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OR,

Literary and Scientific Mirror.

“ UTILE. DULCI.”

This familiar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, Men ald

MASSIES, AMUSEMENT, elegant EXTRACTS, POETRY, ANECDOTES, BIOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, the DRAMA, ARTs and SCIENCES, Wit and SATIRE, FASHions, NATURAL HISTORY, &c. forming a handsome ANNUAL VOLUME, with an INDEX and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this work from London through their respective Booksellers.

No. 370.- Vol. VIII.

TUESDAY, JULY 31, 1827.

Price 3d

ments, and

revenues.

The Envestigator.

means of revenue was the fines paid in the King's court most he could obtain. Such were the means by which the

for all cases decided there. Here again the Normans first Henry obtained revenue; and so unjust and cruel [Comprehending Political Economy, Statistics, Jurispru: claimed exemption. But the main resource of the Con. were his exactions, that his death was hailed as a national dence, occasional passages from Parliamentary Speeches of a general nature, occasional Parliamentary Docu- queror was the forfeited estates of the Saxon nobles. deliverance.

speculative subjects, excluding Party | These were numerous and extensive, and the revenue At the beginning of his reign, Stephen, to please his Politics

arising from them was (for those times) immense. By Anglo-Saxon subjects, and to obtain their assistance against

these means the first William was enabled to maintain his rival Maud, abolished the Danegelt, and swore never to (ORIGINAL.)

bis dignity. For many years before his death his revenue renew it; he also vowed not to seize the bishopricks when AN HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL INQUIRY INTO THE amounted to £1061 103. 14d. per day ;t a sum which in they became vacant: and thus these two sources of revenue ORIGIN OF THE CONSTITUTION OF ENGLAND.

those days was considered enormous, and which far were for ever destroyed. During the stormy and troubled

exceeded the revenue of any other European monarch. period of Stephen's reign there was no settled or intelli. BY ERASMUS GOWER.

To this revenue his son William Rufus succeeded ; and gible mode of obtaining revenue. It would seem as if, (Continued from page 10.)

as an addition to it, he seized the whole of the Conqueror's during the struggle between him and Maud, one party

treasures at Winchester, amounting to sixty thousand subsisted by plundering the other: in fact, in a country CHAPTER III.

pounds of silver, besides gold and precious stones. But, distracted by intestine divisions, no other mode of obtainThe means of revenue allowed the King by the feudal according to the Anglo-Saxon historians, this revenue ing supplies could be available. Thus any attempt to epstem have been already enumerated. But as a miscon- and treasure was not equal to the expenditure of Rufus S obtain an account of Stephen's revenue would be vain and ception of my language may perhaps occur, I think it By his dress, table, pleasures, presents, &c. the treasury fruitless; and we must, therefore, rest unsatisfied respectnecessary to state, that in speaking of the obligations of a: Winchester was exhausted ; and in purchasing the aid ing the operations of the feudal system during his reign. the King's fassals, and their freedom from imposts, I of foreigners against his brother Robert, the revenue was But the reign of Stephen is of the greatest importance in enly mean the Norman vassals. As a necessary con- absorbed. As before and often observed, the provisions prosecuting the present inquiry. By abolishing the Dane. sequence

, the conquered Anglo-Saxons were not protected of the feudal system, as regarded the King's revenue, gelt, he deprived the Crown of a great source of revenue, from the King's rapacity by the provisions of the feudal presented no resource, so that Rufus was obliged to have and hastened the period of its humiliation. By restoring putem, and of course were cruelly plundered. Every recourse to a singular expedient, viz. that of seizing on the bishopricks, he raised a powerful hierarchy, which means of extortion was practised upon them, and thus the bishopricks as they became vacant, and enjoying their learned to set the power of the Monarch at defiance; and was the King enabled to maintain his dignity in despite of

Vain were the clamours of the Pope and by bestowing the Crown lands upon his adherents, he laid the scanty revenue noticed in the last chapter. Having clergy, for Rufus declared that if they remonstrated to the King at the mercy of the provisions of the feudal systhus explaised

, I now proceed to notice the pecuniary severely with him, he would sell the bishopricks' lands to tem, as regarded bis dignity. In my opinion, the reign of situation of each Norman King, leaving the battles, the Jews, to whom, for a large sum, he had granted great Stephen hastened the liberties of England a full century; leges , &c. to other historians.

privileges. This threat was effectual. During his reign and the strife between him and Maud called into existence When the Conqueror had finally subjugated the Anglo- he enjoyed the revenue of the vacant bishopricks ; and his a powerful and turbulent aristocracy, without which the faxons

, he voluntarily pledged himself not to require death, in the New Forest, has been regarded by monkish English constitution would have been incomplete. bare from the Normans than the services required by the historians as a punishment for thus defrauding the church During the struggle between Stephen and Maud, the ndal system. This was necessary for the safety of his of its due.

King's council of nobles and prelates rose in power and sly-equired dignity, as his Norman followers were

When the first Henry ascended the throne, he is reported influence: they assumed a new attitude in the state, and a independent not to guard jealously their rights and to have seized on the treasures at Winchester.|| How this claimed powers and jurisdiction which were not sanctioned minileges

. Yet, as before observed, no pledge was given could be the case, when, as stated by the Anglo-Saxon by the feudal system. To his vassals' demands, Stephen, o the worquered Anglo-Saxons; and, if fear of the power historians, Rufus had dissipated them, seems strange in to secure the crown, was obliged to accede; and thus was ftbe Normans prevented the Conqueror from plundering the extreme. Here is one of the falsifications of historians; laid the foundation of that power which, in the field ben, be satiated his cupidity by most unmercifully tax. for as it is an undoubted fact that Henry did seize great of Runnymede, dictated to King John the terms of reconhis Anglo-Saxon subjects

. He revived the tax of treasures at Winchester, which treasures were amassed by ciliation. asegelt

