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Literary and Scientific Mirror.


This familiar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, MEN alid MANNERS, AMUSEMENT, elegant EXTRACTS, POETRY, ANECDOTES, BIOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, the DRAMA, ARTS and SCIENCES, WIT and SATIRE, FASHIONS, NATURAL HISTORY, &c. forming handsome AxxUAL VOLUME, with an INDEX and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this work from London through their respective Booksellers.

No. 370.- Fol. VIII.

TUESDAY, JULY 31, 1827.


The Envestigator.

| means of revenue was the fines paid in the King's court most he could obtain. Such were the means by which the

for all cases decided there. Here again the Normans first Henry obtained revenue; and so unjust and cruel [Comprehending Political Economy, Statistics, Jurispru

claimed exemption. But the main resource of the Con. were his exactions, that his death was hailed as a national dence, occasional passages from Parliamentary Speeches of a general nature, occasional Parliamentary Docu. queror was the forfeited estates of the Saxon nobles. deliverance. ments, and other speculative subjects, excluding Party - These were numerous and extensive, and the revenue i At the beginning of his reign, Stephen, to please his Politics)

arising from them was (for those times) immense. By Anglo-Saxon subjects, and to obtain their assistance against

these means the first William was enabled to maintain his rival Maud, abolished the Danegelt, and swore never to (ORIGINAL.)

his dignity. For many years before his death his revenue renew it; he also vowed not to seize the bishopricks when AN HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL INQUIRY INTO THE amounted to £1061 10s. 18d. per day;t a sum which in they became vacant: and thus these two sources of revenue ORIGIN OF THE CONSTITUTION OF ENGLAND.

those days was considered enormous, and which far were for ever destroyed. During the stormy and troubled

exceeded the revenue of any other European monarch. period of Stephen's reign there was no settled or intelli. BY ERASMUS GOWER.

To this revenue his son William Rufus succeeded; and gible mode of obtaining revenue. It would seem as if, (Continued from page 10.)

as an addition to it, he seized the whole of the Conqueror's during the struggle between him and Maud, one party

treasures at Winchester, amounting to sixty thousand subsisted by plundering the other: in fact, in a country CHAPTER III.

pounds of silver, besides gold and precious stones. I But, distracted by intestine divisions, no other mode of obtainThe means of revenue allowed the King by the feudal

according to the Anglo-Saxon historians, this revenue ing supplies could be available. Thus any attempt to system have been already en umerated. But as a miscon and treasure was not equal to the expenditure of Rufus. S obtain an account of Stephen's revenue would be vain and ception of my language may perhaps occur, I think it By bis dress, table, pleasures, presents, &c. the treasury fruitless; and we must, therefore, rest unsatisfied respect. necessary to state, that in speaking of the obligations of a: Winchester was exhausted ; and in purchasing the aid ing the operations of the feudal system during his reiga. the King's rassals, and their freedom from imposts, I of foreigners against his brother Robert, the revenue was But the reign of Stephen is of the greatest importance in dy mean the Norman vassals. As a necessary con- absorbed. As before and often observed, the provisions prosecuting the present inquiry. By abolishing the Dane. lequence, the conquered Anglo-Saxons were not protected of the feudal system, as regarded the King's revenue, gelt, he deprived the Crown of a great source of revenue, from the King's rapacity by the provisions of the feudal

presented no resource, so that Rufus was obliged to have and hastened the period of its humiliation. By restoring item, and of course were cruelly plundered. Every

recourse to a singular expedient, viz. that of seizing on the bishopricks, he raised a powerful hierarchy, which miests of extortion was practised upon them, and thus the bishopricks as they became vacant, and enjoying their learned to set the power of the Monarch at defiance; and was the King enabled to maintain his dignity in despite of

revenues. Vain were the clamours of the Pope and by bestowing the Crown lands upon his adherents, he laid be scanly revenue noticed in the last chapter. Having clergy, for Rufus declared that if they remonstrated too the King at the mercy of the provisions of the feudal sys. thus explained, I now proceed to notice the pecuniary severely with him, he would sell the bishopricks' lands to tem, as regarded his dignity. In my opinion, the reign of situation of each Norman King, leaving the battles, the Jews, to whom, for a large sum, he had granted great Stephen bastened the liberties of England a full century; liegas, &c. to other historians.

privileges. This threat was effectual. During his reign and the strife between him and Maud called into existene When the Conqueror had finally subjugated the Anglo he enjoyed the revenue of the vacant bishopricks; and his a powerful and turbulent aristocracy, without which the axons, he voluntarily pledged himself not to require death, in the New Forest, has been regarded by monkish | English constitution would have been incomplete. bare from the Normans than the services required by the | historians as a punishment for thus defrauding the church | During the struggle between Stephen and Maud, the endal system. This was necessary for the safety of his of its due.

King's council of nobles and prelates rose in power and ewly-acquired dignity, as his Norman followers were

When the first Henry ascended the throne, he is reported influence: they assumed a new attitude in the state, and to independent dot to guard jealously their rights and |

to have seized on the treasures at Winchester.|| How this claimed powers and jurisdiction which were not sanctioned mitileges. Yet, as before observed, no pledge was given

could be the case, when, as stated by the Anglo-Saxon by the feudal system. To his vassals' demands, Stephen, o the conquered Angio-Saxons; and, if fear of the power historians, Rufus had dissipated them, seems strange in to secure the crown, was obliged to accede; and thus was fthe Normans prevented the Conqueror from plundering |

the extreme. Here is one of the falsifications of historians; laid the foundation of that power which, in the field Bet, be satiated his cupidity by most unmercifully tax for as it is an undoubted fact that Henry did seize great of Runnymede, dictated to King John the terms of reconhis Anglo-Saxon subjects. He revived the tax of

treasures at Winchester, which treasures were amassed by ciliation. Manegelt, originally levied by the Saxon monarchs for the the Conqueror, so it follows, of course, that Rufus could

I have thus briefly passed over the first epoch in the

have the byment of the tribute imposed by the Danes. The

not have dissipated them. Thus, then, the Anglo-Saxon origin of the constitution of England; and though to a sregelt was a tax of two shillings on every hide of land

historians are convicted of a wilful falsehood, and Rufus superficial observer it may appear that I have been wan. the kingdom, and in those days was considered a most loses a great part of his character for prodigality: but if | dering from the subject, yet as the foregoing remarks are

