, refers 1st, by those who, by every means, seek to Let us be active. Life, which is so long for the commis. us to remote ages, to show, in like manner, that the Ne- man, and to rob him of the deatest hopes e sion of evil actions, is short for the performance of virtue. groes are our masters in science. For the Egyptians, 2dly, by others, who, in the primitive diversi The earth steals from under our steps, and we go to quit among whom Pythagoras and other Greeks travelled to man race, seek for an argument against the this terrestrial scene. The corruption of our times carries learn philosophy, were, in the opinion of many writers, Meses ; 3dly, by men, who, interested in cole towards posterity all the elements of slavery and crimes no other than Negroes, whose native features were changed seek, in the supposed want of the moral faculea Nevertheless, when we repose in the tomb, some honest and modified by the successive mixture of Greeks, Ro- Negro, another reason for treating bim, with men, escaping the contagion, will become the representa- mans, and Saracens. If it be proved that the sciences like a beast of burden. tives of Providence. Let us leave to them the honourable passed from India to Egypt, is it less true that to arrive “ I have had the pleasure of conversing with task of defending liberty and misfortune. From the in Europe they crossed the latter country ?

Amsterdam, who

has the finest collection knowned bosom of eternity we applaud their efforts, and they shall, Those who have wished to disinherit Negroes have skins; with Blumenbach, who has the richest de doubtless, be blessed by the common Father of us all, called in anatomy to their aid ; and the difference of colour skulls; with Gall, Meniers, Osiander, Cavier, who, in men, whatever be their colour, acknowledges his gave birth to their first observations. Meekel, the elder, pedeall, with the exception of one who died work, and loves them as his children,

thinks that
the colour of Negroes is owing to the

deep decide, like Buffon, Camper, Stanhope, Smit, “ I well recollect," says the translator, “to have heard colour of the brain; but Walter, Bonn, Somering, Dr. man, and Somering, admit, in the human race, the celebrated Professor Millar, of the University of Glas- Gall, and other great anatomists, have found the colour of of the primitive type. resolts at the idea of a serious discussion on the subject of Barrere and Winslow believe that the bile of Negroes is of boar and that of the domestic hog, which are, com

“Blumenbach says that, between the head of slavery. Every individual, whatever be his country or a deeper colour than that of Europeans ; but Somering of the same race, there is more difference than complexion, is entitled to freedom. The happiness of the discovered it to be of a yellowish green.

the head of a Negro and that of a white man. No man has a right to reduce another to the condition of Guinea, not only men, but dogs, birds, and particularly rights as they to exercise; the same daties to fulfi

• The learned professor of Goettingen remarks, that is being of the same nature as the Whites, bare is contrary to the sentiments of humanity and the princi

. the black colour is found between the tropics; and its pro: according to the qualities of individuals. But ister gain is unequal, and ought to be broken. Negro slavery seas, bears and other animals

are all white. In general

, ment. This exercise is, doubtless, improred or deter ** As this production,” continues the translator, “' is the long ago established in a country, have neither been trans scale of virtues and

talents, on which many of the result of long and deep investigation of the subject, and planted into other climates, nor crossed by other races. themselves would not find a place?" composed by a man of great erudition and rare virtues, “ Among slaves who, in domestic service, are accus

Jul To be continued.)

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the seal of King John, cut in very early times, bears. For resembles. I have no doubt that the original scroll read
the town is. long afterwards called Lyrpool, by Leland in " Johis,” a very natural contraction for Johannis, signify-
1558, and by Camden in 1607, and, as these writers say, ing In the reign of King John, or The Corporation of
by the common people ; and its name in Welsh is Lirpwl King John.
to this day. I am informed, however, that Lir is as com-

As to the inscription round the seal, two decipherings mon a contraction of Liver as it is of Lither. At first, I have been given of it by the authors of Troughton's His. conceive that whenever the town was called by the common tory of Liverpool, who, I understand, were a Mr. Perry, people Lyverpool, it was not from any respect to the lever, the son of Dr. Enfield's author, and a Mr. Corrie: the first but in corruption of Lytherpool, as it is named by Camden; interpretation making it “Sigillum societatis commune that is to say, the pool of Litherland, a neighbouring manor borgensium de Leverpool," and the second, “ Sigillum or township. This father of British topography addɛ, that societatis commune donum regis in villa (or rather, as it is in Saxon Lifer pole. Now lifer, in Saxon, means the these authors should have said, villam) de Leverpool,"entrail called the liver; and I know of no authority, except the authors, and after them Mr. Gregson, preferring the that of Troughton's History of Liverpool, for explaining latter. Now I am decidedly for the former. As for the Litherpool to mean the lower pool, as it was lately called by latter, The gift of the king in (or rather, as they should a writer in the Liverpool Courier. The word low comes have said, to) the town of Liverpool, it was not the custom from the Danish lau. I am, therefore, inclined to think of the king to give seals to towns : he gave only charters,

that both Litherland and Litherpool were sometimes called with permission to have seals; and they found their own giving publicity to the subjoined antiquarian re-Liverland and Liverpool

