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6

POLEON

5

EON

The Fireside.

it forms a most striking coincidence with the character of|is, upon the same authority, placed in lon. 18 00, and lat.

that man who has rendered it so conspicuous in history. 57 30; he concludes, that the "Beli-sama" of this ancient ** la order to employ one part of this life in serious and impor

1 NAPOLEON

topographer is the mouth of the Mersey. Without, howlarg sccupations, it is necessary to spend another in mere amuse

APOLEON

ever, demurring to the accuracy of the longitude, how are 4.- John Locke.

7

wę to reconcile the latitude thus laid down, as marking " There is a time to laugh and a time to weep."-SOLOMON.

3 OLEON

the situation of the river, which, according to this writer, LEON

is nearly three degrees further north than its actual posi.

tion? This is the only attempt to prove that the estuary No. IX.

ON

of the Mersey was at all noticed by the Roman historians, VIVENT LES BAGATELLES.

By dropping the first letter from the first syllable of the (at least the only one that has fallen under our notice,) name in full, and from each part of it in succession, six and we see what little dependence is to be placed upon the

Greek words are formed, which, translated in the order of position of the river, when it is not laid down within 170 SOLUTIONS TO THE PUZZLES, &c. IN OUR LAST.

the numerals, signify-Napoleon being a raging Lion going miles of its true situation. It is a singular fact, that the 42. Cut-throat. about destroying Cities.

Roman stations in this neighbourhood are described in 4. Chat-on (Chaton.) Anglice, catkin.

the Itineraries of Richard, Antonine, &c., such as War#. Blander-buss.

Spinning. A boy having neglected to do some twine rington, Manchester, and Chester ; but no notice seems to 45. Because it is notable (not able.)

spinning, allotted to him as a task, was flogged by his have been taken of any portion of the estuary of the Mer. 15. Because it is no vice ( novice.)

master for his idleness. After receiving his punishment, sey. Hence it would appear, that the estuary of the 1. Because he is a man cheat ( manchet.)

he remained sullen. His master ordered bim to go to Mersey did not exist at that period ; or, if it did, its Step-father.

work. “What! do you take me for a top,” said the stream was so inconsiderable that the Romans thought it 9. Because he has accuracy (a curacy.) urchin, “ to spin the more I'm whipped ?”.

unworthy of notice. Now, if we take up the first of these 10. Because it is man's laughter ( manslaughter.)

opinions, we may suppose that the Mersey then disem. A Roland for an Oliver.-A countryman of the county bogued its waters through Wallasey Po in a compara

of Berks, who recently appeared as a witness in a cause, tively shallow stream, and perhaps unnavigable at its NEW CONUNDRUMS, CHARADES, &c. was thus addressed by the advocate for the opposite party, mouih, from being spread out among sand-banks, and

-"How now, you fellow in the leathern doublet, what thus found its way into the sea by Hoylake. In this case

are you to have for swearing ?”—“Please your Worship,” there would then be no egrese for the water at the Rock CHARADES.

quoth the countryman,“ if you get no more by bawling Point. If this fact could be established, we should have $1. The sailor knows my worth : by me

and lying than I do by swearing, you will soon be in a a ready solution to the difficult question which we sub. He learns what course to steer at sea : leathern doublet as well as I.”

mitted in our publication of the 26th ult., as to the existBebeaded, is my head adorn'd

ence of forests, the remains of which now lie buried under With nature's finest skill; I'm horn'd, Range in the forest, graze the fertile mead,

The Liver.

the tideway on our own shores, as well as those of Cheshire.

from the Rock Point to the entrance of the Dee. One of Evade pursuit, and dart before the steed :

three things must be certain that these remains must have Again beheaded, ladies try your best,

been relics of the antediluvian world ; that they have been, Use but my aid, then is my name confest. K.

by some at this period unknown phenomena of nature, Ladies, your servant ;–At your toilet, I

removed to the present situation, from a considerable dis

tance; or, that they must have grown on the precise spot My penetrating powers do often try; Abd'though my better part with swine is bred,

where they are now found. There are, it must be confesser', It is my skill adorns your sapient head:

great difficulties to be removed before we can embrace Beheaded, I'm not worth a---what?

any of the three opinions above stated: the former is, we My name's almost confest, no more of that:

think, less probable than the second, and the latter more

likely than either. Again my head cut off, then, lovely ladies, Silence ! be still !-ah, me! my name betray'd is.