Rufus did not dissipate these treasures, Henry most cer- | necessary to prove the truth of my theory, they could not y the extent to which this tax was levied in the reign of tainly did. In the struggle between him and his brother be omitted. The reign of the second Henry, of Richard, Re Conqueror. Did the Norman land proprietors tamely | Robert of Normandy, the treasures and revenues of Henry / and of John, will occupy the next chapter; and then I Joroit to pay a tax not sanctioned by the feudal system ? | were exhausted, and the Anglo-Saxons could with justice I shall proceed to the most important epoch of this inquiry, I was the Danegelt only levied on the Saxon land pro complain that the extortions of the Conqueror were mild which I place in the reign of the third Henry. retors? These questions cannot be satisfactorily an. compared to those of his son Henry. To maintain his Hered. I should be inclined to think that the tax was

End of Chapter III. dignity, Henry raised the Danegelt from 2s. to 3s. per hide dig levied on the Saxons, as the Normans were too

of land; and every Saxon who was possessed of money ve up, without a struggle, the was, under different pretexts, forced to deposit it in the

Tide Table. reutest of them, viz. on exemption from taxation.

ation. Howe King's exchequer. Nor were the Saxons the only sufferers.

Howfer this may be, it is certain the Conqueror derived a Like his predecessor, Henry kept possession of the vacant

Days. Morn. Even. Height. Festivals, &c. reat revenue from the Danegelt. Nor was this his only | bishopricks: and when he had nearly exhausted their re

h. m. h. m. ft. in.

| Tuesday ..31 3 21 3 47 14 6 Morn's first quarter. itra resource. He demanded and obtained the tolls

venues, he sold them to the highest bidder. He also, Wednesday 1 4 14 4 46 13 6 Lammas Day. ising from bridges, markets, highways, &c. These

Thursday.. 2 5 21 6 2 13 0 going a step further than, Rufus, seized on all ecclesiastical Is were levied only on the Anglo-Saxons, as the King's

Friday .... 3 6 43 7 23 13 2 benefices which became vacant, and sold them for the ut. Saturday.. 4 8 1 8 37 13 17 issals claimed exemption from such imposts. Another

Sunday.... 5 9 9 9 39 15 68th Sunday after Trinity

Monday .. 6 10 7 10 33 17 l Transfiguration. • Ingull.

• Ingull. Ibid. Ibid. $ Eadmer. Ibid. Tuesday .. 7 10 56 11 20 18 8 Name of Jesus. Full Moon

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The Bouquet.

| a true and genuine sailor, with all the reckless hardihood the approach of death, and they were carrying his swol

and superstition of his kind-a ghost seer in the most ample body unresistingly to the beach. "I have here only made a nosegay of culled powers, and have sense of the word, and a sort of walking repository of most A breeze soon after set in, and we at length weighed brought nothing of my own but the thread that ties them."

of the legends with which the invisible world is connected. chor. I took the helm, and the schooner began to ma MONTAIGNE. He had intrigued with two or three mermaids-and had her way slowly up the gulf. The Spaniards, restored

been one of a party which had landed on the back of kra. good humour by the prospect of debarking, suffered

ken, like Sinbad of yore, mistaking the sea monster for a sympathetic whine, which Prince frequently addressed LIGHTS AND SHADOWS OF A SAILOR'S LIFE.

desert island. Many and wild were the legends he has them, with “no fresh fish, Massa," to pass unresenta

related to me of the Northern Seas, and they almost bor. | Andersen, however, was evidently disappointed that! THE SHARK.

rowed a tone of probability from the earnest and implicit prediction was likely to remain unverified ; and as her

belief he himself gave them, and the nervous language in clined sulkily upon the spare mast, at a little distance But ah-a shark bit through his waist,

which they were told. He was the oracle of the black could not avoid recurring to the subject, in order to te His life-blood dyed the main.-Bryan and Percone. people, who have a constitutional tendency towards ro- him a little, and therefore asked him, gravely, which

mance and mystery. Their strong passions and con- / the hands he concluded the shark had its eye upon ? Lord Byron and Thomas Moore have extolled the sce. fined intellect assort better with the ideal world than the answered, in a subdued tone,-" Belay, belay, skinn nery of Italy and Greece till every village bas blue and li. real one, and thus it is that the slave thinks less of his when you have sailed the high seas as long as I have. brary lounger has learnt to prate of ** Egean Waves," restrained liberty than enose who have taken the tbankless will give those saws more credit. Many a likely lad and " Adrian Gondoliers." I believe that their descrip. trouble of thinking for him. After having seated himself I seen take to his hammock, with parched lips and bun tions are as creditable as they are delightful, but neither quietly beside me, a brief dialogue, something like the ing temples, never to leap down from it in life, who Byron nor Moore had visited the West Indies, or the following, passed between us:-"Skipper, I was dreaming as hale and as hearty, and as full of fun as one of Moll beauties of the tropics would at least have shared their eu. last night."-" Were you?"_“Yes, and a d-d queer Carey's Chicks, before the shark appeared in our lees logiums. They never saw the sun setting on the blue

dream it was.”_" Ay?"-"Ay, and I know as how ill Skipper, I know a story of a shark, a fearful bloody stor glories luck will come of; 'twas all about sharks."-"Out with

f. was all about sharks"_" Ont with and one that haunts my memory night and day, drearning hills of Jamaica—they never beheld its meridian glories luck will come sleeping on the waveless surface of the Carribean sea

lit. I see that's what you want.” _ No, I don't ; but or waking. When I was at Campeachy I formed a court they never heard the mellowed and sleepy sound of the shiver me if there be'nt a shark beating about the bows pot friendship with a pearl fisher, who had served und conch shell swell out in the evening air-or the wild choral now; and what d'ye think of that?"-"Nothing: are Mina in the expedition to New Orleans, and could song of the pearl fishers and manati-men; and, though ye afraid 't will swallow the ship ?"_" No, I aint; but long stories of burnings and bush-fightings, and the