. We do not find the word spelt seals. Besides, the inscription, if thus deciphered, gives which will be perused with much interest by our Leverpool by historians and popular writers, till by Sir E. only do: for donum, though the whole word regis appears sol readers, we take this opportunity to thank Mr. Moore in 1667, Blome in 1673, Brokesby and Dr. Stukeley at full length, and there is nothing for the words in villa bar the communication, and to assure him, and the in 1725, and Derrick in 1760. Dr. Enfield is mistaken in de, but the initial letters i. v. d., which are very unusual Bembers of the Literary and Philosophical Society calling Randle Holme's Notes in the British Museum contractions, particularly of such short words as in and de. will afford us much pleasure to be enabled to con- (Holme spells it Leverpool, after his heraldic lever) a Ms. Now nothing is more common than the elision borgesiu,

similar manner, to the public any paper or essay of the time of Queen Elizabeth. Holme did not live till for borgensium. I have, therefore, no doubt that the inmay be read before that respectable body. The the time of Charles II.; and published his Academy of scription means to describe simply what the seal is, namely, s of the Kaleidoscope, especially, are at their entire Armory in 1688; and as for the original patent of King The common seal of the burgesses of Liverpool. By either and we can assure them, that that work has a

John, and the exemplification of it in the 13th of Henry of these interpretations we have a superfluous letter $, besnsiderable and a most respectable circulation in 111., which the Doctor says writes "Leverpoole,” the tween sigillum and cornmune, which Mr. Troughton's book Britain, Ireland, and abroad.

Town Clerk politely informs me that all the early charters deciphers societatis, that is to say, of the society of the bur. ngraving of the Corporation Seal, in Mr. Kaye's of King John, Edward III., Richard II., Henry IV., and gesscs

. I think this is an unnatural and too modern word gez in Liverpool,” is referred 'to in Mr. Field's Philip and Mary, with the single exception of this exem- for Corporation, and an unnatural and too classical place hon; and we thought it would enhance the in. plification of King John by Henry III., have it " Liver- for it to occur, between the words common and seal, in law

the essay, if that engraving accompanied it : pole ;" and I find it written " Liverpool” in one record of Latin; and I therefore frankly confess, that I cannot Kure applied to Mr. Kaye for the temporary loan Edward I., four other records of Edward 111., two of decipher this letter s, and am apt to suspect that it is a Vigoette, with which that gentleman most readily Henry IV., one of Henry VI., and one of Henry VII. mistake of the first of the engravers, who was employed to litely accommodated us. We believe it to be a It is remarkable that in one of the records of Edward III. deepen the letters when they began to wear out with use. curate copy of the original, although it does not we read “Walton juxta Liverpoll,” which, considering I think the word in the original inscription was sigillum,

any exalted idea of the state of the fine arts at that Walton was then, and very long afterwards, the parish, at full length, as I have seen it in contemporaneous seals; e when the seal was executed.

and Liverpool then, and very long afterwards, a very insig- and that the deepener mistook the last syllable of that bitory of the forgery of the charter, said to have nificant place, is to me unaccountable

. I am aware that word for the strange contraction H, which appears at preranted to Liverpool by Henry II. will amuse, ra- there are a few ancient deeds and records, besides the sent, and an S. The only difficulty that Mr. Troughton's

a surprise, those who personally knew the late " Visitacion of Lancashire, anno 1567, by William Flower preferred interpretation solves better than mine, is, that the anes Williamson.