That Great Britain was, previously to the invasion of K.

the Romans, a land of forests and thickets, and that the SPECULATIONS RESPECTING THE CHANGES WHICH aborigines were a rude and savage people, subsisting,

ARE PRESUMED TO HAVE TAKEN PLACE IN THE principally, by the precarious supplies of the chase, is a CONUNDRUMS. Why is money like an emetic?

ESTUARY OF THE RIVER MERSEY, AND THE OP- matter of history, which no one doubts. The traffic carWbat is that which we often wish for, but never POSITE COASTS OF CHESHIRE.

ried on by the Romans, to and from this country, was

very considerable; amongst the imports may be enumerated when we have it?

sugar from Arabia and India, ginger, pepper, writing What is that which we often do not find where it is, (Continued from the Kaleidoscope of January 8.) paper, &c. The exports consisted of tin, gold, silver, iron, do find where it is not ?

lead, hides, catile, slaves, British dogs, gems, muscle It behoves you to keep your temper in every case In our publication of January 8, we entered at con. pearls, jet, baskets, oysters, horses, horse bits of polished

What is that which you may keep after you have siderable length into the subject of which the following rich the marshy countries on the banks of the Rhine, ait to another?

article is intended as a continuation. We noticed the re. bears, to supply sport and give dignity to the entertain. Why is a silly woman like one with a bad set of mains of the forest on the Lancashire coast, near Crosby, ments of Roman amphitheatres, salt from Cheshire, and Why is a person who pretends to have the head strong presumption that the estuary of the Mersey, now its port Felis on the east, and Lancashire its port Sistunas well as upon the opposite shores of Cheshire, affording corn; this latter article alone employed not less than eight

hundred vessels every year for its transit. Yorkshire had like one who is intoxicated with good wine.

so extensive, was once land, intersected by a river of in- tian, or Ribble, on the west, from whence they made those

significant breadth. We also introduced an interesting exports of the commodities produced in this part of the USEFUL AMUSEMENTS.

article connected with the subject, which had appeared in country.
a late number of the Liverpool Courier, and we now have

During the latter part of the reign of the Emperor Ves. answer to the question in the Kaleidoscope, of the pleasure in laying before our readers a continuation of that pasian, in the year 78, the Ordovices of North Wales were

attacked by the Romans, under Paulinus; and in the early of this month, relative to the calculation of the duty article, from the same journal.

part of the year following Agricola led his victorious le20,341 yards of calico, it is to be observed, that this In the next Kaleidoscope we shall have some further gions to the reduction of Lancashire.” The main body was first considered as so many pounds sterling, observations of our own to make on this interesting topic, appears to have advanced by the way of Warrington. The terwards simply divided by 200, the principle of as we have been at some paias to seek for information con inhabitants of the north-western regions of Cheshire, the Hoperation is this: the duty per lb. three half. pence, cerning the ancient topography of our neighbourhood.

hardy Ceangi, or herdsmen of the Carnabii, were secure e one hundred and sixtieth part of a pound sterling.

in the protection of their bogs and forests, and had not 160 is

submitted to the Roman arms: but Agricola pursued from this deducting 20 per cent., 1600

[Fom the Liverpool Courier.]

them to the last retreat of their marshes on the banks of his one-fifth part of it, viz. 1600 there will necessa

the Mersey, then attacked and defeated them near Nor. The geographical history of the ancient boundaries of ton, and subdued the whole country, which soon after, 8 emain 1600 of 200

the river Mersey is very little known, and, indeed, it is under the refining government of the Romans, exhibited, le saperi srity of this mode of making the calculation, a subject of doubt whether the entrance of the river was on one side of their line of conquests, a pleasing picture of respect to brevity and simplicity, to the more obvious known or described by the Roman geographers, to whom cities and corn-fields in the bosom of“ woods, and on the regular, but operose method of performing it, must we are so much indebted for accurate descriptions of other, one unifornily dreary scene of mosses, thickets, ident to every one acquainted with arithmetical ope- teresting facts connected with the history of that warlike Here, then, we have the fact of the banks of the Mersey

numerous stations, roads, encampments, and other in and marshes, brown heaths, and solitary mansions." nation, when they had subdued this portion of the coun- being the site of bogs and forests as early as the year 79';

try, very soon after the commencement of the Christian and it may be presumed, that, as there was no Roman NAPOLEON.

