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These win thy brightest meed—which was denied
To all the power of wealth and pomp of pride,

Ever since time began.
And to the firmness of meek woman's faith,
Mighty to triumph o'er the strength of death,

Thy halcyon calm is given :
But thy fix'd dwelling is beyond the toil,
The care, and tumults of earth's crime-stain'd sci-

Far in thy natire heaven.

Poetry.

SYMPATHY.

The Kaleidoscope.

Parent of parents! memory back will stray.

Blending sweet hours with thy familiar name; Thy life has past by gentle, slow decay ;

Living, thy looks were calm—in death the same. Thou wert endear'd to me by inany a tie,

Kind friend and guardian of my early years ; Author wert thou of many an infant joy,

Thou wert the solacer of childhood's tears. Clos'd are those eyes which wept for others' woe,

Mute is that tongue which used my path to cheer, And can my heart be callous to the blow,

Or can I check the tribute of a tear ?
It was a solemn scene thy coffin'd corse to see ;

Mothers were weeping o'er their mother's fate,
And fair and youthful cheeks were wet for thee,

Whilst thou unconscious lay in death's cold state. Reason 'gainst grief, oh, vain philosophy,

Tell us regrets are cherish'd all in vain ;
Can the sad heart be curb'd by rules from thee?

Tears, more than precepts, will relieve its pain.
There was a pensive shadow round thee thrown,

For thine, alas, had been a chequer'd lot;
But thou to us a meek example shone,

Feeling deep sorrow, yet repining not.
Thine was no splendid doom, thou wert not made

To catch the wonder of admiring eyes :
A floweret, form'd to blossom in the shade-

Not for the world, but sweet domestic ties.
Thou diedst unnotic'd by the earth's gay throng ;

No trophied marble o'er thy grave doth start; Thy name not borne by history's page along;

Thou hast a dearer chronicle-the heart. Manchester.

J. BOLTON.

[graphic]

TO PEACE.

BY MRS. CADDICK.

Oh, Sympathy! benignant power !

Designed the wounds to heal,
And from the heart in sorrowing hour

The fest'ring arrow steal ;
Oh, Sympathy, Heaven's dearest, best,
Angel of consolation blest!

Oh, hither speed thy downward flight,

And banish far chaotic night!
Banish,-alas! the power denied,

Yet ah, to thee is given
The gentle influence allied,

The solace dear of heaven ;
And if forbid to banish grief,
Thine, ever thine, the olive leaf,

To bind the wounds thou can'st not cure,

And fit, by sharing, to endure.
Oh, Sympathy! deprived of thee,

How might the heart sustain
Its spirit-crushing misery,

Its whelming load of pain ?
It may not be:-the soul, opprest,
Would seek unhallowed place of rest,

And darkly o'er the murderer's grave

Would soon the rank grass lonely wave!
Oh, Sympathy ! thy dove-like form

Be ever mine to see,
Athwart the darkness of the storm,

Athwart the billowy sea ;
And ah, so thou forsake me not,
Resigned, though be my destined lot

The sombre valley aye to tread,

With cypress and the yew tree spread!
Yet, Sympathy, not mine alone

I selfishly implore ;
No! blend thy spirit with my own

And teach it, more and more,
Keenly to feel another's woe,
And while the tear shall silent flow,

Teach it the bruised reed to raise

With whispered hope of happier days!
Oh, Sympathy ! thy pangs, allowed,

Of heart-corroding prove,
Yet, let me, at thy altar bowed,

Bright minister of love;
Oh, let me fold thee to my breast,
And when is thine to mar its rest,

Then, Sympathy, the power bestow

With sweets to blend the cup of woe! Ltverpool

(From the forthcoming volume of Tales of the Affections.")

Celestial Being! meek yet radiant power,
The first inhabitant of Eden's bower,

In the earth's early morn;
Ere Discord breathed destruction on the world
Ere War his criaison banner had unfurl'd-

Mocking thy smile to scorn.
Driven by the hand of Crime from that sweet home,
Whither, benignant wanderer, didst thou roam

To seek a place of rest ?
In what lone, shady, ever-silent dell,
Or mountain cavern, didst thou deign to dwell,

Hiding thy dove-like breast ?
Monarchs have wooed thee on their power to smile,
Raised vainly to thy name some glorious pile,

The godlike work of art;
Some from their thrones retired to gloomy shades,
Sought thee where superstition all.pervades,

Yet does not sooth the heart.
And the care-haunted soul hath hoped to find
In Nature's charms a mystic spell, to bind

Its woes—and snatch thy calm ;
But whispering winds and falling waters ne'er
Hush'd its sick throbbings, if thou wert not there

Thyself to pour the balm.
Not on Ambition's path, in Grandeur's dome,
Or Folly's circle, art thou known to come,

Or show thy modest mien ;
But childhood's careless breast-ere sin hath shed
A blight upon it-ere its bloom hath fled-

Owns all thy power serene.
And the rebellious will, nobly withstood ;
Reason's resistance to wild passion's mood,

By strongly tempted man;

ENCROACHMENTS OF THE SEA-WALLASET MERSEY, &c. In the Kaleidoscope of January an article on the changes which are presum have taken place in the estuary of the Mersey the opposite coasts of Cheshire, we sta the subject of dread, half a century since, tha sea would, at some time, make its way into Wall Pool, and materially injure the navigation of Mersey. It seems that some scientific gentleme anticipation of this irruption of the sea, bare pressed the opinion that it may not produce material detriment to the navigation of the but, with all due deference to these gentleman must doubt whether it be possible to predical effects of such a catastrophe as that now apprebe

If the sea should make its way over to Wall Pool, and thus couvert Wirral into an islas would only be a reversion to the ancient este things; as there is no doubt that the whole had of Wirral was formerly surrounded by the sa; there can be as little doubt that Burbo, and Hoyle Banks, have, at a distant period, fonds of the main land, and that Cheshire and Lot have, at one time, been merely severed by stream, near the present Black Rock. The tradition that a bridge connected the two etu and a discovery made within the present werden to show that the passage could formerly be with stepping stones.