Norray,” as Dr. Enfield gives it, whereas it should be first letter on the right of the inscription is plainly a D,

William Flower, Norroy King of Arms, in which the donum, and not a B, for borgensium; but, in return, for COMMON SEAL OF THE BOROUGH OF LI. word is spelt Leverpoole; but what I maintain against what he would make GI in regis, is the & in borgensium, VOL AND THE PRETENDED CHARTER OF Dr. Enfield is, that the word is writ:en Leverpool by no and is like the other e’s of the inscription, that is to say, HENRY THE SECOND.BY BARRON FIELD, BIRRISTER-AT-LAW.

popular author till the year 1667. Excellent philosopher the Saxon e; and I have no doubt that the original B was

as he was, the Doctor was no antiquary; and he should deepened into a D with one loop only; for the cut is so fare the Literary and Philosophical Society of Liverpool, not have attempted, upon the strength of two or three an extraordinarily deep (as may be seen in the original seal Friday, April 11th, 1828.)

cient instances, to alter the name of a town from what it at the Town-hall,) that if two loops had been made, the silver common seal os the borough of Liverpool, of was called by still higher antiquity, and, which is yet more interstices in the silver would have been so small that they imprégnable, by modern custom.

would have soon broken. rury faithful engraving is given in Gregson's Fragin the Iristory of Lancashire, and in the Stranger Mr. Gregson, in his Fragments of the History of Lan. As this seal is almost the only antiquity the town of pool, is an unquestionable antiquity; and, I have cashire, reads the word on the scroll at the foot of the Liverpool now possesses, I hope I shall be pardoned for so bt, was originally made in the reign of King John, device on this seal “ Jovįs,” and calls the bird an eagle, petly a minuteness, upon a subject which is certainly not anted to the Corporation the first genuine charter as the author of the Stranger in Liverpool calls it a dove. of very great importance either to literature or to philo. stej possess. I do not think that the seal was given it is certainly more like a dove than an eagle, which sophy.

John to the Corporation, as is commonly supposed, latter bird could never have a branch in its beak; but Before I conclude, I will endeavour to eke out the the Corporation, as is the custom in such cases, I think it bears a sufficient heraldic resemblance to a present short paper, by observing upon the supposed charW it to be made themselves; for in King Joho's waterfowl to be the lever, or shoveller-duck, of Randle ter of King IIenry the Second to the town of Liverpool, which was written at Winchester, the word Liver. Holme. As. that author says, “ to term is either a lever, which is copied as genuine in Mr. 'Troughton's History, speli - Liverpull," and on the seal it is plainly in- spoonbill

, or pellecan, it may pass in heruldry, but no that it was fabricated by a Mr. James Williamson, in Leverpl." I think it probable that this was the otherwise." Heraldry, like Bottom the weaver, has its whose bandwriting I have seen a draught of it, much I that alteration, which did not become general till lions that are wildfowl, and its sucking doves. In the altered and interlined, and that the fabrication was comerwards, of the name of the town from Lyrpul, or present state of the seal, and in the abovementioned en. mitted probably to sell it to the Corporation, who have ole,to Liverpool, or Leverpool, in conformity with graving, the scroll is plainly " Jodis ;" but, as I shall always contended that " Liverpool is a very ancient bos, then perhaps first assumed, of the heraldic bird have to remark, in deciphering the whole inscription, all rough by prescription long before the time of King belever, which appears, by the plate in the “ Aca- the letters on the seal have, long subsequently to the John.” But the words quundum vocunt in Mr. TroughiE Armory" of Randle Holme, to be a spoonbill, original cutting of it, and probably more than once, been con's copy should be; and are in the draught, quondam he calls it a shoveller. Be this as it may, this de deepened, (and exceedingly deep they now appear,) for vocat., a contraction for vocata ; and the translation will ing at arms for Chester and Lancaster expressly the purpose of stamping impressions upon the wax ap- then run, not as Mr. Troughton has given it, " And that al argent a lever azure is the coat of the town of pended to the Corporation deeds ; and the first engraver place, which the men of Lyrpull call Litherpul, near 10

ole; and therefore we must make allowance for who was employed to deepen the letters, mistook the let. Toxteth, from each side of the water they may come and le resemblance to a water-fowl, which the figure on er H for a D, which the ancient Saxon h very much return with their ships and merchandize,” which is non

TO THE EDITOR.

J.A.

h. m.h.m. ft. in.

8 17

1

0

0 'John Evan. anter

sense, but “ And that the men of Lyrpul, formerly called Indies. Dutch West India coffee once ranked very high ; | fore the kettle boils, let coffee be ground nearly sufici Litherpul (near to Toxteth) from each side of the water much of the Berbice coffee is very good ; that of Surinam to fill a breakfast-cup; put eight tea spoonfule Cheaped may come and return with their ships and merchandize.” is, perhaps, still better ; but Surinam coffee pays the high of the coffee-powder into the bag of the biggin, the

I am indebted for this piece of criticism, if it were of duty. Demerara coffee has, however, of late, become dete. the biggin one-third full with boiling water, add much consequence that a forgery should be correctly riorated, much of it proving very rank, and but little of it four tea spoonfuls more of coffee-powder, then per copied, to our very learned associate, Mr. Raincock. of superior flavour.