, originally levied by the Saxon monarchs for the the Conqueror, so it follows, of course, that Rufus could I have thus briefly passed over the first epoch in the hyment of the tribute imposed by the Danes. The not have dissipated them. Thus, then, the Anglo-Saxon origin of the constitution of England; and though to a wegelt was a tax of two shillings on every hide of land historians are convicted of a wilful falsehood, and Rufus superficial observer it may appear that I have been wan1 tbe kingdom, and in those days was considered a most loses a great part of his character for prodigality: but if dering from the subject, yet as the foregoing remarks are Keelitant impost. It is singular that no proof exists as Rufus did not dissipate these treasures, Henry most cer- necessary to prove the truth of my theory, they could not

the extent to which this tax was levied in the reign of tainly did. In the struggle between him and his brother be omitted. The reign of the second Henry, of Richard, he Conqueror. Did the Norman land proprietors tamely Robert of Normandy, the treasures and revenues of Henry and of John, will occupy the next chapter ; and then I trait to pay a tax not sanctioned by the feudal system ? were exhausted, and the Anglo-Saxons could with justice shall proceed to the most important epoch of this inquiry, 1 vas the Danegelt only levied on the Saxon land pro- complain that the extortions of the Conqueror were mild which I place in the reign of the third Henry. rietors? These questions cannot be satisfactorily an. compared to those of his son Henry. To maintain his

End of Chapter III. Hered

. I should be inclined to think that the tax was dignity, Henry raised the Danegelt from 25. to 3s. per hide dy levied on the Saxons, as the Normans were too of land; and every Saxon who was possessed of money ukras of their rights to give up, without a struggle, the was, under different pretexts, forced to deposit it in the

Tide Table. textest of them, viz. on exemption from taxation. How- King's exchequer. Nor were the Saxons the only sufferers.

Days. Morn. Even. Height. Festivals, &c. fer this may be, it is certain the Conqueror derived a like his predecessor, Henry kept possession of the vacant teat revenue from the Danegelt. Nor was this his only bishopricks; and when he had nearly exhausted their re- Tuesday .-31 3 21 3 47 14 6 Morn's first quarter. its resource. He demanded and obtained the tolls venues, he sold them to the highest bidder. He also, Wednesday 1 4613

6 Lammas Day. ising from bridges

, markets, highways, &c. These going a step further than, Rufus, seized on all ecclesiastical Thursday:: 43 23 13 ls were levied only on the Anglo-Saxons, as the King's benefices which became vacant, and sold them for the ut- Saturday. 48 37 11 Issals claimed exemption from such imposts. Another

h. m. h. m. ft. in.

0

Sunday.... 5 9

6 8th Sunday after Trinity

1 Transfiguration. Ingull.

• Ingull.
Ibid. # Ibid. Eadmer.

Tuesday .. 710 56 11 20 18 8 Name of Jesus. Full Moon

Monday

9 9 39 15 6 10 7 10 33 17

1 Ibid.

THE SHARK.

The Bouquet.

a true and genuine sailor, with all the reckless hardihood the approach of death, and they were carrying his swol

and superstition of his kind—a ghost seer in the most ample body unresistingly to the beach. "I have here only made a nosegay of culled powers, and have sense of the word, and a sort or walking repository of most A breeze soon after set in, and we at length weighed a brought nothing of my own but the thread that ties them." of the legends with which the invisible world is connected. chor. I took the helm, and the schooner began to ma

MONTAIGNE. He had intrigued with two or three mermaids—and had her way slowly up the gulf. The Spaniards, restored

been one of a party which had landed on the back of kra- good humour by the prospect of debarking, suffered LIGHTS AND SHADOWS OF A SAILOR'S LIFE.

ken, like Sinbad of yore, mistaking the sea monster for a sympathetic whine, which Prince frequently addressed desert island. Many and wild were the legends he has them, with “no fresh fish, Massa,” to pass unresente related to me of the Northern Seas, and they almost bor. Andersen, however, was evidently disappointed that rowed a tone of probability from the earnest and implicit prediction was likely to remain unverified ; and as he belief he himself gave them, and the nervous language in clined sulkily upon the spare mast, at a little distatice

, But ah-a shark bit through his waist,

which they were told. He was the oracle of the black could not avoid recurring to the subject, in order to tell His life-blood dyed the main.-Bryan and Percone. people, who have a constitutional tendency towards ro- him a little, and therefore asked him, gravely, which

mance and mystery. Their strong passions and con- the hands he concluded the shark had its eye upon ? Lord Byron and Thomas Moore have extolled the sce- fined intellect assort better with the ideal

world than the answered, in a subdued tone,—Belay, belay, skippe pery, of Italy and Greece till every village

bas blue and li. real one, and thus it is that the slave thinks less of his when you have sailed the high seas as long as I have, brary lounger has learnt to prate of Egean Waves," restrained liberty than those who have taken the thankless will give those saws more credit. Many a likely lady and "" Adrian Gondoliers." I believe that their descrip. trouble of thinking for him. After having seated himself ! seen take to his hammock, with parched lips and bu tions are as creditable as they are delightful, but neither quietly beside me, a brief dialogue, something like the ing temples, never to leap down from it in life, who Byron nor Moore had visited the West Indies, or the following, passed between us:—"Skipper, I was dreaming as hale and as hearty, and as full of fun as one of Mol beauties of the tropics would at least have shared their eu.

last night."

- Were you?"_“Yes, and a d-d queer Carey's Chicks, before the shark appeared in our lee sa logiums. They never saw the sun setting on the blue dream it was.”—" Ay?"" Ay, and I know as how ill Skipper, I know a story of a shark, a fearful bloody stor hills of Jamaica-they never beheld its meridian glories luck will come of; 'twas all about sharks."-"Out with and one

that haunts my memory night and day, dreamid sleeping on the waveless surface of the Carribean sea- it, I see that's what you want."-". No, I don't; but or waking. When I was at Campeachy I formed a surt they never heard the mellowed and sleepy sound of the shiver me if there be'nt a shark beating about the bows pot friendship with a pearl fisher, who had served und conch shell swell out in the evening air-or the wild choral now; and what d'ye think of that?"–. Nothing: are Mina in the expedition to New Orleans, and could song of the pearl fishers and manati-men; and, though ye afraid 'twill swallow the ship ?"-"No, I aint; bat long stories of burnings and bush-fightings, and tha