I think it will swallow some one on board of her. I tell that I had never heard of before; and I used to siti “ I ply but vainly on a broken string."

you, skipper, it's fate to some of us; I never saw it miss: / wig wam all night, and swill rum grog, while be I have, in this respect, the advantage of them : I have let a man be dying or doomed on these seas, and a shark over his campaigns and his wanderings. He was a me seen and heard both. Of all the beautiful scenery of the follows in the wake of the ship, as sure as the grave, to

fellow, and knew how to keep the joke fresh ; and I West Indies, that of the Gulf of Dulce, on the Spanish receive him when he is thrown overboard. To be sure

his grog, and was compelled to like his company, for Main, is the most beautiful. My little schooner has it's all one-as well feed sharks as land crabs, as well lie yellow fever had broke out in our ship, and I was thro floated there, with idle sails flapping in the undulating in a shark's belly as in a doctor's rum puncheon ; but I upon my shifts till stie came off her quarantine, so thi swell of the tides, when the waters around me were as blue don't just like the thought of being crushed to bashed

eing crushed to bashed was contented to sling my hammock in the pearl.dime and translucent as the skies that hung over them, and the meat between the grinders of those sea devils. It's silly,

hut as long as he would allow me. One night | vessel seemed like a sunny cloud sleeping in middle air. I skipper, but I would like to lie quietly in the earth at last, I drunk ; perhaps he had made me so for particular a The purple summits of the high-wooded mountains were after having been upon the salt sea áll my life.”—I rose

nupon the sale sea all my life I rose but it he did, he was punished for it. It was still towering in the sunshine-but a soft gray evening and went forward ; the sea was like molten lead, and |

s like molten lead, and dark and squally, and we were sitting alone in the shadow had gathered over their sides, and the rich and rippled along the hull. of the schooner with a quiet and over the sleeply light of a mangrove fire. After look varied colours of their toliage were only distinguishable trickling sound; while the sails, which had shone so i atm

at me for some time with a serious and steadfast. when a division of the hills suffered the descending ra- brigbuy during the day, had assumed the colour of night,

Jose said, “ Andersen, I will put my life into your ban diance to fall on the lower heights. On the centre of the and flapped supinely against the masts and cordage like

its | I have need of a friend to advise with, and I think gulf, however, the mellow evening light reposed without funeral palls. There is nothing so imposing, and withal

will not betray me. You may have heard (for rumou a shadow, save what was caught at intervals from the so soothing, as night on the ocean. In that wide solitude !

litude loud-lipped) that the Cathedral of Nuestra Senora: ocean - birds, or, was reflected from fishing vessels. The every object assumes a shadowy and spectral character,

plundered, about two years ago, and that two black a waters were “ glassed in light." Various windmills and and impresses the sailor with a feeling of awe that is

who were implicated in the sacrilege, suffered public wigwams belonging to sugar and indigo plantations re- seldom otherwise excited. All the objects on the shores

the wheel. There was another man who evaded detec lieved, with their white walls and rising smoke, the quiet were indistinct, except the fire-flies, with their topaz-|

They died like men of bonour, with the secret in 1 and sombre monotony with which sun-down hud invested coloured lights, that were travelling across the gulf, 'like hearts, and he yet lives, unknown and unsuspected the dark wooded shores; and glimpses of gipsy fireg were those floating lamps which the Hindoo girls launch into am

am that man! Hush! The gold and silver ve in many places flickering through the bush as the evening the Ganges to discover the fate of their affections. I

tempted my eye, and I never knelt at the altar wit deepened. It was in this place that the Mayflower was looked over the bulwarks, and, as Andersen had told me,

wishing to tear them down. The devil assisted me, 1 Overtaken, in a voyage to a small settlement at the bottom there was the watchful monster winding lazily backward

did it. Madre de Dios !-such commotion as it i of the gulf, by one of those breathless calms that are com.and forward like a long meteor, sometimes rising till

in the town ;-the people seemed to have made & ve mon in the last month of the dry season. I had three its nose disturbed the surface, and a gushing sound,

talk of nothing else, and the Padres yelled as if it Spanish passengers on board, who had made extensive like a deep breath, rose through the breaker, at


oomsday. The poor blacks yelled too, but my 1 purchases of British goods at Bellese, and had engaged others resting motionless on the water as if listening

was never mingled with their confessions ;--my pu mules to meet them at this retired village, in order to to the sound of our voices, and thirsting for our blood.

ment is far off. The gold cups and candlestick evade the barbour dues of Omor. As the tide was flow

ere watch ng the motions of the monster, Prir

buried under ten fathoms water, among the rocks 1 ing, I considered it expedient to drop anchor, much to the the cook, a little lively negro, suggested the possibility of

old fishing station. I know the place well. Assist 1 distress and annoyance of the Spaniards, who had calcu- destroying it. Andersen uttered an incredulous " bumph,"

0,5 raising them to-night, and I will share them with lated on being landed that day, and had exhausted their and I laughed outright, and asked Prince if he meant to

and we will both take the first chance of going to lungs in whistling for winds ever since the calm set in. engage him in single combat with his bush knife as the