more boiling water, until the biggin be two-thirds Fine Jamaica coffee is excellent, taking care, in the put in two spoonfuls more of the powder, and, Correspondence.

selection, that the berries be entire (unbroken,) as equal fill the biggin with boiling water. The infusion may

as may be in size, and of a blue colour,-preferring that a minute or two, and it will be ready for use. Hotel KITES AND BALLOONS.

where the blue colour inclines to pale green, or transparent, or still better, hot cream, enhances the flavour of before the dark green, or opaque. They who purchase infusions. The biggio will admit of a second filling,

Jamaica coffee should be very cautious in their selection, for boiling water, without the aid of additional powder S1R,-Allow me to suggest for your consideration, there is much, very much, of rank inferior coffee imported infusion will, of course, be weaker each brew, unles whether it would not be practicable to guide balloons by from Jamaica ; some, indeed, that is vilely flavoured. coffee-powder be added ; but it were better not means of Mr. Pocock's united kites. If you think it

Dominica coffee is of excellent flavour ; none better ; not much more of the powder on the old grounds : itd worthy of your numerous correspondents' attention, by in. serting it in the Kaleidoscope you will obligeYours, &c. quite so strong and full on the palate as very fine Jamaica ; ferable, after the second or third brew, to empty

but Dominica coffee has one great advantage—it is seldom, entirely, and to begin again the process as abong April 26, 1828. scarcely ever, rank or ill flavoured ; Trinidad and St. scribed.

The biggin, with a calico bag, is far preferable ** In reply to the note of our correspondent, we can Lucia, together with other kinds of coffee originally planted inform him that kites have been proposed, if not used, for by the French, are good; but the great bulk of coffee now complex machine called a French, or patent coffee-bik the purpose of guiding balloons. They were, however, consumed in England is the growth of Jamaica; purchasers for, in the former, the bag lies soaking in the infusion common kites ; and, therefore, comparatively useless. should, therefore, I again repeat, be wary in their selec- tinuing to yield both strength and flavour to the hotel We presume that our correspondent has it in contempla- tion, seeing there is so great a range from very bad to very until nearly the whole may be poured off ; in the tion, by means of the kites, to move the balloon in a course good, in Jamaica coffee. Of other kinds of coffee, pur machine, the water simply, and only, washes thong different from that in which it would be impelled by the chasers may, in a great measure, leave the choice of qua- coffee powder. I am, sir, obediently, yours

, atmosphere by which the balloon itself is surrounded. If lity to the seller's discretion and recommendation; the both kite and balloon were in the same stratum of air prices of all kinds must, of course, be chaffered for, as is

Tide Table. the kite would produce no effect, as it would move at the the custom in all prudent bargains.

Days. Morn. Even. Height.

Pestivals, same rate as the balloon. But if, as is often the case,

Purchasers ought not to scruple at giving an extra there should be above the balloon a stream of air moving penny (or more) per pound, for good coffee; by so doing Tuesday ..29 70 hi

8 Full Moon, 10h37 in a direction different from by that which the balloon is they may have the two-fold advantage of procuring a fine Wednesday30 ii 25 11 44 16 g

Thursday

4 19 2 St. Philip and St. surrounded, Mr. Pocock's kites, with the guiding lines, flavoured beverage, and that grand desideratum of coffee.

Friday ... 2 0 23 o 43 19 2 if flown up to the higher current of air, more powerful than infusions strength without rankness; the gain in the Saturday.. 33 i 27 18 & Invention of the cu

9 4th Sunday after the under stream, would entirely alter the course of the strength alone is generally equal, often exceeds, the value Sunday: 1 49 14 17

5 2 39 3 616 6

6 3 34 4 715
balloon, which might be steered in a variety of direc-of the additional outlay. 'Cheap coffee is often very in Tuesday
tions.-Edit. Kalo

sipid and weak, and however much of the powder be used,
nothing satisfactory in strength or flavour can be extracted

To Correspondents.
The Housewife.

from it; it may, therefore, be truly said, that high priced We take this opportunity of apprizing our reset coffee is not the dearest.

we have it in contemplation to reprint, In the La CHOICE AND PREPATATION OF COFFEE.