I think it will swallow some one on board of her. 'I tell thai I had never heard of before; and I used to sit is “ I ply but vainly on a broken string,"

you, skipper, it's fate to some of us; I never saw it miss; wig.wam all night, and swill rum grog, while be I have, in this respect, the advantage of them : I have let a man be dying or doomed on these seas, and a shark over his campaigns and his wanderings. He was a me seen and heard both. Of all the

beautiful scenery of the follows in the wake of the ship, as sure as the grave, to fellow, and knew how to keep the joke fresh ; and ! West Indies, that of the Gulf of Dalce, on the Spanish receive him when he is thrown overboard. To be sure his grog, and was compelled to like his company, for Main, is the most beautiful. My little schooner has it's all one as well feed sharks as land crabs, as well lie yellow fever had broke out in our ship, and I was thro floated there, with idle sails flapping in the undulating in a shark's belly as in a doctor's rum puncheon ; but I upon my shifts till stie came off her quarantine, so the swell of the tides, when the waters around me were as blue don't just like the thought of being crushed to bashed was contented to sling my hammock in the pearl.din and translucent as the skies that hung over them, and the meat between the grinders of those sea devils. It's silly, hut as long as he would allow me. One night 111 vessel seemed like a sunny cloud sleeping in middle air. skipper, but I would like to lie quietly

in the

earth at last, drunk; perhaps he had made me so for particular a The purple summits of the high-wooded mountains were after having been upon the sale sea all my life." -I rose but it he did, he was punished for it. It was still towering in the sunshine-but a soft gray evening and went forward; the sea was like molten lead, and dark and squally, and we were sitting alone is the shadow had gathered over their sides, and the rich and rippled along the hull of the schooner with a quiet and over the sleeply light of a mangrove fire. After look varied colours of their toliage were only distinguishable trickling sound; while the sails, which had shone so

at me for some time with a serious and steadfast. when a division of the hills suffered the descending ra- brightly during the

day, had assumed the colour of night, Jose said, Andersen, I will put my life into your han diance to fall on the lower heights. On the centre of the and Alapped supinely against the masts and cordage like I have need of a friend to advise with, and 'I think gulf, however, the mellow evening light reposed without funeral

palls. There is nothing so imposing, and

withal will not betray me.. You may have heard (for remce a shadow, save what was caught at intervals from the so soothing, as night on the ocean.

In that wide solitude loud-lipped) that the Cathedral of Nuestra Senora ocean birds, or was reflected from fishing vessels. The every object assumes a shadowy and spectral character, plundered, about two years ago, and that two black g waters were glassed in light.” Various windmills and and impresses the sailor with a feeling of awe that is who were implicated in the sacrilege, suffered publich wigwams belonging to sugar and indigo plantations re- seldom otherwise excited. All the objects on the shores the wheel. There was another man who evaded detec lieved, with their white walls and rising smoke, the quiet were indistinct, except the fire-flies, with their topaz- They died like men of bonour, with the secret in and sombre monotony with which sun-down had invested coloured lights, that were travelling across the gulf, like hearts, and he yet lives, unknown and unsuspected the dark wooded shores ; and glimpses of gipsy fires were those floating lamps which the Hindoo girls launch into am that man! Hush! The gold and silver va in many places flickering through the bush as the evening the Ganges to discover the fate of their affections. I tempted my eye, and I never knelt at the altar wit deepened. It was in this place that the Mayflower

was looked over the bulwarks, and, as Andersen had told me; did it." Madre de Dios !--such commotion as it i overtaken, in a voyage to a small settlement at the bottom there was the watchful monster winding lazily backward of the gulf, by one of those breathless calms that are com- and forward like a long meteor, sometimes rising till in the town; --the people seemed to have made a w mon in the last month of the dry season. I had three its nose disturbed the surface, and a gushing sound, talk of nothing else, and the Padres yelled as if it Spanish passengers on board, who had made extensive like a deep breath, rose through the breaker, at

doomsday. The poor blacks yelled too, but my 1 purchases of British goods at Bellese, and had engaged olhers resting motionless on the water as if listening

was never mingled with their confessions ;-my pu mules to meet them at this retired village, in order to to the sound of our voices, and thirsting for our blood. went is far off. The gold cups and candlestick evade the harbour dues of Omor. As the tide was flow. As we were watching the motions of the monster, Prince, buried under ten fathoms water, among the rocks i ing, I considered it expedient to drop anchor,

much to the the cook, a little lively negro, suggested the possibility of old fishing station. I know the place well. Assist i distress and annoyance of the Spaniards, who had calcu destroying it. Andersen uitered an incredulous .. bumph," raising them to-night, and I will share them with lated on being landed that day, and had exhausted their and I laughed outright, and asked Prince if he meant to and we will both take the first chance of going to lungs in whistling for winds ever since the calm set in. engage him in single combat with his bush knife as the

duras !! Their invocations, however, were in vain. Night dark- old Jamaica negro did the famous Port Royal Tom. "I consented at once for the devil is ever ready ti ened around us, and the schooner floated like a log. The Prince laughed, and shook his headNo, no, skipper, advantage of a man's necessities and we went down sailors sulked and leaned idly over the bulwarks; one of me give um a hot bellyful-make a brick hot in de stove beach immediately, where Jose unfastened his doree the Spaniards took up his guitar and played, while the and give um for nyam”-(eat.) I consented, and Prince we put off for the fishing station. The sea was high other iwo stretched themselves out as if for sleep, and I forthwith commenced his culinary operations. They were we had enough to do to manage our slight craft. reclined upon the companion in deep and sad meditation. simply to heat a firebrick in the stove-wrap it hastily up experienced eye was not long in discovering the repo What was I dreaming of amid those far foreign lands, in in some old greasy cloths, as a sort of disguise, and then of his treasure, though the night was so dark, al that lonely ship, surrounded by high dark hills? It was to heave it overboard. This was the work of a few minutes, drift so strong, that we could scarcely see beyond the of a distant fireside and the happy hours when, with and the effect was triumphant. The monster followed its excepting when a streamer flashed through the cloud all the sanguine confidence of boy hood, I threw my arms hissing prey--we sawit dart after the brick like a flash of showed the heavy black waves mounting round abo around the neck of my widowed parent, and cried, lighưning, and gorge it instanter. Prince whooped and · It's a plaguy bad night, messmate,' said I. Jose 1 " Mother, I will be a sailor, and win gold for you on laughed with exultation, and hurrying up to the surly the lightning glared over his face it was as p the wide sea."-Then I thought of her melancholy but Spaniards, who took no sort of interest in the circumstance, death. To.night or never,' he replied, wear i truthful foreboding; in the words of the proverb, that congratulated them with

