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The Fireside.

it forms a most striking coincidence with the character of is, upon the same authority, placed in lon. 18 00, and lat.

that man who has rendered it so conspicuous in history. 57 30; he concludes, that the “ Beli-sama" of this ancient e la order to employ one part of this life in serious and impor


topographer is the mouth of the Mersey. Without, howof sccupations, it is necessary to spend another in mere amuse


ever, demurring to the accuracy of the longitude, how are Joax LOCKE.


wę to reconcile the latitude thus laid down, as marking

POLEON * There is a time to laugh and a time to weep."-SOLOMON.


the situation of the river, which, according to this writer, LEON

is nearly three degrees further north than its actual posi. EON

tion? This is the only attempt to prove that the estuary No. IX.


of the Mersey was at all noticed by the Roman historians, VIVENT LES BAGATELLES.

By dropping the first letter from the first syllable of the (at least the only one that has fallen under our notice,) name in full, and from each part of it in succession, six and we see what little dependence is to be placed upon the Greek words are formed, which, translated in the order of positi

are formed, which, translated in the order ofl position of the river, when it is not laid down within 1170 SOLUTIONS TO THE PUZZLES, &c. IN OUR LAST.

the numerals, signify-Napoleon being a raging Lion going miles of its true situation. It is a singular fact, that the #2 Cut-throat. about destroying Cities.

Roman stations in this neighbourhood are described in 4. Chat-on (Chaton.) Anglice, catkin.

the Itineraries of Richard, Antonine, &c., such as War#. Blander-buss.

Spinning.-A boy having neglected to do some twine rington, Manchester, and Chester ; but no notice seems to 46. Because it is notable (not able.)

spinning, allotted to him as a task, was Aogged by his have been taken of any portion of the estuary of the Mer. 18. Because it is no vice ( novice.)

master for his idleness. After receiving his punishment, sey. Hence it would appear, that the estuary of the 1. Because he is a man cheat ( manchet.)

he remained sullen. His master ordered him to go to Mersey did not exist at that period ; or, if it did, its Step-father.

work. " What! do you take me for a top," said the stream was so inconsiderable that the Romans thought it 9. Because he has accuracy (a curacy.) urchin, “ to spin the more I'm whipped ?”

unworthy of notice. Now, if we take up the first of these 30. Because it is man's laughter (manslaughter.)

opinions, we may suppose that the Mersey then disem. A Roland for an Oliver.-A countryman of the county | bogued its waters through Wallasey Pool, in a compara

of Berks, who recently appeared as a witness in a cause, tively shallow stream, and perhaps unnavigable at its NEW CONUNDRUMS, CHARADES, &c. was thus addressed by the advocate for the opposite party, mouth, from being spread out among sand-banks, and

- How now, you fellow in the leathern doublet, what thus found its way into the sea by Hoylake. In this case

are you to have for swearing ?"_" Please your Worship,” there would then be no egrese for the water at the Rock CHARADES.

quoth the countryman," if you get no more by bawling Point. If this fact could be established, we should have - 51. The sailor knows my worth : by me

and lying than I do by swearing, you will soon be in a a ready solution to the difficult question which we sub. He learns what course to steer at sea : leathern doublet as well as I.”

mitted in our publication of the 26th ult., as to the exist. Beheaded, is my head adorn'd

ence of forests, the remains of which now lie buried under With nature's finest skill; I'm horn'd,

The Liver.

the tideway on our own shores, as well as those of Cheshire. Range in the forest, graze the fertile mead,

from the Rock Point to the entrance of the Dee. One of Evade pursuit, and dart before the steed:

three things must be certain,-that these remains must have Again beheaded, ladies try your best,

been relics of the antediluvian world ; that they have been, Use but my aid, then is my name con fest. K.

by some at this period unknown phenomena of nature,

removed to the present situation, from a considerable disLadies, your servant ;-At your toilet, I

tance; or, that they must have grown on the precise spot My penetrating powers do often try;

where they are now found. There are, it must be confesser', And though my better part with swine is bred,

great difficulties to be removed before we can embrace kis my skill adorns your sapient head:

any of the three opinions above stated: the former is, we Beheaded, I'm not worth a--what?

think, less probable than the second, and the latter more My name's almost confest, no more of that:

likely than either. Again my head cut off, then, lovely ladies,

That Great Britain was, previously to the invasion of Ir Silence ! be still !-ah, me! my name betray'd is.

the Romans, a land of forests and thickets, and that the SPECULATIONS RESPECTING THE CHANGES WHICH aborigines were a rude and savage people, subsisting,

ARE PRESUMED TO HAVE TAKEN PLACE IN THE principally, by the precarious supplies of the chase, is a CONUNDRUMS. Why is money like an emetic? ESTUARY OF THE RIVER MERSEY. AND THE OP./ matter of history, which no one doubts. The traffic car

ried on by the Romans, to and from this country, was Wbat is that which we often wish for, but never POSITE COASTS OF CHESHIRE.

very considerable; amongst the imports may be enumerated when we have it?

sugar from Arabia and India, ginger, pepper, writing 3. What is that which we often do not find where it is, (Continued from the Kaleidoscope of January 8.) paper, &c. The exports consisted of tin, gold, silver, iron, do find where it is not ?

lead, hides, cattle, slaves, British dogs, gems, muscle It behoves you to keep your temper in every case! In our publication of January 8, we entered at con

pearls, jet, baskets, oysters, horses, horse bits of polished ope: what is that?

bone, horse collars, amber toys, glass vessels, marl, to en. What is that which you may keep after you have siderable length into the subject of which the following!

e following rich the marshy countries on the banks of the Rhine, it to another?

article is intended as a continuation. We noticed the re. bears, to supply sport and give dignity to the entertainWhy is a silly woman like one with a bad set of mains of the forest on the Lancashire coast, near Crosby, ments of Roman amphitheatres, salt from Cheshire, and

as well as upon the opposite shores of Cheshire, affording corn; this latter article alone employed not less than eight Why is a person who pretends to have the head.

hundred vessels every year for its transit. strong presumption that the estuary of the Mersey, now bke one who is intoxicated with good wine.