era. It is, indeed, very true that a celebrated modern station on the shores of the Mersey nearer than that of le following article is curious, though not, in every antiquary, of great research, has attempted to prove that Warrington, these forests might have continued for cenet, literally correct :

the ** Beli-sama," or "current of waters," of Ptolemy, is turies after that period, more especially as we have no e do not recollect ever having seen the annexed ana. the Mersey, the mouth of which he describes as being account of any settlement or town until Liverpool was of the name of Napoleon in print. Together with the placed in lon. 17 deg. 30 min. and lat. 57 deg. 20 min.; and, first brought into notice, about seven centuries ago. We nal derivation of the name, which is compounded of taking the relative distance and bearing of this point with have then two facts before us, the existence of forests on Greek words signifying the “ Lion of the Desert,” |“ Rhigodunum," supposed by him to be Blackrode, which the shores of the Mersey and north-western parts of the

SOLUTION.

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coast of Cheshire in “olden times;" and that those forests nature, be mainly, hypothetical ; and we shall be exceed- all their revolutions upon the bosom of this ocean of ethern were, at least in part, cut down, and not swept away, we ingly happy to see the subject treated in a way better cal- fire! And shall we, for one moment, hesitate to admit i have occular proof in the present day, from the stumps | culated to account for the present extent of the boundaries capability of supporting these bodies, of attracting and roots which remain. The probability that Cheshire of the deep, taken in connexion with those relics of former holding the particles of which they are formed, in peria and Lancashire were once united, at the point now sepa. days, which are now hidden below its surface.

chemical combination ? rated by the estuary of the Mersey, is also supported by

The phenomena that invariably accompany these adel the circumstance of its being unnoticed by the Romans, who

litic substances, have been admitted by the most emin were so minutely accurate in investigating other parts of

scientific 2otices.

philosophers to be strictly electrical ; that is, the meter the newly acquired territory in the same neighbourhood. Comprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve from which they proceed, or by which they are accu the purpose of accounting for the existence of forests where

ments in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin panied ; and when we consider the materials of now the waters of the deep exercise their undisputed sove.

gular Medical Cases; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi. these bodies are composed, we can no longer hesitate reignty, it may be said, that, to avoid Scylla, we are runlosophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical yielding to the

fact, that they are of electrical origin. Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History: Mr. Howard, Vauquelin, and others, afford sufia

The results of the chemical analysis of these stones ning on Charybdis ; to overcome one difficulty we are creating another of greater magnitude. How are we to

Vegetation, &c. ; Antiquities, &c.

proofs of the correctness of the opinion which I hate account for the presence of our noble estuary of the Mer.

vocated. These eminent chemists have all agreed as to sey? This, we confess, is a subject beset with doubt, and, SKETCHES OF THE ELEMENTS OF NATURAL constituents of these bodies, which are found to be as in the absence of all historical narrative as to the fact of its

PHILOSOPHY,

lows: 1. Iron. 2. Nickel. 3. Chromium. 4. Call sudden appearance, is an exceedingly difficult subject to accompanied with Sketches of a New Theory of the Earth These are all magnetic metals.) 5. Oxide of te look at. If, however, we were to say that a certain place

Sulphur. 7. Silica. 8. Manganese. 9. Lime. 10 in this county, which was once a port, is now six or seven

By J. L. E. W. SHECUT.-Charleston, 1826.

mina. 11. Magnesia. These constituents are nga miles distant from the water, who would credit us? Yet

riably present in all the specimens that have been te such is the fact. The Ribble was once the most distin

(CONTINUED FROM PAGE 210.)

zed; but are meant to convey an idea of the age guished river in the county, and was used by the Romans

result of the various analyses that have been made of in preference to any other, and emphatically called the Proofs of the atmospheric Origin of Aërolites, or Meteoric Some have been found wanting of several of these bod “ Port of Lancashire," being eight or ten miles wide at

Stones.