a kind of sarcastic raillery on the doree while I strip.' He did not lose an instant in “the steed, would be gone ere the grass was grown;" prospect of fresh fish for supper.” The shark rose to ration, and after repeating his caution to wear up thi and I laughed, in bitterness of heart, over all my wild the surface almost immediately, and his uneasy movements and keep near the place, he crossed himself, and di hopes and childish calculations. From this abstracted soon betrayed the success of our mancuvre. His agonies heavily, but quietly, into the water. I thought I b mood I was aroused by one of the sailors, a Norwegian, became terrible. The waters appeared as if disturbed by cry as he descended, and my anxiety began to ta of the name of Andersen, the only white man, besides a violent squall, and the spray was driven over the tafferell, shape of fear. Jose had scarcely dived a fathom w myself, in the vessel, who sauntered up to the companion, where we were standing, while the gleaming body of the rose again to the surface, apparently senseless and and seated himself on one of the Spaniards patakées (a fish repeatedly burst through the dark waves, as if writh- mate. I thought he had stunned himself again kind of box, made of plaited bark, diced in various colours) ing with fierce and terrible convulsions. Sometimes also rocks. I called to him, but he returned me no ansy at my feet. This man reminded me of some of those wild we thought we heard a shrill, bellowing cry, as if indi- called again, and louder, and still no reply. Col and gypsy-looking figures that darken the foreground of cative of anguish and rage, rising through the gurgling fear, I paddled towards the place where the lightni old Flemish pictures. He was full six feet high, with of the waters. His fury, however, was soon exhausted. shown me his floating body: One arm was lying li large brawny limbs, and a set of features that, besides the In a short time the sounds broke away into distance, and upon the waves. I seized hold of it hastily, and d determined 'pucker of a tobacco-chewer, were as bronzed the agitation of the sea subsided. The shark had given it into the boat. As I did so, blood-warm blood : and weather-worn as those of Belzoni's mummy. He was himself to up the tides, as if unable to struggle against over my breast and knees: a streamer flashed acr firmament: I uttered a yell of horror, and let my load hands, Napoleon received news of the battle of Vittoria. The military commissioners paused and hesitated; nay, drop heavily at my feet. It was a headless trunk! The . All is now over with Joseph," were almost his first words though selected, doubtless, as fitted for the office, they jans of a shark had anticipated man's justice. The punish- after receiving the intelligence. “ Send to countermand were even affected by the whole behaviour, and especially ment of the ill-fated and guilty Jose had only been pro- the order for the watch." Properly considered, this anec. by the intrepidity of the unhappy prince. But Savary, tracted--Dot repealed!"

dote indicates no indifference as to his brother's fate, nor then chief of the police, stood behind the president's chair, Muszburgh, Jane, 1827.

A. B. P. anxiety about saving a petty sum; it was the rigid calcu- and controlled their sentiments of compassion. When

lation of a professed accountant, whose habits of accuracy they proposed to further the prisoner's request of an audi.

induce him to bring every loss to a distinct balance, how- ence of the First Consul, Savary cut the discussion short, SIR WALTER SCOTT'S NAPOLEON. ever trivial the set-off may be. But although the Empe- by saying that was inexpedient. At length they reported

ror's economy descended to minute trifles, we are not to their opinion, that the Duke d'Enghien was guilty of

suppose that among such was its natural sphere. On the baving fought against the Republic, intrigued with Eng. Further Extracts.

contrary, in the first year of the Consulate, he discovered land, and maintained intelligence in Strasburg, for the

and rectified an error in the statement of the revenue, to purpose of seizing the place ; great part of which allegaNAPOLEON. IN SOCIETY.

the amount of no less than two millions of francs, to the tions, and especially the last, was in express contradicNapoleon's general manner in society, during this part prejudice of the state. In another instance, with the skill tion to the only proof adduced, the admission, namely, of of his life, has been described by an observer of first-rate which only a natural taste for calculation, brought to ex. the prisoner himself. The report being sent to Buonaparte power ; according to whom, he was one for whom the ad- cellence by constant practice, could have attained, he dis. to know his farther pleasure, the Court received for answer miration which could not be refused to him, was always covered an enormous overcharge of more than sixty thou- their own letter, marked with the emphatic words, “ Conmingled with a portion of fear. He was different in This sand francs in the pay accounts of the garrison of Paris. demned to death.". Napoleon was obeyed by his satraps, manner from other men, and neither pleased nor angry, Two such discoveries, by the head magistrate, must have with Persian devotion. The sentence was pronounced ; kind nor severe, after the common fashion of humanity: gone far to secure regularity in the departments in which and the prisoner received it with the same intrepid galHe appeared to live forthe execution of his own plans, and they were made in future. Attending to this remarkable lantry which distinguished him through the whole of the to consider others only so far as they were connected with, peculiarity throws much light on the character of Buona. bloody scene. He requested the aid of a confessor. and could advance or oppose them. He estimated his parte. It was by dint of his rapid and powerful combina- : Would you die like a monk?” is said to have been the fellow-mertals no oberwise than as they could be useful tions that he succeeded as a General; and the same laws insulting reply. The Duke, without noticing the insult, to his riers; and, with a precision of intelligence which of calculation can be traced through much of his public knelt down for a minute, and seemed absorbed in profound seemed intuitive from its rapidity, he penetrated the senti. and private life.

devotion. meats of those whom it was worth his while to study.