A few days since the bar twixt the Rock Point and Wallasey Hole has nearly laid bare, with but a few feet depth of The channel in this place is very narrow, and an witness has informed our contemporary of the C that a number of stones of a considerable si three or four feet thick, lie stretched acro

tending from one side to the other, assumint appearance of a ford. That extraordinaryd have occurred in our neighbourhood, there care

rational doubt entertained. We have, in d publication, dwelt pretty much in detail

subject of the forest which once connected to shire and Liverpool coasts; and the metamor which Wallasey has undergone is not less remarka That district is now almost, if not wholly

, desi of trees; but it was not always so, as we learn Ormerod's History of Cheshire, vol. ii. page where we find the following information of subject.

“ The district is now particularly bare of tisk but there is a tradition that the place was forte so well pl:inted that a man might have gone a tree-top to tree-top, from the Meole's Stacks Birkenhead.' The Meole's Stacks were trunks trees, in the sea shore, above New.hall."

In the same volume of the same work, page: there is the following passage respecting Wallases “ This plain (Wallasey) containing about 290 sch

A GRANDMOTHER'S DEATH.

Thou hast departed ! though, when age doth come,

We know th' imprison'd spirit will depart, saill do we miss thee in our happy home,

Thou with the long-lov'd form and woman's heart. Near to the glad light of the blazing hearth

There standeth still thy venerable chair ; We look upon it in our hours of mirth,

We breathe a sigh that thou no more art there.

PRINCE METTERNICH.

bw about to be inclosed, and is the place men mentally proved in a few days. In the meantime, we may ruin, than even Metternich himself. It was this offended d as an occasional race-course, in Webb's Iti. make an observation or iwo upon one point, of the utmost pride which made bim recal his ambassador, Count Nar. Ty. In this act the sand-hills are directed to be importance in the estimation of all those who feel an in- bonne, the only one who penetrated the designs of Metter. tved, as a security from the inroads of the Irish terest in the success of machinery as a substitute for impetuous Caulincourt

, a slave to his master, and blind to sweeping. boys.

every thing which was going on in Prague, except horses. his is a subject which we have for some time

If the inachines now constructing, or those which may Fate retributed fully this deception. Metternich became intended to resume, but our intention has been

be theresult of future ingenuity, should prove so completely the instrumert of Alexander; and if he was not his dupe, led by more pressing claims to our attention. ing boys into the flues, something must be done with the risk the advance towards Paris, and thus to terminate the

succcessful as altogether to supersede the necessity of send. he was something still worse. It was he through whom cannot, however, suffer another week to elapse apprentices now bound to the master sweeps. Those war with a single blow. Alexander managed the parties out communicating the following most interest benevolent persons who have hitherto exerted themselves in Paris so well, that the news of the taking of this capital, nformation, which we derive from the Liverpool in this work of humanity, have anticipated this necessity; and the dethronement of Napoleon, arrived at the same ier of Wednesday. nor will they leave their task incomplete, after having time at the head quarters of the Austrian empire.

Metternich's exterior is gracetul, though not without a I very singular fact

, in reference to this subject, has accomplished so much. It is their intention, either by sort of effeminacy. A broad forehead, a fine nose, blue to light this week. Mr. Nimmo, the engineer, is now parochial rate or by legislative grant, to put the apprentices well formed eyes, an agreeable mouth, which has always a ged in taking levels, and making observations on

to some school where they will be provided with every smile at his command, with a well-shaped figure, are the art of the shore, with reference to the ultimate opear. In performing this duty, be has had occasion able them, in due time, to earn their livelihood at some not in the least encuinbered by any of those drawbacks, of the tidesway and currents on the safety of the necessary of life, and that kind of education which will en outlines of the Austrian prime-minister. No man turns k through the substratum on the shore in several better trade than that from which they have been rescued. religion, morality, or principle-he will entertain a circle

where he has not only met with the clearest evi. On Thursday we called upon Whitehead, who uses of fitty or more persons in the most charming manner, of ploughed fields. forests, bogs, &c., beneath the "Glass's Improved Sweeping Machine,” as mentioned enter into dissipation and the follies of his equals and su

of the water, but that the sea has also invaded in our last. He informed us, that he has swept fifty-five perious; bun, at the same time, while administering to the gard, if not a churchyard, has been discovered chimneys by that machine; and that since it has been in ineir trailties and hobby-horses. In the art of penetrating 150 or 200 yards below the Aow of the tide, nearly his possession, he has only found two chimneys in which the weak sides of his superiors, and, what is still more, of be the Mockbeggar Lighthouse. Numerous bus it could not be used, owing to part of the Aues being making himself necessary to their trallies, he is absolutely keletons have been discovered lying buried beneath carried in an horizontal direction.

a master. rface; and if these skeletons had been found lying

The manner in which Metternich carries his measures iminately under the surface of the soil, we might

(To be continued.)

into effect, is certainly unique. To a perfect knowledge of apposed that they were the remains of some hap

all the leading characters with whom he has to deal, he ip's crew shipwrecked, at some remote period, on Art of the const. But what is the fact ? 'That they

unites an acuteness in selecting his instruments, not less Biograhical Notices.

astonishing He has, indeed, collected a living gallery of ind in hundreds, not lying as they would have been

Metternichians. His ambassadors are a sufficient proof of had been casually thrown there. No: but depo.

this fact. Like an immense spider, he has woven his net rith all due regard to the usage of consecrated

over the whole of Europe: has his spies in every capital ; - 1. side by side, in an eastwardly direction. This The following character of this extraordinary personage and Italy, with aristocrats and priests ; and in Constanti.

is in Portugal, with the Miguelites; in Spain, France, Ty has, as it was well calculated to do, greatly inthe gentlemen who were upon the survey on is taken from a clever little volume, Austria as it is.

nople, with the Sultan, hand and glove ; thus wielding, or iy last, and will furnish a highly interesting sub