duras !! Their invocations, however, were in vain. Night darkold Jamaica negro did the famous Port Royal Tom. "I consented at once-for the devil is ever ready to ened around us, and the schooner floated like a log. The Prince laughed, and shook his head " No, no, skipper, advantage of a man's necessities and we went down sailors sulked and leaned idly over the bulwarks; one of me give um a hot bellyful-make a brick hot in de stove beach immediately, where Jose unfastened his doree the Spaniards took up his guitar and played, while the and give um for nyam"-(eat.) I consented, and Prince we put off for the fishing station. The sea was high other two stretched themselves out as if for sleep, and I forthwith commenced his culinary operations. They were we had enough to do to manage our slight craft. reclined upon the companion in deep and sad meditation. simply to heat a firebrick in the stove-wrap it hastily up experienced eye was not long in discovering the repo What was I dreaming of amid those far foreign lands, in in some old greasy cloths, as a sort of disguise, and then of his treasure, though the night was so dark, ai that lonely ship, surrounded by high dark hills? It was to heave it overboard. This was the work of a few minutes, drift so strong, that we could scarcely see beyond the of a distant fireside and the happy hours when, with and the effect was triomphant. The monster followed its excepting when a streamer flashed through ihe cloud all the sanguine confidence of boyhood, I threw my arms hissing prey-we saw it dart after the brick like a flash of showed the heavy black waves mounting round abo around the neck of my widowed parent, and cried, lightning, and gorge it instanter. Prince whooped and 'It's a plaguy bad night, messmate,' said I. Jose "Mother, I will be a sailor, and win gold for you on laughed with exulcation, and hurrying up to the surly the lightning glared over his face it was as p the wide sea."- Then I thought of her melancholy but Spaniards, who took no sort of interest in the circumstance, death. * To.night or never,' he replied, "wear ! truthful foreboding, in the words of the proverb, that congratulated them with a kind of sarcastic raillery on the doree while I strip.' He did not lose an instant in " the steed would be gone ere the grass was grown;" prospect of " fresh fish for supper." The shark rose to ration, and after repeating his caution to wear up the and I laughed, in bitterness of heart, over all my wild the surface almost immediately, and his uneasy movements and keep near the place, he crossed himself, and di hopes and childish calculations. From this abstracted soon betrayed the success of our manæuvre. His agonies heavily, but quietly, into the water. I thought I b mood I was aroused by one of the sailors, a Norwegian, becatne terrible. The waters appeared as if disturbed by cry as he descended, and my anxiety began to ta of the name of Andersen, the only white man, besides a violent squall, and the spray was driven over the tafferell, shape of fear. Jose had scarcely dived a fathom w myself, in the vessel, who sauntered up to the companion, where we were standing, while the gleaming body of the rose again to the surface, apparendy senseless and and seated himself on one of the Spaniards' patakees (a fish repeatedly burst through the dark waves, as if writh- mate. I thought he had stunned himself again kind of box, made of plaited bark, diced in various colours) ing with fierce and terrible convulsions. Sometimes also rocks. I called to him, but he returned me no ansv at my feet. This man reminded me of some of those wild we thought we heard a shrill, bellowing cry, as if indi- called again, and louder, and still no reply. Col and gypsy-looking figures that darken the foreground of cative of anguish and rage, rising through the gurgling fear, I paddled towards the place where the lightni old Flemish pictures. He was full six feet high, with of the waters. His fury, however, was soon exhausted. shown me his floating body. One arm was lying li large brawny limbs, and a set of features that, besides the In a short time the sounds broke away into distance, and upon the waves. I seized hold of it hastily, and d determined pucker of a tobacco-chewer, were as bronzed the agitation of the sea subsided. The shark had given it into the boat. As I did so, blood-warm blood : and weather-worn as those of Belzoni's mummy. He was himself to up the tides, as if unable to struggle against over my breast and knees : 1 streamer flashed acr


of a bast of marble.

firmament: I uttered a yell of horror, and let my load hands, Napoleon received news of the battle of Vittoria. The military commissioners paused and hesitated; nay. drop bearily at my feet. It was a headless trunk! The “ All is now over with Joseph," were almost his first words though selected, doubtless, as fitted for the office, they ans of a shark had anticipated man's justice. The punish- after receiving the intelligence. " Send to countermand were even affected by the whole behaviour, and especially ment of the ill-fated and guilty Jose had only been pro. the order for the watch." Properly considered, this anec. by the intrepidity of the unhappy prince. But Savary, tracted- not repealed!"

dote indicates no indifference as to his brother's fate, nor then chief of the police, stood bebind the president's chair, Jusebargt, Juni, 1827.

A. B. P.

Tanxiety about saying a petty sum: it was the rigid calcu. and controlled their sentiments of compassion. When lation of a professed accountant, whose habits of accuracy they proposed to further the prisoner's request of an audi.

induce him to bring every loss to a distinct balance, how.ence of the First Consul, Savary cut the discussion short, SIR WALTER SCOTT'S NAPOLEON. ever trivial the set-off may be. But although the Empe-| by saying that was inexpedient. At length they reported

ror's economy descended to minute trifles, we are not to their opinion, that the Duke d'Enghien was guilty of

suppose that among such was its natural sphere. On the baving fought against the Republic, intrigued with Eng. Further Extracts.

contrary, in the first year of the Consulate, he discovered | land, and maintained intelligence in Strasburg, for the

and rectified an error in the statement of the revenue, to purpose of seizing the place ; great part of which allega. NAPOLEON IN SOCIETY.

the amount of no less than two millions of francs, to the tions, and especially the last, was in express contradicNapoleon's general manner in society, during this part prejudice of the state. In another instance, with the skill tion to the only proof adduced, the admission, namely, of of his life has been described by an observer of first-rate which only a natural taste for calculation, brought to ex- | the prisoner himself. The report being sent to Buonaparte pover; according to whom, he was one for whom the ad. cellence by constant practice, could have attained, he dis. to know his farther pleasure, the Court received for answer miration which could not be refused to him, was always covered an enormous overcharge of more than sixty thou. their own letter, marked with the emphatic words, “Conninglad with a portion of fear. He was different in This sand francs in the pay accounts of the garrison of Paris. demned to death." Napoleon was obeyed by his satraps. manber from other men, and neither pleased nor angry,

Two such discoveries, by the head magistrate, must have with Persian devotion. The sentence was pronounced kiad nor severe, after the common fashion of humanity. gone far to secure regularity in the departments in which and the prisoner received it with the same intrepid gal. He appeared to live for the execution of his own plans, and they were made in future. Attending to this rema

they were made in future. Attending to this remarkable lantry which distinguished him through the whole of the to consider Others only so far as they were connected with, peculiarity throws much light on the character of Buona. | bloody scene. He requested the aid of a confessor. and could advance or oppose them. He estimated his parte. It was by dint of his rapid and powerful combina-1" Would you die like a monk ?" is said to bave been the fellow-mertals no otherwise than as they could be useful tions that he succeeded as a General; and the same laws insulting reply. The Duke, without noticing the insult, to his views; and, with a precision of intelligence which of calculation can be traced through much of his public knelt down for a minute, and seemed absorbed in profound

vate life. seemed intuitire from its rapidity, he penetrated the senti.

devotion. . ments of those whom it was worth his while to study.