EXECUTION OF THE DUKE D'ENGHIEN.

“Let us go,” he said, when he arose from his knees. Boonaparte did not then possess the ordinary tone of light

All was in readiness for the execution ; and, as if to stamp conversation in society; probably his mind was too much On the evening of the 14th of March, a body of French the trial as a mere mockery, the grave had been prepared burdened, or too proud to stoop to adopt that mode of soldiers, and gens d'armes, commanded by Colonel Orden. ere the judgment of the Court was pronounced. Upon pleasing, and there was a stiffness and reserve of manner ner, acting under the direction of Caulincourt, afterwards quitting the apartment in which the pretended trial had which was perhaps adopted for the purpose of keeping peo- Duke of Vicenza, suddenly entered the territory of Baden, taken place, the Prince was conducted

by torch-light down ple at a distance. His look had the same character. a power with whoin France was in profound peace, and a winding stair, which seemed to descend to the dungeons When he thought himself closely observed, he had the surrounded the château in which the unfortunate Prince of the ancient castle. power of discharging from his countenance all expression, resided. The descendant of Conde sprung to his arms, save that of a vague and indefinite smile, and presenting to but was prevented from using them by one of the atten- turally recollecting the use which had sometimes been

“ Am I to be immured in an oubliette ?” he said, na. the carious investigator the fixed eyes and rigid features dants, who represented the

force of his assailants as too inade of those toinbs for the living. “No,

Monseigneur,” of a bust of marble.

When he talked with the purpose of pleasing, Buona. ment, and, presenting their pistols, demanded to know answered the soldier he addressed in a voice interrupted parte often told anecdotes of his life in a very pleasing which was the Duke d'Enghien. "If

you desire to arrest by sobs,“ be tranquil on that subject.”. The stair led to a expression of his face; when disposed to be quite at ease, in your warrant."-" Then we must seize on you all," drawn up a party of the

gens d'armes d'elite. It was near Tanner; when silent, he had something disdainful in the him," said the Duke, "you

ought to have his description postern,

which opened into the castle ditch, where, as we Seras, in Madame 'de Stael's opinion, rather vulgar replied the officer in command; and the Prince, with his six o'clock in the morning, and day had dawned. But as His natural tone of feeling seemed to be a sense of internal little household, were arrested and carried to a mill at there was a heavy mist on the ground, several torches and superiority, and of secret contempt for the world in which some distance from the house, where he was permitted to lamps mixed their pale and ominous light with that afforded he lined, the men with whom he acted, and even the very receive some clothes and necessaries. Being now recog: by the heavens,-a circumstance which seems to have given objecta sbich he pursuel.

YAPOLEON'S TALENTS AS A CALCULATOR. citadel of Strasburg, and presently afterwards separated rise to the inaccurate report, that a lantern was tied to the It must be admitted, looking around the city of Paris, from the gentlemen of his household, with

the exception button of the victim, that his slayers might take the more and traveling through the provinces of France, that Bảo- of his aide-de-camp, the Baron de St. Jacques." He certain aim. Savary was again in attendance, and had Haparte bas, in the works of peaceful grandeur, left a

was allowed to communicate with no one. He remained takep his place upon a parapet which commanded the Hamp of magnificence not unworthy of the soaring, and, a close prisoner for three days ; but on the 18th, be place of execution. The victim was placed, the fatal word twixt one and two o'clock in the morning, he was

was given by the future Duke de Rovigo, the party fired, at the same time, profound spirit, which accomplished so many wonders in warfare. His conduct towards the Em obliged to rise and dress himself hastily, being only in and the prisoner fell. The body, dressed as it was, and press Josephine was regular and exemplary. From their formed that he was about to commence a journey. He without the slightest attention to the usual decencies of session to grandeur till the fatal divorce, as Napoleon requested the attendance of his valet de chambre, but was sepulture, was buddled into the grave with

as little ceredice termed it, they shared the privacy of the same answered that it was unnecessary. The linen which he mony as common robbers use towards the carcasses of the

murdered.” partment, and for many years partook of the same bed. was permitted to take with him amounted to two shirts Josephine is said, indeed, to have given her husband, upon ascertained. He was transported with the utmost speed

only, so nicely had his worldly wants been calculated and phom she had many claims, some annoyance by her jea. and secrecy towards Paris, where he arrived on the 20th, the toilette, known under the name of Windsor ; because

Transparent Soap.-Tallow is the basis of all soaps for proach thrown on so many heroes and men of genius, Temple, was transferred to the ancient Gothic castle of olive oil forms a paste toon difficult to meltrand

having am sh, proof to every thing else, they are not so to the allure: Vincennes , about a mile from the city, long used as a soap dissolved with

heat in alcohol, returns to its solid

state bents of female seduction. What amours he had were of pasang character. The dignity of his throne was splen: trious or a more innocent

victim. There he was permitted on cooling. It is this

fact, wbich has led to the discovery il limited by that love of order which

arose out of Buo- to take some repose ; and as if the favour had only been of transparent soap. When well prepared, this soap should Esparte's powers of arithmetical calculation, habitually awaked at midnight, and called upon to sustain an inter- also be coloured, and vegetable colours are for this purpose

granted for the purpose of being withdrawn, be was have the appearance of fine white sugar-candy. It may tribated, it may be, to that external regularity and deco- rogatory, on which his life depended, and to which he preferable to minerals. Any person can make the soap

by pauliar taste, Buonaparte said that his favourite

work night, at the same dead hour, he was brought before the cut small, filling the phial half full of alcohol, and placing tu a book of logarithms, and his choicest amusement was pretended court. The law enjoined that he should have it near the fire till the soap is dissolved. This mixture put

to cool in a mould gives the transparent soap.-Edinburgh parking out the problems. The individual to whom the had a defender appointed to plead his cause ; but none

Journal of Science.
Repeat made this singular avowal, mentioned it with such was allotted to him.
Surprise to an officer near his person,

who assured him that The inquisitors before whom he was hurried formed a * only did Napoleon amuse himself with arithmetical military commision of eight officers, having General Hu- Comparative nutritive Properties of different kinds of úplbers