Metternich is descended from one of the ancient, but rather resisting, the destinies of Europe, more than any r subsequent investigation.

impoverished German families, which gave to this country other person. As a diplomatisi, and, as a political in have since been informed, that a grave-yard may their spiritual princes. A subile management of affairs at triguer, we may be allowed to say, he stands unrivalled seen amongst the sand-hills

at Furmby, far re- the Congress of Rastadt, where he represented the Counts but there his power ends. Where something more than from any habitation, and so situated that it may. of Westphalia, brought him

under the notice of the Em- shifting and intriguing is necessary, his genius fails him. Toment, be buried in the sand which, by a hurri- peror of Austria; and he entered his service as ambassa. As a statesman, it we call by this name a man who con. might accidentally be detached from the hills by dor to the court of Dresden. In the year 1806, he was ap- sults the true interests of his prince and of his country, and

it is surrounded, and might there lie unnoticed for pointed ambassador to the French court. Napoleon had, acts on a great plan, he is very indifferent. tries, unless, as in the present instance, the silent just at this time, relaxed from his rigour againsi the ancient mary of the dead had, in the pursuits of science or French nobility, and they gathered round him in consitjects of commerce, been adventitiously discovered. derable numbers. With a free passport to the coteries of Hopeful Teachers.-A schoolmaster, who, on being reIrown open to the research of the antiquary or the these families, from which, of course, all the illegitimate monstrated with by a friend on his ineligibility to teach ation of the physiologist. In all probability this members of the newly.created nobility were excluded, others, observed that it was indeed a hardcase if he was srine cemetery, as it may be termed, which has now Metternich glided, with that insinuating suavity, and so stupid is not to be able to learn as fast as his pupils.

singularly discovered, has been similar to the one graceful demeanour, for which he is so justly celebrated. This anecdote applies well to the following, which we rmby, not connected with any church, but in every not only into the secrets and the chronique scundulense of give on the authority of a correspondent, who will vouch respect considered as sacred ground, under ecclesias. the French court, but even into the favour of the leading for the truth of it. Within three miles of Stockport, a egulation and privilege. We cannot yet hear of any characters, and of Napoleon himself. It was here he im. teacher in a Sunday School, where a large sum is annually ho has the slightest recollection of the burying ground bibed that deep knowledge of Napoleon's character, and collected to teach the young idea how to shoor,' coming stion ; and it will, very probably, be a difficult task penetrated those secrets which enabled him to perform, a to a difficult word in the lesson of a boy, interrogated him ertain its antiquity."

few years afterwards, the political and diplomntical dramas as follows: Con thee tell that word ?' • Now,' said facts communicated in the preceding para- at Dresden and Prague. In 1810, he was appointed Minis- the lad. Nor me, nother,' replied his instructor ;' • miss are so interesting that we wish the informa. How he succeeded to direct the attention of Napoleon to sample of teachers to be found in this school."-Stockport had been conveyed somewhat more circum- the Princess Maria Louisa ; how Prince Schwarzenberg, Advertiser. lally. We are left totally in the dark as to the his successor, managed this business, and how it finally

Ear-drawing - An American critic, speaking of a certain od by which Mr. Nimmo ascertained that so ended, the wise leader will have a key to, in what has been musical performance, says that “ It drew a profoundly

said. Metternich himself, disposed the princess to accept attentive ear fron the entire house, and was rapturously skeletons lay buried in the manner described. of Napoleon's offer, ai d conducted her to Paris

. Several encored.” the sand cleared away by the spade, or in what hints, respecting a reward for his services, were not under.

The Choir in Alarm. The following laughable circumner were these relicts laid bare? The nnmber and how he made up for the disappointment, ut a subse stance occurred, a few Sundays ago, in a chapel pot fifty position of the bodies could not have been even quent more favourable opportunity.

miles from Manchester. The leader of the choir finding ctured by the operation of boring. These are This failure, however, contributed not a litle to facili. that the minist-r was giving out a hymn different from ts upon which we shall anxiously await further rate the insinuations of the Russian autocrat, to whom he that which had been previously agreed upon, in his zeal

had been attached since 1806, from a certain similarity of tor the honour of the choir, cried out "Houd, mester! rmation.

character, such as is consis.ent with an autocrat and a couro stop! ween gelten no tune as 'll fit that; read another."

tier. The deep secresy in which Metternich involved the HIMNEY SWEEPING MACHINES.-Next week we plans of Austria, during the French campaign of Russia, we shall be enabled to devote a column or two of our and even during the congress at Prague, is considered as

(From the Liverpool Courier.) nal to this important subject, and trust we shall have knew the citizen like motions of Napoleon respecting his

the chef d'æuvre of his diplomatic genius. Metternich ething to communicate wbich will be acceptable to matrimony with Maria Louisa, and it was not a great

e who feel an interest in superseding the use of climb. matter of difficulty to keep him during the congress at -boys. We have prepared a model of a mode by Dresden, the invasion, and the succeeding armistice, and

Cloudy.

0 W.S.W. Fair. ch, we feel confident, that many of those chimneys the congress at Prague, in suspense, ill the Austrian be cleansed which cannot be swept by the best ma off. Napoleon's pride and unbridled selfishness, which armies were in array, and the mask could safely be thrown

Cloudy. Ste yet invented; and a friend of ours has devised a most made it impossible for him to see with other eyes ihan his

N.W. Cloudy. ellent plan for tbe same purpose, which will be experi- Town, contributed more to his deception and subsequent

METEOROLOGICAL DIARY.

Barometer

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Extreme i hermu-txtremne ale ol
during meters henteu lhe Wind
Nigbt. horaiog ring Day. at lioon.

NO.

noon.

W.

Mar.

12 29 93 43 0 45 0
13 30 0 45 0 48 0
14
30 27

48 0 52 0
15 30 30 48 53 0
16 | 30 24 47 0 50 0
17 | 30 15 48 0

63 0
56
57 0
60 0
56

0
0
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S.W. Fair. S.S.E. Fair. N.E.