“Let us go,” he said, when he arose from his knees. Boonaparte did not then possess the ordinary tone of light

All was in readiness for the execution ; and, as if to stamp conversation in society; probably his mind was too much On the evening of the 14th of March, a body of French the trial as a mere mockery, the grave had been prepared bardened, or too proud to stoop to adopt that mode of soldiers, and gens d'armes, cornmanded by Colonel Orden- ere the judgment of the Court was pronounced. Upon pleasing, and there was a stiffness and reserve of manner ner, acting under the direction of Caulincourt, afterwards quitting the apartment in which the pretended trial had which was perhaps adopted for the purpose of keeping peo. Duke of Vicenza, suddenly entered the territory of Baden, taken place, the Prince was conducted by torch-light down ple at a distance. His look had the same character. a power with whom France was in profound peace, and a winding stair, which seemed to descend to the dungeons When he thought himself closely observed, he had the surrounded the château in which the unfortunate Prince of the ancient castle. power of discharging from his countenance all expression, resided. The descendant of Conde sprung to his arms, "Am I to be immured in

• na. save that of a vague and indefinite smile, and presenting to but was prevented from using them by one of the atten. 1.

y one on the atten. turally recollecting the use which had sometimes been the corions investigator the fixed eyes and rigid features | dants, who represented the force of his assailants as too great to be resisted. The soldiers rushed into the apart

too inade of those tombs for the living. "No, Monseigneur," When he talked with the purpose of pleasing, Buona. ment, and, presenting their pistols, demanded to know

apart. answered the soldier he addressed, in a voice interrupted parte often told anecdotes of his life in a very pleasing which was the Duke d'Enghien. “ If you desire to arrest

by sobs, “ be tranquil on that subject." The stair led to a maner; when silent, be had something disdainful in the him," said the Duke, “ you ought to bave his description

postern, which opened into the castle ditch, where, as we expression of his face; when disposed to be quite at ease, in your warrant."-" Then we must seize on you all,"

I have already said, a grave was dug, beside which were he was, in Madame de Stael's opinion, rather vulgar. replied the officer in command ; and the Prince, with nis

drawn up a party of the gens d'armes d'elite. It was near His natural tone of feeling seemed to be a sense of internal | little household, were arrested and carried to a mill at

six o'clock in the morning, and day had dawned. But as ruperiority, and of secret contempt for the world in which some distance from the house, where he was permitted to:

there was a heavy mist on the ground, several torches and ired, the men with whom he acted, and even the very receive some clothes and necessaries. Being now recog.

lamps mixed their pale and ominous light with that afforded sbjects which he pursueil. nised, he was transferred, with his attendants, to the

by the heavens--a circumstance which seems to have given

rise to the inaccurate report, that a lantern was tied to the citadel of Strasburg, and presently afterwards separated NAPOLEON'S TALENTS AS A CALCULATOR.

from the gentlemen of his household, with the exception It must be admitted, looking around the city of Paris,

" button of the victim, that his slayers might take the more of his aide-de-camp, the Baron de St. Jacques. He

certain aim. Savary was again in attendance, and had ud traveling through the provinces of France, that Bảo.

ed taken his place upon a parapet which commanded the Haparte bas, in the works of peaceful grandeur, left a

was allowed to communicate with no one. He remained
a close prisoner for three days; but on the 18th, be. Pa

'I place of execution. The victim was placed, the fatal word stamp of magnificence not unworthy of the soaring, and, twixt one and two o'clock in the morning, he was

was given by the future Duke de Rovigo, the party fired, At the same time, profound spirit, which accomplished so obliged to rise and dress himself hastily, being only in

and the prisoner fell. The body, dressed as it was, and maay Fanders in warfare. His conduct towards the Em prese Josephine was regular and exemplary. From their

without the slightest attention to the usual decencies of 'formed that he was about to commence a journey. He requested the attendance of his valet de chambre, but was I bepuu

sepulture, was buddled into the grave with as little cereBossion to grandeur till the fatal divorce, as Napoleon

mony as common robbers use towards the carcasses of the answered that it was unnecessary. The linen which he Sitice termed it, they shared the privacy of the same was permitted to take with him amounted to two shirts

murdered.” Sortment, and for many years partook of the same bed. Josephine is said, indeed, to bave given her husband, upon

only, so nicely had his worldly wants been calculated and porn sốe had many claims, some annoyance by her jea

ascertained. He was transported with the utmost speed
and secrecy towards Paris, where he arrived on the 20th,

Transparent Soap.--Tallow is the basis of all soaps for kuby, to which he patiently submitted, and escaped the and after having been committed for a few hours to the

the toilette, known under the name of Windsor; because proach thrown on so many heroes and men of genius,

olive oil forms a paste too difficult to melt, and having an ht, proof to every thing else, they are not so to the allure

Temple, was transferred to the ancient Gothic castle of
Vincennes, about a mile from the city, long used as a

odour too powerful for mixing with perfumes. Tallow tents of female seduction. What amours he had were of

soap dissolved with heat in alcohol, returns to its solid state passing character.

state prison, but whose walls never received a more illusThe dignity of his throne was splen.

trious or a more innocent victim. bly and magnificently maintained, but the expense was

on cooling. It is this fact which has led to the discovery

There he was permitted El limited by that love of order which arose out of Buoto take some repose; and as if the favour had only been

of transparent soap. When well prepared, this soap should granted for the purpose of being withdrawn, be was aparte's powers of arithmetical calculation, habitually

have the appearance of fine white sugar-candy. It may

also be coloured, and vegetable colours are for this purpose ed constantly employed, and the trusting to which conawaked at midnight, and called upon to sustain an inter

preferable to minerals. Any person can make the soap by Mbated, it may be, to that external regularity and deco- |

rogatory, on which his life depended, and to which he

replied with the utmost composure. in which he always supported. In speaking of his own

putting into a thin glass phial half a brick of Windsor soap,

On the ensuing Juliar taste, Buonaparte said that his favourite work night, at the same dead hour, he was brought before the

cut small, filling the phial half full of alcohol, and placing pretended court. The law enjoined that he should have has a book of logarithms, and his choicest amusement was

it near the fire till the soap is dissolved. This mixture put

to cool in a mould gives the transparent soap.-Edinburgh Norking out the problems.

had a defender appointed to plead his cause ; but none
The individual to whom the
such was allotted to him.