, and the theory of computation, but that he fre- lin as their president. They were, as the proceedings ex- Food.-In bread, every hundred pounds weight are found guently brought it to bear on his domestic expenses, and press it, named, by Buonaparte's brother-in-law, Murat, to contain eighty pounds of nutritious matter ; butchers' Svezted himself with comparing the price at which par- then Governor of Paris. Though necessarily exhausted meat, averaging the various sorts, contains only thirty-five ticular articles were charged to him, with the rate which with fatigue and want of rest, the Duke d'Enghien per- pounds in one hundred; broad beans,

eighty-nine; peas, they caght to have cost at the fair market price, but formed in this melancholy scene a part worthy of the last ninety-three; lentils, (a kind of half pea but little known Skích, for reasons unnecessary to state, was in general descendant of the great Conde. He avowed his name and in England,) ninety-four pounds in one hundred ; greens Beatly exceeded. Las Cases mentions his detecting such rank,

and the share which he had taken in the war against and turnips, which are the most aqueous of all the vege. Rovercharge in the gold fringe which adorned one of his France, but denied all knowledge of Pichegru or of his tables used for domestic purposes, furnish only eight Rate apartments. A still more curious anecdote respects conspiracy. The interrogations ended by his demanding pounds of solid nutritious substance in one hundred; car. Ivatek, which the most eminent artist of Paris had orders an audience of the Chief Consul. “My name,” he said, rots, fourteen pounds; and, what is remarkable, as being finish with his utmost skill, in a style which might be my rank, my sentiments, and the peculiar 'distress of in opposition to the hitherto acknowledged theory,

one bene a gift from the Emperor of France to his brother the my situation, lead me to hope that my request will not hundred pounds of potatoes only yield twenty-five pounds King of Spain. Before the watch was out of the artist's be refused."

of substance valuable as nutrition.

The Christian views with eye of faith,

The tearless land—the happy shore; Where friends that sever'd were by death,

Again shall meet—and part no more.
Lone spot-round thee may flow'rs still bloce,

And breezes mild thee gently fan!
The heart is mould'ring in that tomb

That glow'd with love to God and man. High Park, Liverpool, July, 1827.

P.

Poetry.

THE SABBATH-DAY.

LINES.

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O tell me not the moon is bright,

And softly rolls the summer sea;
That nought is heard save zephyrs light,

And Philomela's minstrelsy :
The placid charms of such a night

Are not to be enjoyed by me;
For to the sad they speak of joy departed,
And add fresh sorrows to the broken hearted.
It mocks mine anguish to behold

All nature in unbroken rest ;
All calm and still, while I unfold

A jarring tempest in my breast ;
It brings to mind the days of old,

Ere torture's iron hand oppressed
That blessed time ere I had learned to moura,
And tells me that it never will return.
Within my bosom all is war,

The storm is raging wildly there;
And when I roam, not one bright star

Must lay its glittering beauty bare : The tempest-fiend must mount his car,

And riot madly through the air ; Then, sternly pleas'd, I 'mid the war will treaba And smile to see the lightnings round my besi

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Heaven-appointed day of rest,
Whisperer to the conscious breast
Of that eternal Sabbath bright
Storms cannot dim, nor sorrows blight!
Holy day, with brow serene,
Type of distant realms unseen;
Day in which to man is given
Intercourse to hold with Heaven!
Hallowed day! oh, be it thine
The heart to cleanse, the soul refine,
And teach, obedient to its God,
To yield submissive to the rod;
Nor dare arraign, or question aught,
Obscure soe'er, with mercy fraught.
Teach it the mortal strife to bear,
The pangs to which all flesh is heir;
Nor less in prosperous hour to know
From whence derived all bliss below;
Nor too depress'd, or too elate,
Whate'er its transitory state.
If good, the knee all grateful bend;
If ill, by faith to heaven ascend,
And seek the peace forbidden here,
Or granted but in hour of prayer !
Holy day, with summons sweet ;
Hallowed day, with purpose meet
The sick to heal, the lost restore,
And bid the wanderer stray no more !
Holy day, with seraph voice,
That calls the weary to rejoice,
And spreads around this desert scene
A calm so tranquil, so serene,
That seems, almost, to mortal sight
Reveal'd the far-off world of light!
Thrice ballowed day! oh, ever be
The whisperer of eternity ;
The messenger of matchless love,
Ordain'd to lift the heart above
The sorrows and the wrongs that here
Would else o'erwhelm it with despair !
Thrice hallowed day! to thee is given
The gates to ope, and lead to heaven;
Nor be thy sacred bidding done

Till Sabbaths mingle into one !
Liverpool

SE

HYMN BY THB LATE REGINALD HEBER, D.D. LATS LORD B1908

OF CALCUTTA.

SONG OF THE FARIES.

We are come, we are come, from our splendid home,
Where the stars in their glory through sapphire roam,
And the brilliant glow of their silvery light,
Has spangled the wave with its radiance bright.
We are come from our home in the land of blue,
And our mantles are wet with the silver dew;
We have wove round each flower a mystic spell,
And have made our homes in the blue harebell.
We have stolen the light from the azure sky,
And woven it in the blue violet's eye;
We have rode on a star-beam o'er land and sea,
In the bright glowing sky of Araby.
We have wantoned in sweets of a golden clime,
Where the orange flower blows in its youthful time;
We have sipped the dew from each opening bloom,
And rifled the citron's soft perfume.
We have watched the sun's last passing gleam,
As he linged the waves of the rippling stream;
And have sailed aloft mid the stairy traiti,
When they beamed from their thrones o'er the deep blue

main.
We merrily glide as joyous and free
As the dancing waves of a summer sea ;
And so light the fall of our noiseless tread,
We ne'er brush the dew from the violet bed.
Manchester, Sept. 14, 1826.

W. R-N.

THE PASTOR'S GRAVE.

“Grave of the righteous! surely there

The brightest bloom of beauty is :
O may I sleep on couch as fair-

And with a hope as bright as his !"-Edmeston.