Yorkshire had K.

its port Felis on the east, and Lancashire its port Sistunso extensive, was once land, intersected by a river of in

tian, or Ribble, on the west, from whence they made those significant breadth. We also introduced an interesting exports of the commodities produced in this part of the USEFUL AMUSEMENTS.

article connected with the subject, which had appeared in country

a late number of the Liverpool Courier, and we now have During the latter part of the reign of the Emperor VesSOLUTION.

pasian. in the year 28. the Ordovices of North Wales were answer to the question in the Kaleidoscope, of the pleasure in laying before our readers a continuation of that

attacked by the Romans, under Paulinus; and in the early of this month, relative to the calculation of the duty article, from the same journal.

I part of the year following Agricola led his victorious le30.341 yards of calico, it is to be observed, that this! In the next Kaleidoscope we shall have some further gions to the reduction of “Lancashire.” The main body ber was first considered as so many pounds sterling. l observations of our own to make on this interesting topic, appears to have advanced by the way of Warrington. The kervards simply divided by 200, the principle of as we have been at some paias to seek for information con

have been at some poing to seek for information con inhabitants of the north-western regions of Cheshire, the chaperation is this : the duty per lb. three half pence, la

hardy Ceangi, or herdsmen of the Carnabii, were secure e one hundred and sixtieth part of a pound sterling. cerning the ancient topography of our neighbourhood.

in the protection of their bogs and forests, and had not 10

submitted to the Roman arms : but Agricola pursued bu is 1600 from this deducting 20 per cent.,

(Fom the Liverpool Courier.]

them to the last retreat of their marshes on the banks of h is one-fifth part of it, viz. 1600 there will necessa

the Mersey, then attacked and defeated them near Nor

The geographical history of the ancient boundaries of ton, and subdued the whole country, which soon after, emain 1600 or 200

the river Mersey is very little known, and, indeed, it is under the refining government of the Romans, exhibited, le superiority of this mode of making the calculation,

a subject of doubt whether the entrance of the river was on one side of their line of conquests, a pleasing picture of respect to brevity and simplicity, to the more obvious

known or described by the Roman geographers, to whom cities and corn-fields in the bosom of woods, and on the regular, but operose method of performing it, must

we are so much indebted for accurate descriptions of other, one uniformly dreary scene of mosses, thickets, ident to every one acquainted with arithmetical ope

numerous stations, roads, encampments, and other in and marshes, brown heaths, and solitary mansions." teresting facts connected with the history of that warlike Here, then, we have the fact of the banks of the Mersey nation, when they had subdued this portion of the coun. being the site of bogs and forests as early as the year 79;

try, very soon after the commencement of the Christian and it may be presumed, that, as there was no Roman NAPOLEON.

era. It is, indeed, very true that a celebrated modern station on the shores of the Mersey nearer than that of le following article is curious, though not, in every antiquary, of great research, has attempted to prove that Warrington, these forests might have continued for cenet, literally correct :

the “* Beli.sama," or "current of waters," of Ptolemy, is turies after that period, more especially as we have no e do not recollect ever having seen the annexed ana. the Mersey, the mouth of which he describes as being account of any settlement or town until Liverpool was of the name of Napoleon in print. Together with the placed in lon. 17 deg. 30 min. and lat. 57 deg. 20 min.; and, first brought into notice, about seven centuries ago. We Dal derivation of the name, which is compounded of taking the relative distance and bearing of this point with have then two facts before us, the existence of forests on Greek W


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and north-western parts of the

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orientific Notices.

coast of Cheshire in “olden times;" and that those forests nature, be mainly, hypothetical ; and we shall be exceed all their revolutions upon the bosom of this ocean of ether were, at least in part, cut down, and not swept away, we ingly happy to see the subject treated in a way better cal- fire! And shall we, for one moment, hesitate to admiti have occular proof in the present day, from the stumps culated to account for the present extent of the boundaries capability of supporting these bodies, of attracting at and roots which remain. The probability that Cheshire of the deep, taken in connexion with those relics of former holding the particles of which they are formed, in perle and Lancashire were once united, at the point now sepa. days, which are now hidden below its surface.

chemical combination ? rated by the estuary of the Mersey, is also supported by

The phenomena that invariably accompany these add the circumstance of its being unnoticed by the Romans, who

litic substances, have been admitted by the most emin were so minutely accurate in investigating other parts of

philosophers to be strictly electrical ; that is, the meter the newly acquired territory in the same neighbonrhood. | Comprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve.

from which they proceed, or by which they are acond Having, then, supposed the union of the two counties, for

ments in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin.

panied ; and when we consider the materials of the purpose of accounting for the existence of forests wbere

gular Medical Cases; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi.

these bodies are composed, we can no longer hesitate now the waters of the deep exercise their undisputed sove.

losophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical

yielding to the fact, that they are of electrical origin. reignty, it may be said, that, to avoid Scylla, we are run.

Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History;

The results of the chemical analysis of these stones ning on Charybdis ; to overcome one difficulty we are

Vegetation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.