Journal of Science. Imparat made this singular avowal, mentioned it with Seprise to an officer near his person, who assured him that The inquisitors before whom he was hurried formed a Sot only did Napoleon amuse himself with arithmetical military commision of eight officers, having General Hu. Comparative nutritive Properties of different kinds of ephers, and the theory of computation, but that he fre lin as their president. They were, as the proceedings ex- Food.-In bread, every hundred pounds weight are found quently brought it to bear on his domestic expenses, and press it, named by Buonaparte's brother-in-law, Murat, to contain eighty pounds of nutritious matter ; butchers'

rarted himself with comparing the price at which par. then Governor of Paris. Though necessarily exhausted meat, averaging the various sorts, contains only thirty-five scular articles were charged to him, with the rate which with fatigue and want of rest, the Duke d'Enghien per pounds in one hundred; broad beans, eighty-nine; peas, hey caght to have cost at the fair market price, but formed in this melancholy scene a part worthy of the last ninety-three; lentils, (a kind of half pea but little known

uch, for reasons unnecessary to state, was in general descendant of the great Conde. He avowed his name and in England,) ninety-four pounds in one hundred ; greens Beatly exceeded. Las Cases mentions his detecting such rank, and the share which he had taken in the war against and turnips, which are the most aqueous of all the vege.

overcharge in the gold fringe which adorned one of his France, but denied all knowledge of Pichegru or of his tables used for domestic purposes, furnish only eight die apartments. A still more curious anecdote respects conspiracy. The interrogations ended by his demanding i pounds of solid nutritious substance in one hundred ; coratch, which the most eminent artist of Paris had orders an audience of the Chief Consul. "My name," he said, rots, fourteen pounds; and, what is remarkable, as being

finish with his utmost skill, in a style which might be “my rank, my sentiments, and the peculiar distress of in opposition to the hitherto acknowledged theory, one gece a gift from the Emperor of France to his brother the my situation, lead me to hope that my request will not hundred pounds of potatoes only yield twenty-five pounds lag of Spain. Before the watch was out of the artist's be refused."

of substance valuable as nutrition.


The Christian views with eye of faith,

The tearless land—the happy shore;
Where friends that sever'd were by death,

Again shall meet and part no more.
Lone spot-round thee may flow'rs still bloom,

And breezes mild thee gently fan!
The heart is mould'ring in that tomb

That glow'd with love to God and man.
High Park, Liverpool, July, 1827.


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We are come, we are come, from our splendid home,
Where the stars in their glory through sapphire roam,
And the brilliant glow of their silvery light,
Has spangled the wave with its radiance bright.
We are come from our home in the land of blue,
And our mantles are wet with the silver dew;
We have wove round each flower a mystic spell,
And have made our homes in the blue harebell.
We have stolen the light from the azure sky,
And woven it in the blue violet's eye;
We have rode on a star-beam o'er land and sea,
In the bright glowing sky of Araby.
We have wantoned in sweets of a golden clime,
Where the orange flower blows in its youthful time;
We have sipped the dew from each opening bloom,
And rifled the citron's soft perfume.
We have watched the sun's last passing gleam,
As he linged the waves of the rippling stream;
And have sailed aloft mid the starry trait,
When they beamed from their thrones o'er the deep-blue

We merrily glide as joyous and free
As the dancing waves of a summer sea ;
And so light the fall of our noiseless tread,
We ne'er brush the dew from the violet bed.
Manchester, Sept. 14, 1826.

W. R-N.

Heaven-appointed day of rest,
Whisperer to the conscious breast
Of that eternal Sabbath bright
Storms cannot dim, nor sorrows blight!
Holy day, with brow serene,
Type of distant realms unseen;
Day in which to man is given
Intercourse to hold with Heaven!
Hallowed day! oh, be it thine
The heart to cleanse, the soul refine,
And teach, obedient to its God,
To yield submissive to the rod;
Nor dare arraign, or question aught,
Obscure soe'er, with mercy fraught.
Teach it the mortal strife lo bear,
The pangs to which all flesh is heir;
Nor less in prosperous hour to know
From whence derived all bliss below;
Nor too depress'd, or too elate,
Whate'er its transitory state.
If good, the knee all grateful bend;
If ill, by faith to heaven ascend,
And seek the peace forbidden here,
Or granted but in hour of prayer!
Holy day, with summons sweet ;
Hallowed day, with purpose meet
The sick to hea), the lost restore,
And bid the wanderer stray no more !
Holy day, with seraph voice,
That calls the weary to rejoice,
And spreads around this desert scene
A calm so tranquil, so serene,
That seems, almost, to mortal sight
Reveal'd the far-off world of light!
Thrice ballowed day! oh, ever be
The whisperer of eternity;
The messenger of matchless love,
Ordain'd to lift the heart above
The sorrows and the wrongs that here
Would else o'erwhelm it with despair !
Thrice hallowed day! to thee is given
The gates to ope, and lead to heaven;
Nor be thy sacred bidding done

Till Sabbaths mingle into one !

O tell me not the moon is bright,

And softly rolls the summer sea ;
That nought is heard save zephyrs light,

And Philomela's minstrelsy :
The placid charms of such a night

Are not to be enjoyed by me;
For to the sad they speak of joy departed,
And add fresh sorrows to the broken hearted.
It mocks mine anguish to behold

All pature in unbroken rest :
All calm and still, while I unfold

A jarring tempest in my breast;
It brings to mind the days of old,

Ere torture's iron hand oppressed
That blessed time ere I had learned to mourn,
And tells me that it never will return.
Within my bosom all is war,

The storm is raging wildly there; And when I roam, not one bright star

Must lay its glittering beauty bare : The tempest-fiend must mount his car,

And riot madly through the air ; Then, sternly pleas'd, I 'mid the war will tread, And smile to see the lightnings round my head.