There is a lone, sequester'd place,

By placid Ken's meand'ring stream ;
A spot that Time shall ne'er deface

From recollection's brightest gleam.
O'ershadow'd by old sycamores,

There rests the pious and the good,-
While many a tear his loss deplores,

And consecrate his solitude.
His requiem the wild birds sing,

At early morn or evening mild;
And Nature's harp his dirge does ring-

Meet elegies for Nature's child !
“ No sculptur’d” stone his virtues tell,-

They are engrav'd on many a heart; A record far more durable

Than that produc'd by graphic art. Methinks I hear some swain exclaim,

While from his cheek he wipes the tear, “ The Pastor true, whose only aim

Was to do good-sleeps softly here! “ He kindly sooth'd the couch of pain,

Pitied the friendless and the poor ; Want never told his tale in vain,

Nor met with insults at his door. “ His warning voice no more I hear,

That made the sinner seek his God; But while I roam a pilgrim here,

O may his steps by me be trod !" A widow mourns the husband kind,

And beauty mourns the father dear; But Heav'n the sorrowing heart will bind,

And kindly dry the filial tear. Friendship is sighing o'er that tomb

" He was a friend—long tried—sincere ! Alike was fortune's smile or gloom,

To him who lonely moulders here.

I prais'd the Earth, in beauty seen With garlands gay of various green; I prais'd the Sea whose ample field Shone glorious as a silver shield; And Earth and Ocean seem'd to say, “ Our beauties are but for a day!” I prais'd the Sun, whose chariot roll'd On wheels of amber and of gold; I prais'd the Moon, whose softer ege Gleam'd sweetly through the summer sky: And Moon and Sun in answer said, “Our days of light are numbered!" O God ! O Good beyond compare ! If thus thy meaner works are fair! If thus thy bounties gild the span Of ruin'd earth and sinful man, How glorious must the mansion be Where thy redeem'd shall dwell with thee!

G.

[ORIGINAL.)

LINES

WRITTEN ON A MOONLIGHT NIGHT.

IMPROMPTU, ADDRESSED TO A SICK LADY.

Oh! that my soul could firmly keep

The heavenly path where duty lies;
Like yon bright orb that now pursues

Its radiant course along the skies.
Not thus with empty joys elate,

Not thus by earthly passions driven,
Not thus with transient woes deprest

The soul that rests her hope in heaven.
But every vish, and thought intent

To keep the sacred path he trod,
She borrows from her Saviour light,

To lead her safely to her God.
Sheffield.

Dear Ann, I love you WELL;

But though you're ILL,
I pr'ythee cry not,

For I love you STILL. This pun is taken from a whimsical little work, lately published, entitled “ Absurdities,” in prose and Ferste by A. Crowquill; from which we intend to give some selections in the next Kakidoscope.

E. R

L'UNION FORTUNEE.

on the surface. If the specific gravity of the person at-1. The same principle applies, of course, to the passage Conte imité de Allemand, die Glückliche Ehe Von Gellert. tempting this be greater than that of water, it will be from Liverpool to Runcorn, and any editor who narrates

impossible to succeed ; since, independent of floating with the late exploit of Dr. Bedale and Mr. Vipond, without Du mariage on conte, en tous lieux, les disgrâces,

out motion of the limbs, he has the whole weight of the informing his readers, at the same time, that these gentle. Les ennuis, le déboire, et les rongeurs soucis ;

head to support above the surface; whereas, in floating men had a very rapid current in their favour, publishes an Pour moi qui viens de voir deux époux assortis,

on the back, half the head is immersed in the water, exparte statement, calculated to mislead the public. It Au dieu de l'hyménée, en ces vers je rends grâces. whereby a great part of its weight is neutralized.

Swimming.–The Viscount de Coursivron has exhibited D'un couple aimable et tendre, enfin, j'ai vu l'ardeur;

his experiments on the Seine. He left the swimming Memes transports heureux alimentaient leur flamme,

ON SWIMMING WITH THE STREAM.

school in a boat, containing thirteen swimmers, and when L'w eat dit qu'ils puisaient tous deux d'une seule âme

he reached the quay d'Orsay, M. Courtivron went into Les doux épanchemens qui fesaient leur bonheur.

Some remarks which have been lately published in one the water dressed as an infantry soldier. At the distance Désir, bumeur, vouloir, jusqu'au léger caprice,

of our newspapers, relative to a recent aquatic exploit, of thirty fathoms from the boat, be raised himself out of evince on the part of the editor an utter ignorance of the and the report of which was very loud. At this signal an

the water, and fired a musket, containing four charges, Tout ce que l'un sentait, à l'autre était comniun;

laws which affect bodies moving in fluids. We should not old soldier, who was placed on the Pont Royal, jumped Naissait-il une joie, ile l'éprouvaient chacun,

think it worth the trouble to waste a word upon a writer into the Seine, the height being 64 feet, and carried to M. Et chacun par moitié vidait coupe et calice.

whose ignorance upon very many of subjects on which he Courtivron a tin box containing despatches. After having Ainsi qu'il est d'usage entre tous les amans,

treats, is only equalled by his presumption: there may, read the contents, he swam io the boat to impart then De cacher ses défauts aux yeux de ce qu'on aime ; however, by possibility, be others as ignorant as himself come with the Colonel in other boats, jumped into the

to his comrades. Instantly sixty-four persons, who had Ces époux, dans leurs liens, encor fesaient de même,

upon the particular subject under consideration ; and we water, and followed his movements, he directing them by Le moindre tort jamais troubla leurs doux momens.

shall, therefore, endeavour to show the wide difference the sound of a horn. The swimmers executed in the De cette union rare on vit l'heure dernière

between swimming, and the combined action of swim. water horizontally the niovements which are executed Aussi délicieuse au moins que la première; ming and drifting, or floating ; or, in other words, the vertically on land.-French

paper. La mort tous deux frappa. Quand? Au bout de huit difference between swimming a few miles in still water, jours, and in a river with a strong current in favour of the swim, the 18th ult. The whale, noticed in our paper a few

The Sea Serpent Caught.-(From a New York paper of Car autrement personne en croirait mes discours. mer. The late exploit of Dr. Bedale and Mr. Vipond days since, as having passed Portsmouth-bridge, over the 2, Staford-street.