Mr. Howard, Vauquelin, and others, afford surtid creating another of greater magnitude. How are we to

proofs of the correctness of the opinion which I hated account for the presence of our noble estuary of the Mer.

vocated. These eminent chemists have all agreed as to sey ? This, we confess, is a subject beset with doubt, and,

SKETCHES OF THE ELEMENTS OF NATURAL constituents of these bodies, which are found to be as in the absence of all historical narrative as to the fact of its


lows: 1. Jron. 2. Nickel. 3. Chromium. 4.C sudden appearance, is an exceedingly difficult subject to Accompanied with Sketches of a N Theory of the fasih (These are all magnetic metals.) 5. Oxide of Iron look at. If, however, we were to say that a certain place

Sulphur. 7. Silica. 8. Manganese. 9. Limi. 10 in this county, which was once a port, is now six or seven

By J. L. E. W. SHECUT.-Charleston, 1826. I mina. 11. Magnesia. These constituents are not miles distant from the water, who would credit us? Yet

riably present in all the specimens that have been such is the fact. The Ribble was once the most distin


zed; but are meant to convey an idea of the aggio guished river in the county, and was used by the Romans

result of the various analyses that have been made of a in preference to any other, and emphatically called the Proofs of the atmospheric Origin of Aërolites, or Meteoric Some have been found wanting of several of these bod “ Port of Lancashire," being eight or ten miles wide at


while others have been deficient of some others die its mouth, and the stream running inland up to Ribches. In my sixth lecture on the principles and properties of from them; but the result of the most remarkable and ter. Now, however, the tide does not approach that vil. the electric fluid, sect. 4, I have devoted much attention to of these stones is, that which has been enumerated ah lage within several miles, and the navigable channel of this wonderful and important subject; an abridged view In Thomson's chemical works, we perceive a table the Ribble is considerably narrowed. Popular tradition of which I shall give in this section. We have the most these stones drawn up by that indefatigable naturalis ascribes this mighty change to some violent convulsion of respectable authorities for proving, that, from time to time, Izarn; from which, sixteen have been considered of nature. Whitaker, in reference to this singular circum- there have fallen from the atmosphere upon the earth, pon- portance towards the establishment of the fact of stance, observes, “ Tradition, the faithful preserver of derous masses or metallic substances, termed uërolites, or occurrence, and the diversity of their appearance, many a fact which history has overlooked or forgotten, meteoric stones, some of which have been found to exceed will account for the different results of their analysis speaks confidently of such a cause, ascribing the final ruin thirty tons, or sixty thousand pounds weight! Occur. first is the shower of sulphur recorded by Moses of Ribchester to the overwhelming violence of an earth. rences of this kind, though not always to the same extent, 19th chapter of Genesis, 24th verse. 2. A mass of in quake. And nothing but such an incident, I think, could have been recorded by Moses in the Bible, and, subse. fourteen quintals, noticed by Pallas, as having fall have originally changed the nature of this, once the most quently, by Livy, Pallas, Pliny, Dion, Cardan, Muschen. Abakanh in Siberia. 3. The shower of stones, men remarkable estuary in the county, and have thrown up broek, De Lalande, Fourcroy, Thompson, Jameson, by Livy, which fell at Rome, Anno 640 before that large and broad barrier of sand which crosses the en. Brande, and a host of other eminent philosophers.

14. A similar shower of stones at Rome 324 years trance into it, almost choaks the inlet of the tide, and! The facts most remarkable in these stones are, that Christ, recorded by Obsequens. 5. A very large contracts the original breadth of the navigable channel, there is nothing like them in the earth, and that their de- / which fell, near the river Negos in Thrace, in the from its majestic extent of eight or nine miles, to the nar scent to the earth is always preceded by, or accompanied of the 78th Olympiad, recorded by Pliny. 6. & row span of a hundred yards."

with, meteors or other aërial phenomena. Almost all the weighing 2551b., which fell near Basle at Enseste Ancient history fully supports the belief, that a great meteors that have been observed, resembled each other in Wednesday, the 7th November, 1492, accompare and mighty change has been gradually going on, for the their characters. They were luminous, at a very great loud thunder. This stone was, by order of Kag last ten or twelve centuries, in ibe boundaries of the sea to height, moved very swiftly, and disappeared in a short millian, deposited in the church of Epsesheim. the westward, so much so, that the lands forming the time; their disappearance was usually accompanied by a fall of 1200 stones in the year 1510, near Padua in Scilly Islands, the Isle of Wight, &c. formerly united loud explosion, like a clap of thundtr; and it was always one of which weighed 120lbs., recorded by Carla with the main land, are now detached by a considerable constantly affirmed, that heavy stony bodies fell from them others. 8. A burning stone which fell on Moubt channel ; and a great portion of the coasts of Cornwall to the earth. Previous to their fall, they move in a direc. in Provence, on the 27th November, 1627, record and Devonshire has been invaded and swept away by en- tion nearly horizontal, and they seem to approach the earth Gassendi, which weighed 50lbs. 9. A stone of croachments of the sea. The Scilly Islands, it is stated before they explode, and the explosion is followed by which fell near Verona in the vear 1672. 10. upon good authority, were formerly only ten in number, showers of sand, sulphur, &c. or the falling of stones. Some which fell at Larissa, with a hissing noise and the though they are now upwards of one hundred and forty times the stones continue luminous till they sink in the earth; sulphur, in 1706, recorded by Lucas. 11. In 19 Thus we find that changes, equal in magnitude to those but, most commonly, the luminousness disappears at the Leland witnessed a phenomenon of the same kin. which we bave conceived probable in our own neighbour time of the explosion. They are always hot when they | Pont de Vesle. 12. In 1768, three of these stone hood, have taken place in other parts of the kingdom; and fall, and differ in size, from a few ounces to several tons ; different parts of France. 13. In 1783, one of these i it is not travelling much beyond the region of probability they are usually roundish, and always covered with a black fell in England, recorded by Cavallo. 14. 10 to suppose, tbat a commercial, enterprising, and acute crust, which, from the analysis of Howard, consists chiefly there was a shower of stones near Agen, witness people, such as were the Romans, would have availed of oxide of iron. In many cases, they smell strongly of Darcet and others. 15. In December, 1795, a ste ihemselves of the estuary of the Mersey for the export of sulphur.

in Yorkshire, England, near the house of Major Top heary articles of merchandise found in its vicinity, if it Some of the ancients considered these stones to be of vol-it weighed 56lbs.-(Brande. - 16. A mass of iron, bad been practicable to have used it for such a purpose. canic origin. Others, that they were bodies floating in cubic feet, fell in America, April 5, 1800, reom