50

S.W. Fall.

0 18 29 98 44 0 48 0

55 54

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Scientific Notices.

and deeply roo:ed. The measure of that violence may be power to preserve. The horses were taken from it, a estimated by the degree of abhorrence with wilich they together with the coffin, after having been trundled at

regard those persons who are employed to procure the and a half through the streets of the city, ANATOMICAL DISSECTIONS.

subjects necessary for dissection. In this country, there is no berately projected over the steep side of the mound,

other method of obtaining subjects but that of exhumation : smashed into a thousand pieces. The people folle An Appeal to the Public and to the Legislature, on aversion to this employment may be pardoned : dislike to it to the bottom. kindled a fire wit'ı its fragmerse

the necessity of affording Dead Bodies to the Schools the persons who engage in it is natural; but to regard surrounded it, like the savages in Robinson Crusne, of Anatomy, by Legislative Enactment. By William them with detestution, to exult in their punishment, t) was entirely consumed. In this case there was no Mackenzie.

determine for themselves its nature and measure, ard to dation for their suspicions. The coffin was intenda

endeavour to assume the power of inflicting it with their have conveyed to his house in Edinburgh the body (Continued from page 314.)

own hands, is absurd. Magistrates have too often fostered a physician, who, that mornirg, had died in a coctail

the prejudices of the people, and afforded them the means the neighbourhood. A similar assault was, some In ancient times the voice of reason could not be heard. of executing their vengeance on the objects of their aver- ago, made on two American gentlemen, who went to y Superstition, and customs founded on superstition, excited sion. The press has uniformly allied itself with the the Abbey of Linlitgow after nightfall. The che an influence which was neither to be resisted nor evaded. ignorance and violence of the vulgar, and has done every yards of ihe gude Scots" are now strictly guarded Dissection was then regarded with borror. In the warm ting in its power to inflame the passions which it was men and dogs; watch-lowers are crected within countries of the East the pursuit must have been highly its duty to endeavour to soothe. It is notorious, that, grounds, and mort-safes, as they are called, that is offensive, and even dangerous; and it was absolutely in the winter before last, there was scarcely a week in which strong iron frames are deposited in the ground og compatible with the notions and ceremonies uciversally tie papers d d not contain the most exaggerated and dis. graves. These people sometimes declare that the prevalent in those days. The Jewish tenet of pollution gusting stutements: the appetite which could be gratified put an end to anatomy, and certainly they are succe must have formed an insuperable obstacle to the cultiva. with such representations was sufficiently degraded: but in the accoinplishment of this menace as rapidly as tion of anatomy amongst that people. By the Exyprians, till more base was the servility which could pander to it. can well desire. The average number of medical stue every one who cut open a deait body was regarded with Half a century ago, there was, in Scotland, no difficulty in in Edinburgh is 700 each session. For several yeas inexpressible horror. The Grecian philosophers so far obtaining the su'jects which were necessary to supply the the difficuliy of procuring subjects in that place has overcame the prejudice as occasionally to engage in the schools of anatomy. The consequence was, t'at medicine so great, that, out of all that number, not more the pursuit, and the first dissection on record was one made and surgery suddenly assumed new life started from the or 200 have ever attempted to dissect; and every by Denocritus of Abdera, the friend of Hippocrates, in torpor in which they had been spell-bound--and made an have, latterly, been so opposed in their endeavours to order to discover the course of the bile. The Romans con- iminediate, and rapid, and brilliant progress. The new secute their studies that many of them hare left they tributed nothing to the progress of the art: they were con- seminaries constantly sent into the world men of the most in disgust. We have been informed by a friend, the tent with propitiating the deities who presided over health splendid abiluies, at once demonstrating the excellence alone was personally acquainted with twenty indir and disease. They arected on the Palatine Mount a tem of the schools in which they were educated, and rendering who retired from it at the beginning of last session, ple to the goddess Febris, whom they worshipped from a them illustrious. Pupils focked to them from all quar- who went to pursue their studies at Dublin, and we dread of her power. They also sacrificed to the goddess ters of the globe; and they essentially contributed to that that vast numbers followed their example at the Ossipaga, who, it seems, presided over the growth of the advancement of science which the present age has witnessed. the winter course. The medical school at Edinburg bones, and to another styled Carna, who took care of the In the 19th century the good people of Scotland, that in- fact, is now subsisting entirely on its past reputati viscera, and to whom they offered bean broth and bacon, telligent, that cool and calcuiating, that most reasonable the course of a few years it will be entirely at an end, because these were the most nutritious articles of diet. and thinking people, have thought proper to return to the the system be changed. Let those who have the The Arabians adopted the Jewish notion of pollution, and worst feeling and the worst conduct of the darkest periods perity of the University at heart, and who have the te were thus prohibited, by the tenets of their religion, from of antiquity. There is, at present, no offence whatever, io protect it, consider this before it be too late : they practising dissection. Abdollaliph, who flourished about which seems to have such power to beat and to exale into be assured it is no idle prediction ; for we gute the year 1200, a man of learning and a teacher of anatomy, a kind of torrent the blood which usually flows so calmly notice that it is at this moment the universal oparit never saw, and never thought of, a human dissection. In and sluggishly in the veins of a Scotchman. The people the current language, of every well-informed mediet order to examine and demonstrate the bones, he took his of 1823 (to compare great things with small) emulate ine in England. students to burying-grounds, and earnestly recommended spirit of those of their forefathers who "were ont in the An excellent system of anatomical plates, which them, instead of reading books, to adopt that method of finty-five;" the object, to be sure, is somewhat different, been well received by the profession, has latelyben study: yet he seemed to have no conception that the dis- but it is amusing to see the intensity and seriousness of lished by Mr. Lizars, a lecturer on anatomy section of a recent subject might be a still better method the excitement About twelve months ago an honest siology, in Edinburgh. This gentleman states of learning Christians were equally hostile to disseccion. farmer, of the name of Scott, who resides at Linlithgow, has been induced to undertake the work, in ett Pope Boniface the Eighth issued a bull prohibiting even the apprehended a poor wight who was pursuing his vocation, obviate the most fatal consequences to the public; maceration and preparation of skeletons. The priests we presume, in the churchyard of that place; and this at least, as a reference to art, instead of nature, i en were the only physicians, and so greatly did they abuse service appeared so meritorious to the people in his neigh- of obviating those consequences.