ALB. has been noticed in the London papers as if those gen. Piscataqua river, in New Hampshire, has been taken,

tlemen had actually swam sixteen or eighteen miles; and as will be seen by the following account, copied from We copy the following French jeux de mots from the in Blackwood's Magazine the distance between Liverpool a New Hampshire paper :-"Ön Friday morning he Edinburgh Weekly Chronicle, to which paper it was sent and Runcorn is stated to be twenty-four miles, which we

was seen by many market.people coming down the river.

An expedition was immediately set on foot by Colonel Hisses and young gentlemen of the Academy,--pointing now believe to be about one-third more than it really Decatur, of the navy yard, and Mr. Z. Willey, to take ut, at the same time, that it should be recited rapidly to would measure by water.

him, which was not successful till Tuesday evening at secure effect

с

B five o'clock, when a harpoon from Mr. Willey took effect, * Bon jour, Monsieur Sans-souci,

followed by two harpoons and four lances from Colonel Combien ces saucisses 'ci?”

Decatur, near Pine Point, in the Berwick branch of the * Six sous, ces saucisses 'ci."

Piscataqua, about ten miles from town. He continued « C'est trop, Monsieur Sans-souci :

towing the iwo boats attached to him till Wednesday

D
Six sous, ces saucisses 'ci !"

A

morning, sometimes going with the greatest velocity, and We will suppose, for the sake of illustration, that a with imminent danger to the boats at the Horse-races,

person swims across the Mersey, from Liverpool (A) to which was nearly three hours, and from five to seven The Kaleidoscope.

Woodside, or some other part of the opposite Cheshire o'clock in the morning was in view of thousands who shore, B, a distance, in a right line, of one mile; and we bridge. He was finally despatched at seven o'clock, near

flocked to see him, being then in sight of PortsmouthAQUATIC GYMNASIA.

will further suppose that he does this in one hour, about the bridge, and secured in Spinney's Creek, thence carried (Continued from our last.)

the time of high water, when there is little or no current, to Badger's Island, where preparations were yesterday either in his favour or against him.

made for his public exhibition. From Friday to Wed. Tel.

Pig. 2.

Again, we will suppose that the same person undertakes nesday morning the river had been filled with boats, the same task when the tide is setting in the direction from either trying to take him, or to view the sport. The A 10 D, at the rate of six miles in the hour. He shall spectators, especially on Monday afternoon, when he was

bridge, or margins of the river, have been thronged with swim precisely at the same rate as before, and for precisely in view the whole time, and the river perfectly calm. The the same time; but at the end of the hour he will not, as appearance of a whale in any river in the United States before, find himself at B, one mile off, but at C, or East. would be considered an extraordinary and gratifying cirham, six miles off, although he has not made one stroke cumstance, and for five days our citizens have had that more in the water than in his former experiment. The of the whale is about 50 feet, and his breadth about 16

opportunity, which may never occur again. The length As spinning is the order of the day, we shall propose law by which he is carried from A to C by the combined feet ; his head is shaped like that of a horse, and he differs car readers two aquatic feats, which are the most puz. action of swimming and drifting, instead of arriving at B, from all others that have been seen by those acquainted

with that species of fish. His notion was undulatory, and tirg of any we ever accomplished, and we believe we is, or ought to be, familiar to a schoolboy. It is this :

is of the Este in our time attempted all manner of vagaries in the when a body is acted upon by two forces in different direc- sea serpent which has so long been a visitor on our coast, er, not omitting that most ridiculous of all aquatic tions, it will be moved in a diagonal of the parallelogram

board from the door a cats, cutting the toe nails in the water, which we cap formed by lines drawn in the direction of the two moving cutler to that of a watch-house:-“ BLADES PUT IN."prorezent whatever upon the ordinary paring operation. and strives to reach that point, the current is drifting over a surgeon's door a board inscribed MANGLING Be that as it may, the two exploits represented by the him towards D, and he is consequently carried along the DONE HERE."

The following ludicrous advertisement was observed strezed figures are far more difficult to accomplish. Fi- diagonal line A C to C, six miles, in the same time that

posted in a window near Worcester Cathedral :-" henney gure 1 represents a person lying at full length on his back he, in still water, would have reached B, or one mile.

body that whants henney sauft water my fathr will carrey in the water, his toes (though not shown in the figure) out * One of the Liverpool critics, whose paragraph, like much it for yo." of the water. In this position the arms are to be raised in similar nonsense, will be copied into some of the provincial,

An article has been “going the rounds" respecting a **sch over the face, the fingers of each hand touching; ming, says, "- In the act of treading water he is higher out of certain Mrs. Hamilton, who is said never to have displeased and slnost the whole of each arm out of the water. The the element than most men by NEARLY ABDOT" ofn bredere correspondent of the Charleston Mercury, explains the a whistle, in order to show that he does not float merely ment the Departor may be in treading water the warni tere ad line dered off on duty before the expiration of the honeymoon. above paragraph is much more out of his element in meddling and

did not

return until his wife was dead. -New York by holding his breath. The arts in the figure are raised too much over the when we recollected that the title would be a libel on the

Statesman. coest; they ought to be thrown further back, so as to goose, which is a proficient in swimming, of which the un- Sporting Pun.-On Thursday evening, a person genteelly forto an arch above the face.

fledged commentator is wholly ignorant. if Dr. Bedale were dressed, but quite “dished," as the saying is, was seen No. 2 is equally if not more difficult

. The whole of the bigher out

of the water than most men
by a foot, his elbows reeling through the streets. His coat

bore the marks

of bad being out of the water, the arms extended as in the would be visible out of the element. This writer ought to his baving been floored more than once; when a gentle

have concluded his marvellous paragraph in the words of man observed, that he supposed he had been at the races ; tof swimming, but kept motionless. The body lying Major Longbow,-"Upon my honour it's true, what will you to which a punster replied, that there was no doubt,

from barisontally on the water, so that the heels may be seen ' lmy it's a le?"

his appearance, that he had been on the ground."

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