Nov, we confess, we see nothing violently improbable space upconnected with any planetary system ; that they the Philosophical Magazine ; besides various de in the supposition, that the same cause, or series of causes, were attracted by the earth in their progress, and kindled by smaller dimensions, from 7 to 60lbs., which fell which inay, in the lapse of time, have produced the ex- their rapid motion through the atmosphere. Some, again, I parts of the world, together with showers of sand. traordinary changes further to the northward or westward, consider them to be little planets, which, circulating in of sulphur, and of mercury.-(Thomson, vol. 5.1 as in the cases just alluded to, may have produced changes space, fall into the atmosphere, which, by its friction, di. 17. M. De Humboldt has announced, that an equally important and extraordinary at the entrance of minishes the velocity, so that they fall by their weight. La has been found, which is truly a volcanic produca this river. That a revolution producing an entire alter. Place suggests the probability of their having been thrown being formed of crystals of pyroxene ; but he dog ation in the face of things, for several miles distant off by the volcanoes of the moon. Mr. Thompson considers having been projected to the earth by a volcano from the mouth of this river, has taken place, we en them fragments of fire balls. But the most probable opi- moon. The capacity of the gases for holding in E tertain not the slightest doubt. In addition to the facts nion of the origin of these aërial visitants, appears to me to the particles of matter, and which constitutes a which we have already mentioned of the encroach. be that advanced by Mr. King and Sir William Hamilton, feature in my Theory of the Earth, bas been som ments of the water on the Cheshire shores, we have since " That they are concretions actually formed in the atmo. confirmed by the conclusion of Sir H. Dary's experts learned, that if the sand banks, which lie several miles sphere ;' and this conclusion, it is said, has been acceded on ammonia, of which Henry says, “ If this should distant from the present shore, be penetrated to a sufficient to by most philosophers.--( Annals of Philosophy, &c.) tablished, we shall obtain proof of a fact of the depth, evidence of their covering wbat was formerly dry I have several reasons for concurring with these gentle- novelty and curiosity, namely, the existence of a ne land is furnished, by grass, peat, and other vegetable matter men, and for believing these bodies to be of atmospheric a metallic oxide, whose natural state is that of an act being found at the bottom. There is nothing more sin. or electrical origin. It will be recollected, that my theory fluid."-(Henry, vol. 1, p. 201.) golar in supposing that the mouth of the river Mersey of electricity considers magnetism as one of its species. 1 To the mind prepared io acknowledge the omnip has, from a very narrow stream, been forced open by the have already explained, in the preceding sections, the as. influence of the Supreme First Cause; and to refer tide to its present width, or that the estuary was broken up tonishing influence and powers of the great physical agents, as competent to every possible erent and contingen by a sudden convulsion of nature, where once no water and their properties of attraction and repulsion; contrac- nature, novel and curious as it might appear, it well Aowed, (the old river running through Wallasey) than in tion and cohesion; the polarizing or magnetizing powers vey the idea, that such was probably the primitive stai the singular fact, which we are obliged to admit, of the sea of the violet ray; and the influence of these agents, as the primordial mass of matters at the Creation, now occupying many miles of space which was, at one constituting the etherial fluids of the firmament. We have their datural state was that of aëriform fluids," hola time, land. The very same process which would effect the only, therefore, to reflect upon the all-prevading and all. solution the base of all bodies, and existing in the code latter circumstance, would, in its operation, be sufficient to sustaining qualities of these fluids, to believe that innume- described in the 6th sect. p. 14. I have also remarks accomplish the former. We offer these thoughts, with rable worlds are suspended and kept within their orbits, the influence of the three simple gases, bydrogen, als much deference, upon a subject which must, from its very receive their fuel and their fires, and are made to perform and nitrogen, as extending to the utmost limits or

phere ; and when we take into consideration the mag. double bass; and it is notorious, that a strong man will, of the great utility of this excellent establishment. A poor zing influence of the violer ray of light, and the mag soon become tired of dangling or nursing a young child, woman, whose husband was in the Infirmary, was reduced, metals that constitute these bodies, it appears to me. I...

me, which a delicate girl will carry in her arms for hours to with her family, to the most pinching distress, and might hat something like a clue to their origin offers itself from all these peculiar circumstances, wlien taken in con.

gether, with apparent ease. It must be obvious, therefore, have starved, if the proprietor of the cellar in which she berion.

that a series of exercises which agreeably bring into suc. lived had not had compassion on her. Upon hearing of My conclusion has, therefore, been, that upon the same cessive action all the muscles of the body, will, if perse-lher case, a lady of our particular acquaintance called principles that water holds in solution particles of various vered in, wonderfully improve the general strength, and, upon her, to ascertain her actual situation. She asked the substances, of minerals, metals, and metallic oxides, evi- leone

consequently, the health of those who practise them. poor woman why she had not applied for relief from the denced in different mineral springs, whose exhalations are continually mixing with the matters of the atmosphere,

ere. Some persons appear almost terrified at the very term
une persons appear ammo

parish ? Her reply was, that, if she did so, she and her that these gases, after having been absorbed by water in gymnastic, which they have been accustomed to associate children would be sent to Ireland ; and that she would and spon the earth, may bold in solution particles of de- with the idea of immense and painful muscular exertion, subunit to any privation rather than leave Liverpool, as ats posed or oxidized metals and minerals, not however incompatible with the powers of delicate persons. This is, her husband would be out of the Infirmary in a weck or 9 constituent principles, but merely as so many adventi.

however, a mistake, as they will soon discover, if they will two, when lie could get work again. Now, we do not mus combinations, which, in their liberation from the Pith, they convey into the higher regions of the atmo. put themselves in training under an experienced master, mean to say that the parish officers will give no relief to bere, in which the oxygen and nitrogen gases, in the act who knows how to husband their powers, and to direct persons in the situation of this poor woman; the law, their renewal, are disengaged from these particles: and their efforts. There are, it is true, gymnastic feats taught we believe, requires that the relief should be in the way of 18€, by virtue of the electro-magnetic attraction, are by the professors of the art, which can only be performed removal : but we think it very natural that the woman nght readily to combine, and thus to constitute the

i by persons of great natural strength and activity ; but should be reluctant to be separated from her husband, and leus of these aëroliric compounds, which continue to folre with our atmosphere, and to accumulate similar these feats are by no means the most useful that can be sent to Ireland, where she would have no claim upon any allers, until disturbed by the causes occasioning their taught :- there is an endless variety and gradation of mus. one for assistance. It is in such cases as this that the nition, and consequent explosion or projection to the cular exploits, which may be acquired by the most delicate Strangers' Friend Society visitors step in, and, by dispens. ti; and these causes I conceive to be, either the spon-persons, with the most unquestionable advantage to their ing a shilling or two, for two or three weeks, prevent star. eta inflammation of the substances, or their gravita. the strength and general health.