He affirms, the office they assumed, that the evil at length became too bourhood, that they absolutely presented him with a piece difficulty of obtaining instruction from nature has to intolerable to be borne. The church itself was obliged to of plate. In the winter sessions of 1822-3, a body was uiis- such a pitch, owing to the extraordinary severity este prohibit the priesthood from interfering with the practice covered on its way to the lecture-room of an anatomist in by the legal authorities of the kingdon against of medicine. All monks and canons who applied them. Glasgow, and, in spite of the exertions of the police, aided employed in procuring subjecis for dissection, selves to physic were threatened with severe penalties; and by those of the military, this gentleman's premises and threaten the ultimate destruction of medical and scen all bishops, abbits, and priors, who connived at their mis- their contents, which were valuable, were entirely destroyed cal science. In his preface to the second part of his conduct were ordered to be suspended from their eccle- by the mob. For some time after this achievement, it was he apologizes to his readers for dividing one pertisa siast:cal functions. But it was nou till three hundred years necessary to station a military guard at the houses of all from another, with which it ought to have been after this interdiction, t'at, by a special bull which per the medical protessors in that city. In t'e spring circuit nected; but states that he has been compelled to mitted physicians to marry, their complete separation of the justiciary court last year, at Suling, while the from the prejudices of the place, which prevented by from the clergy was effected.

judges were proceeding to the court, the procession was upwards of five months, froin procuring a subjet In the 14th century, Mundinus, professor at Bologna, assaul:ed with missiles; several persons were injured, and which he might make his drawings. astonished the world by the public dissect on of two human it was necessary to call in the protection of a military force. be says, “in a civilized and enlightened period bodies. In the 15th century, Leonardo du Vinci coniri The object of the mob was to inflict summary punishment pear as if we had been thrown back some center buted essentially to the progress of the art, hy the intro- on a man who was about to be tried for the exhumation the dark ages of ignorance, bigotry, and super duction of anatomical plates, which were admirably of a body. We happen to know that the most disgraceful Prejudices, worthy only of the multitude, have been executed. In the 16th century, the Emperor, Charles proceedings were some time ayo instituted in that town jured up and appealed to, in order to call fordi the Fifth, ordered a consultation to be held by the divines against a young gentleman of respectable family and indignation against those whose business it is to a of Salamanca, to determine whether it was lawful, in connexions, who was, in fact, expatriated, and whose pros- demonstratively, the struciure of the human bots, point of conscience, to dissect a dead body, in order to pects in life were entirely changed, if not ruined, be the functions of its different organs. The public par learn its structurc. In the 17th century, Cortosius, Pro cause he had too much honour to implicate his instructors from a vicious propensity to pander to the vulgara fessor of Anatomy at Bologna, and afterwards Professor in a transaction which would have put them to incon. for excitement, have raked up, and industriously cucha practical anatomy, which he had an earnest desire to finish, faithfully to discharge their duty to their pupils. Within asperate and inflame the passions of the mob; 290 but so great was the difficulty of prosecuting the study, the last five years three men were lodged in the county persons who, by their own showing, are friendly even in Italy, that, in twenty-four years, he could only jail at Haddington, charged with a trespass in the church interests of science, have, in the excess of their zeal twice procure an opportunity of dissecting a human body, yard of that town. So enraged was the mob against bodies should remain undisturbed in their program and even then with difficulty and in hurry; whereas, them, that an attempt was made to force the jail in decomposition, laboured to destroy, in this country, he had expec'eil to have done so, le says, once every year, order to get at them. On their way to the court the art, whose province it is to free living bodies irera according to the custom of the famous academies of Italy: men were again attacked, forced from the carriage, consequences inseparable

from accident and disease, of skeletons were positively forbidden; athe Arst as inlu. admited to buil; but, when set at liberty, they were been confirnied and rendered inveterate by the proceeds man, and the later as subservient to witchcraft. Eren asca 1.d with more violence than ever, and were nearly in our courts of justice, which have visited with the illustrious Luther was so biassed by the prejudices of killed. On the 29th of June, 1823, being Sunday, a most punishment due only to felons, the unhappy per his age, that tienserbed the majority of difcases to tie extraordinary outrage was perpetrated in the streets of necessarily employed in the present state of the lawi arts of the devil, and found great fault with physicians Einburgh. A coach, containing an empty coffin and procuring subjects for the dissecting.room.”

they al , was . He then goes on to state, that until anatomy be puhked wuntry of witties, and opvosed atnost in supe: able cl. bedy, taken from some churchyarl, seized the couch. can never fourish; the upon the present syster spring stacles ta.de cultivation of anatomy. Even el present, te was with diffeully that the police protected the men men ebtain a degree or a diplosis after a year e Dia prejudices of the people on this subject are

violent from sho sa zulw of the populace: tire coacta tbey had no gunding, that is, of learning by tute she alsoc

In place et line

tions which the examiners are in the habit of putting when urged in a stream parallel to a surface, and cut off which certainly does not afford a power equivalent to that e candidates ; that, ignorant of the very clements of partially, or altogether, from the surrounding air. Sup which is to be overcome. Is the stream of air, forced ly, go to the East and West Indies, and to the army pose a stream of air forced through a tube directly against through an aperture so completely out of proportion with navy, where they have the charge of hundreds of their a surface, or, in other words, at a right angle, and that it the extent of surface presented to it, sufficient to overcome mog fell-w.creatures, tu wnoni' they are, in fact, the exerts an outward force of one ounce; -and again ; suppose even the resistance it meets with from external causes, ameats of cruelty and murder. In the pretace to the the breath be drawn in wards through this tube, with the and without being made the most of by confining it to the Part