while others have been deficient of some others die its mouth, and the stream running inland up to Ribches. In my sixth lecture on the principles and properties of from them; but the result of the most remarkable and ter. Now, however, the tide does not approach that vil. the electric fluid, seet. 4, I have devoted much attention to of these stones is, that which has been enumerated lage within several miles, and the navigable channel of this wonderful and important subject; an abridged view In Thomson's chemical works, we perceive a tab the Ribble is considerably narrowed. Popular tradition of which I shall give in this section. We have the most these stones drawn up by that indefatigable naturalist ascribes this mighty change to some violent convulsion of respectable authorities for proving, that, from time to time, Izarn; from which, sixteen have been considered nature. Whitaker, in reference to this singular circum- there have fallen from the atmosphere upon the earth, pon- portance towards the establishment of the fact of stance, observes, “ Tradition, the faithful preserver of derous masses of metallic substances, termed aërolites, or occurrence, and the diversity of their appearance, many a fact which history has overlooked or forgotten, meteoric stones, some of which have been found to exceed will account for the different results of their analysis speaks confidently of such a cause, ascribing the final ruin thirty tons, or sixty thousand pounds weight! Occur. first is the shower of sulphur recorded by Moses of Ribchester to the overwhelming violence of an earth. rences of this kind, though not always to the same extent, 191h chapter of Genesis, 24th verse. 2. A mass of in quake. And nothing but such an incident, I think, could have been recorded by Moses in the Bible, and, subse fourteen quintals, noticed by Pallas, as having have originally changed the nature of this, once the most quently, by Livy, Pallas, Pliny, Dion, Cardan, Muschen. Abakanh in Siberia. 3. The shower of stones, men remarkable estuary in the county, and have thrown up broek, De Lalande, Fourcroy, Thompson, Jameson, by Livy, which fell at Rome, Anno 640 before that large and broad barrier of sand which crosses the en Brande, and a host of other eminent philosophers. 4. A similar shower of stones at Rome 324 years trance into it, almost choaks the inlet of the tide, and The facts most remarkable in these stones are, that Christ, recorded by Obsequens. 5. A

very contracts the original breadth of the navigable channel, there is nothing like them in the earth, and that their de. which fell, near the river Negos in Thrace, in the from its majestic extent of eight or nine miles, to the nar- scent to the earth is always preceded by, or accompanied of the 78th Olympiad, recorded by Pliny: 6 row span of a hundred yards."

with, meteors or other aërial phenomena. Almost all the weighing 2551b., which fell near Basle at Enseste Ancient history fully supports the belief, that a great meteors that have been observed, resembled each other in Wednesday, the 7th November, 1492, accompare and mighty change has been gradually going on, for the their characters. They were luminous, at a very great loud thunder. This stone was, by order of King last ten or twelve centuries, in ibe boundaries of the sea to height, moved very swiftly, and disappeared in a short millian, deposited in the church of Ensesheim. the westward, so much so, that the lands forming the time; their disappearance was usually accompanied by a fall of 1200 stones in the year 1510, near Padua in Scilly Islands, the Isle of Wight, &c. formerly united loud explosion, like a clap of thunder; and it was always one of which weighed 120lbs., recorded by Carte with the main land, are now detached by a considerable constantly affirmed, that heavy stony bodies fell from them others. 8. A burning stone which fell on Mount channel; and a great portion of the coasts of Cornwall to the earth. Previous to their fall, they move in a direc. in Provence, on the 27th November, 1627, recorder and Devonshire has been invaded and swept away by en. tion nearly horizontal, and they seem to approach the earth | Gassendi, which weighed 50lbs. 9. A stone of croachments of the sea. The Scilly Islands, it is stated before they explode, and the explosion is followed by which fell near Verona in the year 1672. 10. 2 upon good authority, were formerly only ten in number, showers of sand, sulphur, &c. or the falling of stones. Some which fell at Larissa, with a hissing noise and the though they are now upwards of one hundred and forty times the stones continue luminous till they sink in the earth; sulphur, in 1706, recorded by Lucas. 11. In 1 Thus we find that changes, cqual in magnitude to those but, most commonly, the luminousness disappears at the Leland witnessed a phenomenon of the same kind which we have conceived probable in our own neighbour time of the explosion. They are always hot when they Pont de Vesle. 12. In 1768, three of these stones hood, have taken place in other parts of the kingdom ; and fall, and differ in size, from a few ounces to several tons ; different parts of France. 13. In 1783, one of these it is not travelling much beyond the region of probability they are usually roundish, and always covered with a black fell in England, recorded by Cavallo. 14. Ia to suppose, that a commercial, enterprising, and acute crust, which, from the analysis of Howard, consists chiefly there was a shower of stones near Agen, witness people, such as were the Romans, would have availed of oxide of iron. In many cases, they smell strongly of Darcet and others. 15. In December, 1795, a sa ihemselves of the estuary of the Mersey for the export of sulphur.