|vation, or the breaking up of a miserable family, tempo. towards the region of thunder and lightning in the Estrata of the atmosphere, by which they are exploded. It is impossible to set bounds to the improvement of the varily deprived, by sickness, of the support of their father. d this opinion of their formation in the atmosphere ac human mind, and it is almost equally vain to limit the Without meaning to dictate to those who have the tes sti:I greater weight, when it is considered that capabilities of the human frame when duly cultivated. It management of the poor, we cannot omit expressing an Seous vapours are abundant in the lower regions of the is said of Alexander Selkirk, that long practice and neces. opinion, that it would not only be humane, but prudcnt osphere, and hold in solution particles of silex, alu.

sity had enabled him to outstrip the deer and other ani. also, to afford some temporary assistance to persons in the te, &e. ; that these vapours may be rarified and coned into hydrogen, still holding in solution these par mals, which he hunted for subsistence. This speed was situation of this poor woman. Had she been sent to s, which, uniling with those of the metals, become acquired by habit, which has, with great propriety, been Ireland, she would, in all probability, have returned, as accreted in the atmosphere, where they may continue termed " second nature." It is well known that a prac- soon as she learned that her husband had recovered : or, easing in magnitude, and revolve for ages, or until tised pedestrian will distance the best horse in a few days, I perhaps, he would have got himself passed, and have gone arrive at those limits to which, by a law of nature, they

or, to adopt the regular phraseology, a man will “ walk to Ireland to bring her back to England, not being able destined. pon this principle we may very rationally account for

down a horse." From Turton's edition of Goldsmith's to find employment in his native country. towers of sulphur, which have fallen in different parts | Earth and Animated Nature, we learn, that “the king's! What a subject for melancholy contemplation is the

le world since that recorded by Moses, and the shower messengers of Ispahan, who are runners by profession, go condition of the wretched Irish, whose wants drive them Teddast which fell at Gerace in Calabria during a thirty-six leagues (or 108 miles) in fourteen hours." to England, to depreciate the wages of the poor English. der storm. The analysis of this dust proved it to be

If we recollect well, the immortal Socrates, at an ad- man ! Esame origin with the meteoric stones. “Its consti

e siláca, alumina, iron, and crominm; mixed vanced period of life, learned to dance; and we have! In order to facilitate the access of needy persons to the the rain it became black; when exposed to a red heat a

always admired the old Grecian for having had the philo- visitors of the Strangers' Friend Society, and prevent poor merresced with acids."-( Annals of Philosophy, for sophy to defy the sneers of his cotemporaries, after he had shivering wretches from wandering up and down the town, Luary, 1817. - It is highly probable that this had been

once made up his mind that their ridicule was directed seeking for some subscriber, to furnish them with recomrent formation, in which the iron and chromium had |

against a practice conducive to his health and cheerfulness. mendations, there is an office, No. 1, Love-lane, where a 1 cemented by the silica and alumina; that it had not | ITpríted at the necessary degree of compactness and What are terned the Callisthenic exercises, intended for person attends to fill up the notes, and direct applicants Ihes when it came within the sphere of the influence | females, may be practised wishi perfect propriety and ad to the residence of the visitors. No establishment can be

Hining, and was thus exploded and precipitated to the vantage by young ladies of eight or nine years of age, and more economically managed than this. The person who Then the form of red dust. And, upon similar principles, upwards. The system has been encouraged in many of attends to fill up these notes keeps a little shop, and is By account for the occurrence of these phenomena in

the most respectable seminaries in this country, and on content, in order to eke out a scanty living, to fill up the orm of small stones, sand, tire, mercury, &c. From

considerations have been induced to con. the Continent; and has been uniformly attended with the blanks for six shillings a week : and when it is known that I that these bodies are produced by electro-magnetic most obvious benefit to the papils.

during the past year, several thousand recommendations tion, since no other than magnetic metals have ever Once more we congratulate the ladies and gentlemen of hare been filled up at this office alone; and, when it is detected in them; and in them only have all the

the Liverpool upon the introduction of gymnastic and callis. recollected, that, owing to this arrangement, the subscribers In magnetic metals been found in combination ; and

thenic exercises among them; and we trust that, at no are spared the trouble of much personal application by brings me to the consideration of the numerous metals have been lately discovered and added to the former distant period, the system will be generally introduced, to poor people, we think they ought, in fairness, to contribute

counteract the evils which are inseparable from sedentary something towards the expenses, as the regular funds of habits, or neglect of cxercise.

the Strangers' Friend Society cannot be appropriated to The ánicidoscope.

We shall venture, in conclusion, to address to gymnastic such purpose. Hitherto, however, the wages of the agent

and callisthenic pupils the advice which an illustrious has, we think, rather unfairly, been paid by us, as will GYMNASTIC AND CALLISTHENIC EXERCISES. Roman gave to his son, and which is particularly applica- appear by the following statement, which we publish wib

ble to the subject. “ Amusements (says Cicero) ought to a view of inducing some of our townsmen to lighten a o kasing for many years, recommended gymnastic, be enjoyed like sleep; which, if used to excess, becomes burden which ought not to fall exclusively to our share. inments in our native town, it affords us much gra- dangerous and instead of reviving the powers of the as a great deal of personal inconvenience, independent of ition to perceive that the youth of Liverpool have now mind, render them torpid."

expense, attaches to us, from the publicity of our office, Tenortunity of acquiring proficiency in an art' which, Thus, in the exercises we are recommending, it is pår- and our known connexion with the society.

eminent degree, combines the “ utile dulci." fticularly desirable to use them, especially at first, with he object of the gymnastic exercises is to put in action great moderation, and to desist before they produce fatigue Dr.. THE STRANGERS' FRIEND SOCIETY OFFICE..Cr. the muscles of the body, many of which, in the ordi. or uneasiness, remembering the old adagem

IN ACCOUNT WITH EGERTON SMITH. routine motions of walking, or of daily exercise, are “ Gutta cavat lapidem, non vi, sed sæpe cadendo."