, he adds, that when Part II. was published, in same power from this surface, also possessing an in ward card B, by some kind of rim round its edge ? Certainly early part of the session, he took oceusion to express force of one our.cz-it should follow that a current, urged not; for the forced air is rendered inadequate by passing tened ruin of the Medical School of his native place, in a direction between these two extremes, or, in a direc. off in a flattened circular stream, an impression which it s to the scarcity of subjects. That for doing tuis tion parallel to the surface, should likewise have a force receives from its incapacity to overcome the gravity of the is incurred considerable censure ; thai he regrets inat between the two extremes of the blast upward and the substance above it, and the external resistance (called into as yet found no reason talter his opinion, for the draught in ward; or, in other words, be neutralized, and action by the interior exertion from the tube) of the surr session is now near its conclusion, and, he candomly have as liule power to raise the disc upward as to draw it rounding atmosphere. We have noticed that the power ther of anitomy or surgery hus been able either to downwards--while the atmospheric pressure outside, 1 of the air driven through the tube of B is lost, and we the regular plan of his conise, 01 to do ines enty to his should conceive to produce exactly tbe effect exhibited in mentioned the gaining of this power by extending a rising ; the consequence of which has been, that many of the experiment; namely, to cause the cards to approach, part round B: this alteration would, undoubtedly, causa adents have left the school in disgust, and gone and adhere for want of a corresponding pressure between. A to fly off, in cards of a certain size, when, without it, to Dublin or Paris ; while a still greater number, ed of the means of dissecting, have contented them.

The following may also be tried :--ake the card with they would not be affected. The same succeeds if we vary with lectures or theories, and with grinding; and the tube attached, and over the tube fix a bit of' stiff paper, A, making it pyramidical, semi- zlobular, or transfer the I on the practice of their profession, ignorant of its rather larger than the area of the tube, in such a manner rim we proposed for B 10 A. These trials prove that the Dental principles.

as to allow the wind to fly off sideways, and to prevent it air issuing from the tube of B must either be increased in (To be continued.)

from blowing against the ooject. Lay down a piece of volune, or its course so directed as that its power may, in

paper, of a size similar to the card, over which blow for- effect, be saved ; and that the slight concavity given to A SINGULAR EXPERIMENT.

cibly and the paper will spring upwards, though at the is insufficient, with a tube such as we have been using. TO THE EDITOR.

distance of one inch. The cause of this seems to arise Therefore, the contents of the interior surface A, inverted -Thongh the experineat with the cards and quill from the current through the pipe, driving out a portion over B, must increase, in a certain ratio, with the decrease dergone the investigation of persons better skullea of the air contained betwixt the card and paper--to supply of the diameter of the hole centered in B. amatics, yet, like Elihu, I will also give my which loss, the air underneath rises upwards to the current,

We have found that a powerful stream through the drawing the light disc and paper after it, in the same way small tube increases the resistance of A, and this is what ad the retaining power, or that power which keeps as a leaf of paper pulled suddenly upward from another we might naturally expect; and, indeed, was it nat for ks in its place, in opposition to the blast blown causes it o ascend also.--I am, yours, &c.

the diffusion of the stream in the vacancy between the I against it from the pipe, I have varied the ex. Ollhall-streci, March 17th, 1828

A. M. cards, a gentle stream would be more liable to raise A, t in every possible manner, and find, from the

than one of increased power; but its course being de 8, that this retaining property exists in the current The writer of the following letter will perceive that we stroyed, it also is rendered unavailing. This deviation taping in a direction parallel to the surfaces of the have omited the pretutory part, as it nerely relates to from what we might expect from a course of common reaks. The wind blown upwards from the quill or the method of making the experiment, which has been soning, is, evidently, attributable to the causes given; and I throw the card upwards, it'the air occupying the already sufficiently explained.

we come now to consider the second question, and in. taíxt the two cards be left undisturbed. Leta There can be no necessity for giving engravings of the quire how is it that A adheres? It would, perhaps, ap

be employed, to intercept the horizontal or ou:- two cards, as it is sufficient to bear in mind that A signi- pear, when we first set out, that A's adhesion was a conBeata ; place it between the other two, with a small fies the upper card, and B the lower one, to which the sequence of its remaining stationary ; and this, indeed, is the centre; muke it fast to the lower card, leaving quill or pipe is attached.

one cause;-but there being «thers concerned, we shall between, over this place the other card, with a pin

TO THE EDITOR.

proceed to state them. The aëriform fluid we call atmohrough its centre, insert the pin through the pin. SIR,–To come at the cause acting in this experiment. spheric air possesses considerable elasticity, being suscepdie middle card, and on the end of the pun under and runder the reasoning more comprehensible, it will be tible of compression and expansion. In experimentalizing bee of the intercepting, or middle card, conurive to requisite to introduce some premises, without which the upon air, we are not guided by any effect produced on the of stiff paper, about the size of a sixpence, against grounds we are working on miglit prove almost unintelli- fair itself, but by the appearance of the bodies subjected to if the breach be blown, the card at the top will gible; and here the subject divides itself into two heads, its influence. Like all gaseous fluids, it is perfectly invi

This proces that the current between the sur. when we shall consider separately, viz. Ist, Why A will sible. In the experiment under consideration we do not the cards has the power of retaining them, and not rise; and 2dly, Why it should adhere to B.