New coffee has a tendency to turn acid on the stomach ; the whole of a most interesting scientifie work, The subjoined letter is, evidently, the production of one weakens, or no longer exists, so that old coffee is, unques- SUPPLEMENTAL SHEET.–Our next number will be a when coffee is three or more years old, that tendency

shall not name, until the engravings which are

for its illustration are ready. who has paid great attention to the subject on which he has addressed us. Coffee is a beverage now so general, that coffee becomes weaker in power, or fulness of caste, tionably, the most wholesome; but, it must also be stated,

nied by a supplemental sheet, and will comprehead that directions for its choice, and mode of preparation, as it grows older. On the whole

, perhaps, coffee is at the

variety of original and selected articles, including

resting essay on negro slavery. must be acceptable to our readers.

best age for consumption at from three to five years after SONNET.-Theversesof a correspondent, commenting TO THE EDITOR. it is produced.

e'er those bright and sparkling eyes," are too faulty i

public eye. The line" And long for to imprinta SIR,-Long practice in the art of making coffee in. As to the roasting of coffee, a very few words will serve: kiss," is vulgar and ungrammatical. The metre fusions, has confirmed my opinion as to the best method let that be done, leisurely at first, near a moderate fire; defective; In some instances one line being two fer of producing that excellent beverage, and although my as the work advances, increase the fire, and turn the

than that with which it is intended to correspond

correspondent has reserved a copy, let him de mode may be known to many of your readers, yet, it may roaster quicker, until the berries have acquired a dark

fifth line with its echo, the eighth, and be will impre so happen, that some of them have not a knowledge of the brown or chocolate colour ; as the colour increases to

perceive what we menn. minute arrangements and processes necessary to be adhered blackness, so will the taste incline to bitter. Fresh- LIVERPOOL ROYAL INSTITUTION-We shall berta to in the manufacture of a biggin of good coffee : it may roasted coffee is the best for use ; but coffee long roasted duce some interesting selections from the skies be as well, however, previous to going into the instruc- may be re-crisped and freshened, to acquire again its livered at the last general meeting of the weekend

Liverpool Royal Institution. tions for manufacturing the infusion of coffee, to give a original properties

, by exposure, for a short period, to the Srzam Pump_We shall next week Bay before se few plain directions and observations touching the selec- fire, or in an oven,-observing, not to roast it more; the description of a new steam pump, from an And tion of the raw material, (the raw berry itself) the roasting, object being only to re-crisp it.

entific work, the engraving of which is in the bude and the grinding.

Next, as to the grinding of coffee ;-a mill that delivers Mocha coffee stands A 1 on the coffee list, as to quality, the powder in a coarse, or grainy state, spoils the best coffee NEW.THEORY OF THE Tides.-An article wre han

on this

subject shall appear as soon w the diaria but Mocha coffee is high of price, and, except on particu. ever produced. Mills should be set to grind the coffee to

must accompany it is completed. lar occasions, seldom used by the middle classes, scarcely an almost impalpable powder—from such powder the whole INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL FACULTIES OP NEGRORS.-F. ever by the humble. The flavour of Mocha coffee is pe- of the strength and aroma may be extracted.

devoted the whole of a preceding page to a partire culiar, certainly aromatic, but the aroma seems to abound Never boil coffee, for much of the aroma, or fine flavour, goire's interesting essay on this subject, and shall

remainder of this valuable dissertation in our si in it, even to an unpleasant excess: many of my acquain- escapes with the vapour during boiling. tance, and I myself, prefer other kinds of coffee to Mocha, I shall now state the simple method which I have pursued MARY, QUEEN OF SCOTS. Our supplemental sheet

, mert such as the yellow Java, the St. Domingo, &c.

in my private manufactory for more than a quarter of a will enable us to lay before our readers a very inter The Mocha, the Java, and the St. Domingo coffee, are century. My friends seldom fail to laud the article I article from an unpublished portion of Constable all subject to the high duty, which amounts, in some produce.

lany, as we find it given in the London Wresty Inn

Saturday, degree, tɔ a prohibition of their consumption in England. Imprimis and important:-Look to it well that the A Friend is informed that we have not perused the per The epicure in coffee need not, however, be uneasy on the water be in a boiling state at the time you use it, for, with- to which he alludes, nor do we think we shall prohibitory score, seeing that substitutes for coffee, equally out boiling water no good infusion of coffee can be made. trouble to inquire after it. as good, may be, with the utmost facility, procured at the lowest duties.

good sized breakfast-cups of liquid, by having a coarse Printed, published, and sold, every Tuesday, by Suv

Prepare a biggin of metal, capable of containing five The Red Cross KNIGHT, by R. next week. The coffee now consumed in England is almost alto- calico bag affixed to a loose rim, that rests on a shoulder and Co., at their General Printing Office, Lords Fether the produce of British planlations in the West at the upper extremity of the biggia ; a few minutes be- Liverpool, and to be had of all Booksellers.

artist.

numbers.

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