Dec. 23, 1826. £ $. d. Feb. 7, 1827. £ s. d. To Balance rendered 7

By Contributions, it brought into active play. It is well known that a

Dec. 31, 18:27.

from .. R. Freme, R. k or delicate person, by the partial exercise of certain


ToCash pd. (53 week's

Rathbone, & H. Wil. eles, will be able to perform feats which a much more

Wages, at 6x.).. • 15 18 0 | son, Esqrs. £1 each, ) est person, who has not had the same practice, finds In reply to our frequent and urgent appeals in its behalf,

Feb. 20, 1827. we have often been asked wherein the peculiar merits of

23 521 Belf unable to accomplish.

By Contribution. )

from M. W. S. lius, we have seen very delicate persons possessed of the Strangers' Friend Society consist? We will adduce

Dec. 31, 1827.

Balance carried down 15 5 21 Disting muscular power in the fingers of the left band, one case, to which thousands of a similar description to Balance due ....15 5 24 Pired simply by playing the violin, violoncello, or might be added, and which may serve to explain our views

23 5 24

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4 King ......H

7 King ......

to be foand in this town may be attributed, in a great The Beauties of Chess. measure, to the want of those salatary regulations which

prevail in the North? If those regulations are thought OX FEMALE SERVANTS.

Ludimus effigiem belli.” –VIDA. too severe, why not try one half of the penalties which they impose? Some wise and moderate enactment on this subject


WHITE. Is this mhject is of much importance, and one which would, unquestionably, tend very much to fill the pockets

BLACK 1 King ......B-7

i King ......Enears ikely to grow upon our hands, we shall, for the of many active and skilful, but unruly maids, because, as

2 King ......C-7

2 King ......FBrire, sonine ve discussion to the Kaleidoscope as the I have said before, it would obiige them to give greater sa.

3 King ......D_7

3 King ......6 dams woon the columns of a newspaper are too numerous tisfaction to their employers, and, of course, to obtain 4 Pawn ......E-7 and diversified to admit of ample space for the inser. higher wages.

JAMES MACGOWAN. 5 King .....E-6

5 King ......GHope-street, Jan. 7, 1828.

6 King ......F-5 cion of what may be considered moral essays. As the

. 6 King ......H

7 King ......G-4 renly of J. S.D., to a letter of Mr. Macgowan, has already

8 King ......H-4

8 King .... operut in the Kaleišoscope, we shall take advantage of APPEALS AGAINST THE SUPPLEMENTARY CHARGES


9 King ...... H-5

9 King ......Gsom soplemental Damber to transfer from the Mercury THE COMMISSIONERS acting for this Borough, in 10 Pawn ...... P-7X 10 King ......H-$ soother letter of Mr. M., in order that the series may be execution of the Acts relating to Assessed Taxes, will attend 11 Pawn ......G-7X 11 King ......H-7

at their Office, No. 23, SLATER-STREET, to hear and deterainurrapred. This we shall, next week, follow up with mine the appe

12 Pawn ......G-6XMATE. | mine the appeal of all sueh Persons as may feel aggrieved the sound reply of J. S. D.; and we sincerely hope that by the Supplementary or increased charges made upon them for the year 1827. (excepting the charg-s made for Clerks,

STUDY CLXVI. the dramasion will lead to a right understanding of that Warehousemen, Porters, and Cellarmen, wbich are specially White to move, and win with the pawn in twelten m.or important duty-the conduct of the employer to the appointed, as stated below,) on

without taking the bishop. WEDNESDAY, the 231 instant, for all Persons within Ur. en ploged.

Walther's district, No. 1;

| FRIDAY, the 25th instant, for Persons within Mr. Dowdall's
district, No. 2;

Black. re,Your correspondent J. S. D. thinks the miscon. SATURDAY, the 26th instant, for Persons within Mr. Ward's

district, No. 3; and duct of servants is occasioned more by the misconduct of MONDAY, the 28th instant, for Persons within Mr. Richard.

у я р а а а он masters, than by the defects of the laws; and in this

son's district, No. 4;

at Ten o'clock in the morning of each day. Opinion he may be correct. I fully agree with him that ALL Appeals against the charges for Clerks, Warehousethome masters and mistresses who prevent their servants men, Forters, and Cellarmen, will be heard in the PUBLIC

OPrice, opposite Bridewell, on Thursday, the 24th instant,
fror attending a place of religious worship and instruction at Twelre o'clock at noon.
on the Sabbath, are themselves totally destitute of true

By order of the Commissioners,
Liverpool, January 14, 1828.

The Apostle's directions for the conduct of masters are

ASSESSED TAXES. quite as agreeable to me as those which he gives for the

This day is published, price 3d. conduct of servants ; and I should be no less willing to

A Brief but Comprehensive SKETCH of the Laws re

| lative to the ASSESSED TAXES, intended as a Guide protpote the improvement of the one class than of the other. 1

over to the Appellants against Surcharges. Mr. J. 8. D. seems to have written under the impression BY THE EDITORS OF THE LIVERPOOL MERCURY. that I was not altogether friendly to servants, and that I

SOLD AT THE MERCURY-OFFICE. wished to see them behave with " abject submission.” But what have I said or done to give any ground for such a The following Publications, at the Mercury-office, Clasupposition ? 1! there any thing unfriendly in wishing l rendon-buildings, South John-street, Liverpool'; and them to behave like Christians ? or in wishing that the law

at the lase may be had of the Agents of the Mercury and the

Kaleidoscope in Town and Country :should be so framed as to assist them to conduct themselves


E G with propriety?