perceive the course which the air takes; presuming, how. sccupying this space in a state of rest does not possess Then, in the first place, we ask, How is it that A re-ever, that the impossibility of raising A has been suffipercy, if a force be applied to separate them. It mains uninfluenced by the stream of air rushing against ciently proved, we shall now relate a course of experiains to be inquired how the wind acquires this its under surface? The answer seems to present itself at ments, illustrative of the manner in which the cards are of causing the paper discs to adhere. I may here once. The principles of gravity and atmospheric pressure acted upon, so as to be kept together. that the same phenomenon of adhesion takes are too well known to require ininute explanation; and it We have described B as having only one tube ; but if wo slips of paper, two or three inches in breadth, will suffice for our present purpose to notice, that, by the we join another to this at right angles, we can then apply

inches in length, be applied to the lips, and the former, we understand the tendency of bodies towards the it to the mouth with greater convenience. With this in. be blown between. If the breath, or a current or earth's centre; and that, for the latter, we compute a pres. strument the following experiments may be very easily urged through a tube of flexible paper, it will, in sure of about 15 lb. on every square inch of surface. In repeated, observing first to take a little tobacco smoke into anner, have a tendency to collapse, provided the raising bodies by artificial means, it is found necessary to the mouth, which will indicate the course of the air. is a free outlet. - From all these experiments, the apply a mechanical force capable of overcoming the weight 1. If we use B alone, the air will escape in a perfect g seems the most obvious solution, viz. :—That a of that body and the resistance of the air through which

column. of air directed

parallel, or nearly so, between two it must obviously pass, and this resistance will increase 2. If we try B again, laying chaff, or slips of paper, round loses the property which air in a state of rest with the velocity of ascent or descent, and the superficial

the hole, we shall find the current will still pass freely. s, of pressing upwards, downwards, &c.; that in measurement of the body; and thus it is, that a large 3. When A is held at about one inch above B, the air is ion as it has its velocity between the cards increased, board falls down with its broad side to a room floor, and

turned off by the small rim; and, brought a little bave its power to expand i!self in all directions can barely be heard, while, with a narrow slip of wood, 4. Resting on B, a contracted stream rushes out between

closer, it escapes more rapidly. bed; and, that the pressure of the atmosphere the effect would be just reversed. Now, we would not

A and B on every side. will be so much greater than the pressure of this expect to raise a large sheet of card or paper, of two or We may here remark that the air from the tube being ich, by its parallel direction, appears to have its three feet diameter, by a force disproportionate to that unable to raise A, it escapes between A and B : this it will ling power neutralized) as to overcome the vertical which it has to overcome, namely, gravity, and the resist- do in the most cqual manner possible; and, if the cards on the pipe, and the friction arising from the ho. ance afforded by such an enlarged superfice. Therefore, be well made, and held horizontal, the force of this stieain

stream. This atmospheric pressure will force the it is evident, that, between this exaggerated size, and the will be equal on all sides of the circulat opening. ogether, so as to leave no more than space for the diameter of a small tube, as a quill, for instance, there 5. Put a large drop or two of ink into the quill, through escape, without compressing it. must be a medium, in which the same effects will exist,

the opening in B; cover with A; and, on blowing, following may be also suggested to confirm the and this, for the sake of argument we may take at two the ink will spatter itself over the inner surfaces o of the non-expanding quality which air acquires inches, or less, provided we keep the same tube or pipe, both cards in fine short lines.

SOLUTION TO STUDY CLXXIII,
WHITE

BLACK.

STUDY CLXXIV.

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5

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This experiment fully proves what has just been stated ; Jexemplify; at the same time the writer would not omit to The Bcauties of Chess. for the even course of the air is the immediate cause of the mention, that every possible simplification has been preproduction of this radiation with the ink. ferred, and, to the best of his endeavours, made use of, in

Ludimus effigiem belli."-VIDA. So far, we have shown what prevents A from being ele. cracing this intricate, but interesting experiment, which vated, and, as the power employed must run to waste, we indeed almost amounts to a paradox in pneumatics. have also made the passage evident in which this takes Liverpool, 8th March, 1828. Yours, &c. D.

i Castle......C-8X i Castle ... place; and now, the cause of its adhesion alone, remains

2 Pawn...... B-7X 2 King ......B-8 unexplained.

TO THE EDITOR.

3 King...... B-6 3 Castle ...C-X 6. We know that if force be applied to one end of a slip Sin, I beg that you will indulge me by the insertion

4 King...... C-6

4 Pawn ...H-40 of wood floating on water, that it will be driven over of the following solution of the phenomenon of the card,

5 King...... B-6 5 Pawn ...H-1 the surface of the fluid ; but, were we to curve one

6 Pawn...... A-7X becomes a Queen. end of this piece of wood, so as to make it dip into the in your valuable miscellany. As a correct and scientific

(a) 4 King......A-7 water, it would then, instead of skimming on the top, solution of it, I have no hesitation in stating, that, on 5 King ......C-7 5 King.....Adive into the water. very slight reflection, it will meet your approval ; and

6 Pawn......B-8, becomes a queen, checks, In this experiment, we have an illustration of what I shall just premise, that, if any real scientific objections takes place in the instrument AB. The air between the are brought forward against it, although I anticipate

White to move, and win the Queen, or checko two discs of card makes an equal endeavour to find escape none, I shall be prepared to meet them. When any five moves. on all sides; the curved edge of A inclines it downwards, chemical or mechanical phenomena occur, our best while, at the same time, this curved edge is making an mode of explaining them is to reason from some known

Black. equal effort to follow the stream, and this peculiar form of fact, or law, which bears a strong analogy to them. the edge of A, still more inclines it to cut into the stream. There is a very beautiful and simple experiment for show.