“ Grave of the righteous! surely there

The brightest bloom of beauty is : " O may I sleep on couch as fair

And with a hope as bright as his!"-Edmeston




There is a lone, sequester'd place,

By placid Ken's meand'ring stream ; A spot that Time shall ne'er deface

From recollection's brightest gleam. O'ershadow'd by old sycamores,

There rests the pious and the good, While many a tear his loss deplores,

And consecrate his solitude.
His requiem the wild birds sing,

At early morn or evening mild;
And Nature's harp his dirge does ring-

Meet elegies for Nature's child !
“ No sculptur'd” stone his virtues tell,-

They are engrav'd on many a heart ; A record far more durable

Than that produc'd by graphic art Methinks I hear some swain exclaim,

While from his cheek he wipes the tear, “ The Pastor true, whose only aim

Was to do good-sleeps softly here! “ He kindly sooth'd the couch of pain,

Pitied the friendless and the poor; Want never told his tale in vain,

Nor met with insults at his door. “ His warning voice no more I hear,

That made the sinner seek his God;
But while I roam a pilgrim here,

O may his steps by me be trod !"
A widow mourns the husband kind,

And beauty mourns the father dear; But Heav'n the sorrowing heart will bind,

And kindly dry the filial tear. Friendship is sighing o'er that tomb

" He was a friend—long tried—sincere ! Alike was fortune's smile or gloom,

To him who lonely moulders bere.

I prais'd the Earth, in beauty seen With garlands gay of various green; I prais'd the Sea whose ample field Shone glorious as a silver shield; And Earth and Ocean seem'd to say, “Our beauties are but for a day!". I prais'd the Sun, whose chariot roll'd On wheels of amber and of gold; I prais'd the Moon, whose softer eye Gleam'd sweetly through the summer sky; And Moon and Sun in answer said, “Our days of light are numbered !" O God ! O Good beyond compare ! If thus thy meaner works are fair! If thus thy bounties gild the span Of ruin'd earth and sinful man, How glorious must the mansion be Where thy redeem'd shall dwell with thee!




Oh! that my soul could firmly keep

The heavenly path where duty lies;
Like yon bright orb that now pursues

Its radiant course along the skies.
Not thus with empty joys elate,

Not thus by earthly passions driven,
Not thus with transient woes deprest

The soul that rests her hope in heaven.
But every wish, and thought intent

To keep the sacred path he trod,
She borrows from her Saviour light,

To lead her safely to her God.

Dear Ann, I love you WELL;

But though you're ILL,
I pr'ythee cry not,

For I love you STILL. This pun is taken from a whimsical little work, lali published, entitled “ Absurdities,” in prose and vet by A. Crowquill; from which we intend to give sol selections in the next Kaleidoscope.

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I on the surface. If the specific gravity of the person at- i The same principle applies, of course, to the passage

tempting this be greater than that of water, it will be from Liverpool to Runcorn, and any editor who narrates Conte imité de l'Allemand, die Glückliche Ehe Von Gellert.

impossible to succeed ; since, independent of floating with the late exploit of Dr. Bedale and Mr. Vipond, without Du mariage on conte, en tous lieux, les disgrâces,

out motion of the limbs, he has the whole weight of the informing his readers, at the same time, that these gentleLes ennuis, le déboire, et les rongeurs soucis ;

head to support above the surface; whereas, in floating men had a very rapid current in their favour, publishes an Pour moi qui viens de voir deux époux assortis,

on the back, half the head is immersed in the water, exparte statement, calculated to mislead the public. Of Au dieu de l'hyménée, en ces vers je rends grâces. whereby a great part of its weight is neutralized. O

Strimming.-The Viscount de Courtivron has exhibited D'un couple aimable et tendre, enfin, j'ai vu l'ardeur;

his experiments on the Seine. He left the swimming Memes transports heureux alimentaient leur flamme,


school in a boat, containing thirteen swimmers, and when L'aa eat dit qu'ils puisaient tous deux d'une seule âme

he reached the quay d'Orsay, M. Courtivron went into Les doux épanchemens qui fesaient leur bonheur.

Some remarks which have been lately published in one the water dressed as an infantry soldier. At the distance Désir, humeur, vouloir, jusqu'au léger caprice, of our newspapers, relative to a recent aquatic exploit, I of thirty fathoms from the boat, be raised himself out of

the water, and fired a musket, containing four charges, evince on the part of the editor an utter ignorance of the Teut ee que l'un sentait, à l'autre était com niun;

and the report of which was very loud. At this signal an laws which affect bodies moving in fluids. We should not old soldier, who was placed on the Pont Royal, jumped Naissait-il une joie, ils l'éprouvaient chacun,

think it worth the trouble to waste a word upon a writer into the Seine, the height being 64 feet, and carried to M. Et chacun par moitié vidait coupe et calice.

whose ignorance upon very many of subjects on which he Courtivron a tin box containing despatches. After having Ainsi qu'il est d'usage entre tous les amans, treats, is only equalled by his presumption :* there may, 1:

read the contents, he swam to the boat to impart them De cacher ses défauts aux yeux de ce qu'on aime;

to his comrades. Instantly sixty-four persons, who had however, by possibility, be others as ignorant as himself Ces époux, dans leurs liens, encor fesaient de même,

come with the Colonel in other boats, jumped into the upon the particular subject under consideration; and we

water, and followed his movements, he directing them by Le moindre tort jamais troubla leurs doux momens.

shall, therefore, endeavour to show the wide difference the sound of a horn. The swimmers executed in the De cette union rare on vit l'heure dernière

between swimming, and the combined action of swim. water horizontally the niovements which are executed Aussi délicieuse au moins que la première; ming and drifting, or floating ; or, in other words, the

vertically on land.-French paper. La sport tous deux frappa. Quand ? Au bout de huit difference between swimming a few miles in still water, jours, and in a river with a strong current in favour of the swim

The Sea Serpent Caught.-(From a New York paper of

the 18th ult.j—The whale, noticed in our paper a few Car autrement personne en croirait mes discours. mer. The late exploit of Dr. Bedale and Mr. Vipond

days since, as having passed Portsmouth-bridge, over the 2, Stafford-street.