H I am confident that a law, imposing a SHIPWRECK, and other Dangers of the Sea; containing vareasonable penalty on insolence and disobedience, would rious Modes of expeditiously forming Rafts, from materials

WHITE greatly promote the interest of servants; for it would enable always at hand ;--an approved Method of constructing a them to remain some years in one place, and to obtain ad. | Temporary Rudder; an expeditious Mode of converting any

Co Correspondents. ordinary Boat into a Life Boat ;-a safe and approved Mode vanced wages, in consequence of their superior skill in per. forming the duties to which they had long been accus- ! the Recovery of Persons apparently Drowned;-Precautions of carrying out Anchors in Rough Weather ;-Directions for

SKETCHES OF THE LIFE OF MARY._We wish to see the

tinuation of this original narrative before we decine tomed. I have had several maids, who were so clever, that against the Effects of Lightning at Sea;- Taylor's useful In

the propriety of giving it publicity. We fear that I would structions for the Management of Ships at Single Anchor;

course of what is to follow, there may be persoon one year, if they would only have refrained from incivility Precautions against Infection;-and a great Variety of Mis

local allusions too pointed to be mistaken, and which cellaneous Suggestions, useful to Seamen in general. By and disobedience.

give offence to respectable families. If we should be EGERTON SMITH.-Price Half-a-Crown. Mustrated by seve

taken in this apprehension, we will readily insert to Subjection, or submission, is implied in the very name ral Engravings.

rative in the Kaleidoscope, as a probable means of siden of servant; but, from what circumstance your correspond. HOME TRUTHS, descriptive of the condition of Liverpool writer, if she merits public sympathy. , ent infers that I am in favour of " abject" submission, I in the Year 1811, originally published in the first Volume of the correspondent, whose first communication pre know not, unless he infers it from the terms of the Scripture the Liverpool Mercury. To which is now added, an ORIGINAL this day's Kaleidoscope, will take the trouble to send

TCOUNTERPART, applicable to the condition of the Country directions for the conduct of servants. The words are-cou

office any time after Wednesday at noon, his messa in the Year 1826. Written also for the Liverpool Mercury. “ Servants, be obedient to your masters, with fear and

find a note addressed to Lares. Price Twopence trembling, not answering again ;” and in another place,

| BAGATELLES.Our fair correspondent, Kitty, does not | An elegantly engraved VIEW of the LIVERPOOL TOWN.

be aware that there are some rules which must pot * Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear.” But HALL, with a Plan of the SPLENDID SUITB of Rooms, and a

lated, even in the composition of the charade, &c. TBC Mr. J. S. D. is not entitled to infer, from these words of full description of that admired Edince.-Price Sixpence. I

bic division of the word should be observed: nor cable the Apostles Paul and Peter, both that the Scriptures are A TRIP to the CHAIN BRIDGE, near Bangor, and to

be made out of barm and aid. We have inserted to Luther Parts of NORTH WALES, including Beaumaris, Car-1 collection elsewhere. against abject submission, and that I am for it!

Inarvon. the Lakes of Llanberris, Conway, Llanrwst, Llan- | SUPPLEMENTAL SARET.-As an equlvalent for our occa I certainly think that servants ought to be obliged to be gollen, &c. By a GENTLEMAN OF LIVERPOOL-Price Sixpence.

introduction of music, and a repetition of articles subject to their masters and mistresses, at least, in as great


have previously appeared in the Mercury, we presca a degree as a midshipman is to his captain, or as gentlemen This Day is published, price Nidepence, at the Mercury-office, { readers with another supplemental sheet. in inferior offices are required to be to those who are in Lord-street, Liverpool, and sold by the Agents of the Mer. The LAWS OF WHIST VERSIFIED, which appear among higher offices. I suppose no honest man will attempt to cury and Kaleidoscope,

poetry of this week, will probably be quite a novelty maintain that the words of the Apostles imply less than REFLECTIONS on the subject of EMIGRATION from majority of our readers. this; and I have no desire to make them imply more. EUROPE. with a view to Settlement in the UNITED STATES, I CYLINDRICAL WYPRL. AD

I CYLINDRICAL WHEELS FOR CARRIAORS,We shall be containing brief Sketches of the Moral and Political character My experience does not d.ffer much from that of your

peruse the communication on this subject, with a By M, CAREY, Member of the American Philosophical, and

Friend has favoured us. correspondent with respect to Scotch servants. Many of of the American Antiquarian Society, and Author of the Olive them, on coming to Liverpool, and getting free from the Branch, Vindiciæ Hibernicæ, Essays on Banking, on Political

M. N. O. bas omitted to send the solutions with the begati

We have further to notice the communications of ROJA wholesome restraint to which they have been accustomed, Economy, and on Internal Improvement. are but too apt to indulge their natural spirit of contradic

To which are added,

The Ghost Story of B. is intended for the next Kaleidorna

The ENOLISH EDITOR'S COMMENTS on the SUBJECT: HORE HIBERNICÆ, No. IV., shall appear in our next. tion, as they see others do. But, does not this just tend to

together with Important ADVICE to EMIGRANTS, and prove what I wanted to prove, that the insolence and dis. CAUTIONS AGAINST IMPOSITIONS PRACTISED in the Printed, published, and sold, every Tuesday, by E. SNI obediet, of so large a proportion of the female servants OUTPORTS.

and Co., Clarendon-buildings, Lord-street.

Literary and Scientific Mirror.

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passengers. The engine occupies the hind boot, where it appears completely shut in, but in the model is seen at work from the top. It is, as will be noticed, immediately above the middle wheels, upon which it directly operates, and thus they become the propellers of the other four, which turn upon a swivel on the usual plan. These can be retarded or stopped, in running down hill, by a powerful lever and friction break, which acts on the two fore wheels, within reach of the conduetor; at the same time, by a crank and rod, the throttle valve is closed, which shuts off the steam : the engineer behind can likewise, at pleasure, stop the engine.