3 a IA 5 H All this time the force is equal, being central; and, all the ing the atmospheric pressure, which fully elucidates that other parts being regularly formed, every action will be of the card, as being governed by the same law. If we equal, and the result of these combinations will be the take a wine glass, and fill it, or partly fill it, with water, nearer approach of A to B.

and then cover it with a disc of writing paper, on pressing 7. Make an enlargement between A and B, by slightly the paper with the hand close on the edge of the glass,

bending one side of B, and blow, with A in its place; we may then invert it, and the water will remain in the 'if this bend be not too large, A will be drawn consi. inside. The bottom of the glass prevents ang pressure

derably over it, and cannot be kept otherwise. on the surface of the water, and the upward pressure of This is but a farther illustration of the cause, giving a the atmosphere is greater than the weight of the water. the power to cling to B, for A will follow thc enlarged The weight of the water in this case may be 1,000 times stream, until the curvature is out of its power, and it does heavier than the paper disc, but it is kept in its place by not fall, because the superior bulk of the card A still re- the const int tendency to form a vacuum, which nature is mains on B, but A cannot be retained with its centre over said to abhor. We know nothing of atmospheric pressure 2 O the aperture in B, so long as this bend in B exists, for it but from a vacuum, or from some law that has a tendency will always have a tendency towards it. Any enlarge to form one. This simple experiment is in perfect analogy ment of the stream between A and B, giving A an oppor. with that of the cards; the pressure of the air between tunity to follow and dip into it, while it deranges the ori. them is precisely similar to the weight of water in the A B C D E F G ginal experiment, proves the real cause of bringing A and glass, and until that pressure becomes equivalent to the B.together. And another method is to raise A, by in- weight of a column of water, 32 feet in height, the card

WHITE serting any small pointed instrument between the cards, will not (under fair circumstances) be blown off, as the

GOVERNESS. while blowing, when it wil be seen that A does not fly pressure of the air passing from the circular edge of the A LADY, who has been accustomed to conde off at that point of A which remains in contact with B, card is greater than that of the surrounding atmosphere; Education of Young Ladies, wishes to meet with an but at some place between this and the point where it is the internal air between the cards is as hermetically sealed ment as DAY GOVERNESS in a Gentleman's Family supported.

as the water in the glass is by the disc of paper, and con- address apply to the Printers. Having laid it down in our first experiments, that atmo- sequently the card cannot move, otherwise a vacuum spheric pressure, aided by the powers of gravity, were the would be formed. If a little air is admitted into the

To Correspondents. agencies to be overcome in raising A, we are led to sup-glass, in the above experiment, the water by its gravity BRATRICK BERNARDI.- We this day present our reader pose the possibility of giving the latter the advantage, and immediately forces off the paper, and falls down; on the an interesting original tale, by a literary lady, wbre encountering the former alone, and this we know it is same principle, if we cut a piece of the lower card in, addressed to Peace, appear in our poetical departar possible to do, by inverting the instrument; A then re. towards the centre, we can with ease blow the other

preceding page. mains without support, but if it be held up by the hard, card off. Mr. Editor, when the hundred guineas and

The Ruins or BABYLON._ This piece, by K.W., of Nax under B, it will soon Ay to its place, on blowing straight gold medal arrive, I shall give you due notice to prepare PHILOSOPHICAL EXPERINENT. As we anticipated, the

is reserved for the next Kaleidoscope. through the tube. In this instance, the air issuing from for a beefsteak and bottle of the best. Till then, I beg ment with the cards and quill has given rise to mu the tube, is endeavouring, by its own power, to drive A, leave to subscribe myself, yours, &c.

cussion and variety of opinion. The investigation with its greatest surface opposed to the surrounding air, and Pill-street, March 19.

CHARLES CAMERON.

to grow upon our hands; and we could have

whole of our publication with the letters we harti through which A's specific gravity alone would suffice to

on the subject. We cannot, however, assign tant carry it; but this very opposition brings the resistance of the

ANNUITIES.

limited space to the consideration of this experi atmospheric air immediately into action, as before ob.

rious as it is; and we must, therefore, necessarily served ; and this stream being kept up, against the centre

TO THE EDITOR.

the second and third letter of A. M., that of J... of A, added to the waste air escaping, as in the former if they will have the goodness, through the medium of CALCULATION OF INTEREST.-We must postponed

SIR.-I shall feel obliged to any of your correspondents some other communications, until next week. case, between A and B, and guided in the same way, by the Kaleidoscope, to inform me, as I am entirely un. week the original article on this subject, whied the rim of A, it will keep to that stream ; and as the waste acquainted with the subject, what would be the cost of an mised in our last. We wish the author to see the air tbus produced, will have a tendency upwards, A will, annuity of £30 per annum. The person being thirty and he is out of town. as before, attach itself, and endeavour to follow the circu. years of age of a delicate constitution, and having a little Music. The two airs arranged by J. C. shall be inserta lar stream, and the effect will be its close contact with B. procure the greatest yearly income during bis lifetime. money, is desirous of securely sinking the principal, to next or the following week.

PROVIDINO SUBJECTS FOR ANATOMICAL. DISSECTION. It may be proper to notice, that if these two methods

Yours, &c.

INQUIRER. to the inquiry of A Student, the article on this of using the cards be again varied, by using A in a re

which we have been giving in portions, for some versed position, viz. with its hollow side uppermost, we

Tide Table.

will, we believe, be brought to a conclusion next wed shall succeed in attaching A to B by strong blowing; but

our own opinion, and that of more competent judga this, it must be evident, is more owing to the saucer-like

Days. Jorn. Even. Height.

one of the most able dissertations ever written cdt

portant suljeet of which it treats. form of A. Avd its weakened desire to follow the flat.

In.m.h.m.lft. in.

The Elder PORTS.–Next week we shall proceed WANT tened stream, is balanced by a superiority of resistance af- Wednesday26 7 28 8

Tuesday ..25 6 9 6 49 10 9 Annun. of B. Virgin Mary
forded by this change of situation.
Thursday 27 8 36 9019 2

We have further to acknowledge Amelia
Friday ....28 9 23 9 44.13 8
These statements, to some, may appear unsatisfactory, Saturday. 2910

Camb. Term ends.

pondent. or their introduction may be such as not to convey an ade- Sunday... 3010 39 10 56 18 quate idea of the operation we have been endeavouring to Tuesday .. ilii 171

Monday 311 13 11 301 Pau Moon 10. Besen: Printed, published, and sold. every Tuesday, by E, S4 186

and Co., Clarendon-buildings, Lord.street

Festivals, &c.

series.

1

4'10 22 15 2

Oxford Term ends.

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