ALB. has been noticed in the London papers as if those gen. | Piscataqua river, in New Hampshire, has been taken,

tlemen had actually swain sixteen or einhteen miles; and as will be seen by the following account, copied from We copy the following French jeux de mots from the in Blackwood's Magazine the distance between Liverpool

a New Hampshire paper :-"Ön Friday morning he Edinbergh Weekly Chronicle, to which paper it was sent and Runcorn is stated to be twenty-four miles, which we

was seen by many market.people coming down the river. by a correspondent for the exercise of boarding school

An expedition was immediately set on foot by Colonel misses and young gentlemen of the Academy,--pointing now believe to be about one-third more than it really

Decatur, of the navy yard, and Mr. Z. Willey, to take out, at the same time, that it should be recited rapidly to would measure by water.

him, which was not successful till Tuesday evening at secure effect

five o'clock, when a harpoon from Mr. Willey took effect, - Bon jour, Monsieur Sans-souci,

followed by two harpoons and four lances from Colonel Corabien ces saucisses 'ci?”

Decatur, near Pine Point, in the Berwick branch of the ** Six sous, ces saucisses 'ci."

Piscataqua, about ten miles from town. He continued « C'est trop, Monsieur Sans-souci :

towing the two boats attached to him till Wednesday Six sous, ces saucisses 'ci !" We will suppose, for the sake of illustration, that a with imminent danger to the boats at the Horse-races,

morning, sometimes going with the greatest velocity, and person swims across the Mersey, from Liverpool (A) to which was nearly three hours, and from five to seven The Kaleidoscope.

Woodside, or some other part of the opposite Cheshire o'clock in the morning was in view of thousands who shore, B, a distance, in a right line, of one mile; and we

flocked to see him, being then in sight of PortsmouthAQUATIC GYMNASIA.

bridge. He was finally despatched at seven o'clock, near will further suppose that he does this in one hour, about

the bridge, and secured in Spinney's Creek, thence carried (Continued from our last.)

the time of high water, when there is little or no current, to Badger's Island, where preparations were yesterday either in his favour or against him.

made for his public exhibition. From Friday to Wed. De 1.

Pig. 2.

Again, we will suppose that the same person undertakes nesday morning the river had been filled with boats, the same task when the tide is setting in the direction from either trying to take him, or to view the sport. The A to D, at the rate of six miles in the hour. He shall

bridge, or margins of the river, have been thronged with

spectators, especially on Monday afternoon, when he was swim precisely at the same rate as before, and for precisely in view the whole time, and the river perfectly calm. The the same time; but at the end of the hour he will not, as appearance of a whale in any river in the United States before. find himself at B. one mile off but at C. or East. would be considered an extraordinary and gratifying cirham, six miles off, although he has not made one stroke

cumstance, and for five days our citizens have had that

opportunity, which may never occur again. The length more in the water than in his former experiment. The of the whale is about 50 feet, and his breadth about 16

law by which he is carried from A to C by the combined feet ; his head is shaped like that of a horse, and he differs As stinning is the order of the day, we shall propose

action of swimming and drifting, instead of arriving at B, from all others that have been seen by those acquainted our readers two aquatic feats, which are the most puz. is, or ought to be, familiar to a schoolboy. It is this :-

with that species of fish. His niotion was undulatory, and Erg of any we ever accomplished, and we believe we when a body is acted upon by two forces in different direc.

it is the opinion of Colonel Decatur that this is the very asve in our time attempted all manner of vagaries in the tions, it will be moved in a diagonal of the parallelogram

sea serpent which has so long been a visitor on our coast." wer, not omitting that most ridiculous of all aquatic formed by lines drawn in the direction of the two moving

A wag removed the following board from the door of a eats, cutting the toe nails in the water, which we can

cutler to that of a watch-house : " BLADES PUT IN."

This reminds us of the freak of another wag, who placed sire car readers (besides spoiling the penknife) is no im. powers. Thus, while the swimmer turns bis head to B.

and strives to reach that point, the current is drifting over a surgeon's door a board inscribed “MANGLING proreneat whatever upon the ordinary paring operation.

w him towards D, and he is consequently carried along the DONE HERE." Be that as it may, the two exploits represented by the

The following ludicrous advertisement was observed antae fizeres are far more difficult to accomplish. Fi. 1 diagonal de A C to C, six miles, in the same time that

posted in a window near Worcester Cathedral :-" henney rare i represents a person lying at full length on his back he, in still water, would have reached B. or one mile.

body that wbants henney sauft water my fathr will carrey

* One of the Liverpool crities, whose paragraph, like much it for yo." in the water, his toes (though not shown in the figure) out of the rater. In this position the arms are to be raised in similar nonsense, will be copied into some of the provincial.

An article has been going the rounds” respecting a much over the face, the fingers of each hand touching; and perhaps London papers, speaking of Dr. Bedale's swim.

certain Mrs. Hamilton, who is said never to have displeased ming, says, " In the act of treading water he is higher out of almost the whole of each arm out of the water. The the element than most men by NEARLY A FOOT."

her husband during forty-seven years of married life. In refer


correspondent of the Charleston Mercury explains the Denne erforming the feat must remain, and must speak ence to this, we must say, that however much out of the element the Doctor may be in treading water, the writer of the

wonderons event by saying-Major General H. was orer whistle, in order to show that he does not float merely above paragraph is much more out of his element in meddling

dered off on duty before the expiration of the honeymoon, by bolding his breath. with such subjects. We were about to call him a goose,

and did not return until his wife was dead. New York The arms in the figure are raised too much over the when we recollected that the title would be a libel on the

Statesman. chest; tbey ought to be thrown further back, so as to goose, which is a proficient in swimming, of which the un- Sporting Pun.On Thursday evening, a person genteelly

fledged commentator is wholly ignorant. If Dr. Bedale were dresscd, but quite “dished," as the saying is, was seen Soria an arch above the face. No. g is equally if not more difficult. The whole of the bigher out of the water than most men by a foot, his elbows reeing through the streets. His coat bore the marks of

at. This writer ought to his having been floored more than once ; when & gentle had being out of the water, the arms extended as in the

have concluded his marvellous paragraph in the words of man observed, that he supposed he had been at the races ; of scimming, but kept motionless. The body lying Major Longbow,-"Upon my honour it's true, what will you to which a panster replied, tbat "there was no doubt, from Larizontally on the water, so that the heels may be seen lay it's a lie?"

his appearance, that he had been on the ground."

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