"Over the hindmost wheels there is meant to be a seat for the engineer, who, by a balcony placed round the boiler, will, at any time, be able to inspect its surface, feed the furnace, (which is at present done by an opening in the funnel) and superintend the details of the machinery. We are assured, that although, in the model, the boiler does seem somewhat disproportioned, in the running coach it will not be more than 4, feet in height. It is, as will be seen, of a bell. like shape, and ingeniously contrived so as to expose the greatest possible surface to the flame of

the furnace, the ribs of which bend upwards in its infrom wrapping up his explanations in obscure or technical

terior, in accordance with its external form. It consists phraseology, he gives them in a manner that may be unmprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve-derstood by all...

of two cylinders of copper, which are apart at all points ments in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin

but the top and bottom rims, where they are attached to galar Medical Cases: Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi. The general speed of the model is 35 to 4 miles an hour, each other. Round the exterior surface of the inner plate losophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical which can be kept up as long as the fuel and water last; a series of shelf-like troughs is fixed, each of which hold a Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History; but to show its power of sustaining rapid motion, it is, at considerable quantity of water, the top one being filled Vegetation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.

any time, by giving more steam, impelled at a rate of 7 first by communication with the cistern, and that under.

to 8 miles, of course, these speeds are but the fourth part of neath becoming replenished from the overflow of the one TESSRS. BURSTALL AND HILL'S STEAM-CARRIAGE. those of the full sized coach. The most striking example of immediately above, &c. The model boiler holds about

the power of this machine, was putting a boy, who stated one gallon of water, and the full.sized one in these cells Te have visited the large room at the Golden Lion, his weight to be 6 score and 2 pounds, upon the top; he would contain about forty. The principle of the engine

the purpose of inspecting the model of the intended was carried round the circle and up the hill, 1 in 18, with is nearly that of the high pressure ones employed so exsedaneum for stage-coaches drawn by animal power the greatest rapidity and apparent ease, clearly showing tensively in Cornwall, and the boiler is made to bear a those who have visited the miniature vehicle, and wit- that a weight is no object with it.-Edit. Kal.

pressure of 300 pounds to the inch, although, in all probaed its operations, we need not say with what pleasure this

bility, never more than 36 will be applied to it, as the was attended; but those who have not, we would strong. The following article is copied from the Scots Times of safety-valve is only loaded to that extent. But, indeed, out

mmend to take advantage of the opportunity afforded January 12, the editor of which, after complimenting Mr. the pressure Mr. B. means to work with is only from 20 , and speed to the Golden Lion, where they will find Burstall as "a plain, unaffected, good humoured, and portly to 25 pounds, as, by the inevitable shaking of the vehicle

trouble amply repaid by the novelty of the spectacle Englishman, whose sole desire seemed to be that every visi- on uneven roads, he expects that so much of the vapour ating them. Over a part of the room there is a circu. tor should be

ere is a circu. tor should become master of the details of his plan, which he will be dispelled as to render a contrivance for carrying off kind of lobby-cloth rail-road, round which the vehicle explained with a frankness and absence of every thing the surplus steam almost un

the vehicle explained with a frankness and absence of every thing the surplus steam almost unnecessary. The waste pipe, la its way, quickening or slackening its speed, accord. I like anacke

peed, accord-like quackery, or exhibition trick and finesse, that at once however, may be made to pass through the water tank, to the pleasure of the conductor. It is kept in the did away with much of the prejudice with which

tor. It is kept in the did away with much of the prejudice with which, we are and thus, at once, partially condense the steam, and heat de by a slight rod, attached to the centre; this plan is free to

to the centre; this plan is free to confess, we went to view his model,” thus pro- the water previous to its entering the boiler. No other Hled solely from the contracted bounds of the scene of Iceeds with the description :

method of condensing is contemplated. The two cyliniou, and, on being released from this, the carriage will ] “ It is constructed on a scale of 3 inches to the foot, is 5 ders, for the engine is double, are situated on the axle of e either a straight or meandering course, and it is feet 6 inches long, 16 inches over the wheels, and 1 foot the middle wheels, and are supplied through sliding valves. onishing to see with what precision it obeys the different 10 inches hich

It obeys the different 10 inches high, the middle or propelling wheels being 13 They are to be 12 inches in diameter, and the pistons are pulses, or checks, given to its progress. The propelling inches in diameter. It is prepared for being deposited in to make a twelve inch stroke. The model only weighs

gable to orders, adds also the Patent Office in France, in which country Mr. B. is 150 pounds, and is impelled by one half horse-power ; the desirable quality of obedience, that of great power, I desirous of securing his right, and is exceedingly neatl but the full-sized coach, wi

power, desirous of securing his right, and is exceedingly neat but the full-sized coach, with water and coke for a ten the carriage not only gets over different obstacles placed and well construct

obstacles placed and well constructed, giving the spectator a complete idea mile stage, will be about three tons. The quantity of its way with the greatest ease, but also bears a youth, l of what

bears a youth, of what aspect the " Diligences" yet may have, which, water needed for this will be 600 pounds; of fuel, one drier, we should think, than itself, several times round like this type, will have " London and Paris," with the hundred weight; and at 25 pounds pressure the force

circle, with no perceptible difference as to speed, or Bourbon and British arms upon the pannels. The full of an engine so fed will be ten-horse power. When the parent difficulty in working.

sized carriage, we are told, will be about one foot longer engine makes 75 strokes a minute, the speed, it is exMr. Burstall is a man of frank and open manners, and than a two horse stage coach and horses, 7 feet 4 inchespected, will average twelve miles an hour. Of course, this ll be found ready to give every information in his power ; high to the roof, the wheels being the common breadth must be over ground of an average level, we presume, deed, it appears to be his desire to furnish this, and, far apart, and be made to carry six inside and twelve outside and, indeed, a visible diminution of speed is observable

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