in Yorkshire, England, near the house of Major Top heavy articles of merchandise found in its vicinity, if it Some of the ancients considered these stones to be of vol- it weighed 561bs.--(Brande. )—16. A mass of iron, bad heen practicable to have used it for such a purpose. canic origin. Others, that they were bodies floating in cubic feet, fell in America, April 5, 1800, reom

No:v, we confess, we see nothing violently improbable space unconnected with any planetary system ; that they the Philosophical Magazine ; besides various ook in the supposition, that the same cause, or series of causes, were attracted by the earth in their progress, and kindled by smaller dimensions, from 7 to 60lbs., which fell in which inay, in the lapse of time, have produced the ex- their rapid motion

through the atmosphere. Some, again, parts of the world, together with showers of sande traordinary changes further to the northward or westward, consider them to be little planets, which, circulating in of sulphur, and of mercury.-(Thomson, vol. S. as in the cases just alluded to, may have produced changes space, fall into the atmosphere, which, by its friction, di. 17. M. De Humboldt has announced, that an equally important and extraordinary at the entrance of minishes the velocity, so that they fall by their weight. La has been found, which is truly a volcanic produca this river. That a revolution producing an entire alter. Place suggests the probability of their having been thrown being formed of crystals of pyroxene; but he do ation in the face of things, for several miles distant off by the volcanoes of the moon. Mr. Thompson considers having been projected to the earth by a volcano from the mouth of this river, has taken place, we en them fragments of fire balls. But the most probable opi- moon. The capacity of the gases for holding in tertain not the slightest doubt. In addition to the facts nion of the origin of these aërial visitants, appears to me to the particles of matter, and which constitutes a pirmo which we have already mentioned of the encroach- be that advanced by Mr. King and Sir William Hamilton, feature in my Theory of the Earth, has been some ments of the water on the Cheshire shores, we have since " That they are concretions actually formed in the atmo- confirmed by the conclusion of Sir H. Davy's experts learned, that if the sand banks, which lie several miles sphere ;" and this conclusion, it is said, has been acceded on ammonia, of which Henry says, “ If this should distant from the present shore, be penetrated to a sufficient to by most philosophers.-Annals of Philosophy, &c.), tablished, we shall obtain proof of a fact of the deptb, evidence of their covering wbat was formerly dry I have several reasons for concurring with these gentle novelty and curiosity, namely, the existence of a land is furnished, by grass, peat, and other vegetable matter men, and for believing these bodies to be of atmospheric a metallic oxide, whose natural state is that of an aëri being found at the bottom. There is nothing more sin. or electrical origin. It will be recollected, that my theory fluid."-(Ilenry, vol. 1, p. 201.) gular in supposing that the mouth of the river Mersey of electricity considers magnetism as one of its species. I To the mind prepared to acknowledge the omnipot has, from a very narrow stream, been forced open by the have already explained, in the preceding sections, the as. influence of the Supreme First Cause ; and to refer tide to its present width, or that the estuary was broken up tonishing influence and powers of the great physical agents, as competent to every possible event and contingency hy a sudden convulsion of nature, where once no water and their properties of attraction and repulsion; contrac- nature, novel and curious as it might appear, it weudi flowed, (the old river running through Wallasey,) than in tion and cohesion; the polarizing or magnetizing powers vey the idea, that such was probably the primitive stal the singular fact, which we are obliged to admit

, of the sea of the violet ray ; and the influence of these agents, as the primordial mass of matters at the Creation; thai now occupying many miles of space which was, at one constituting the etherial fluids of the firmament. We have their patural state was that of aeriform Auids," holding time, land. The very same process which would effect the only, therefore, to reflect upon the all-prevading and all solution the base of all bodies, and existing in the candit latter circumstance, would, in its operation, be sufficient to sustaining qualities of these fluids, to believe that innume described in the 6th sect. p. 14. I have also remarked accomplish the former. We offer these thoughts, with rable words are suspended and kept within their orbits, the influence of the three simple gases, bydrogen, are much deference, upon a subject which must, from its very receive their fuel and their fires, and are made to perform and nitrogen, as extending to the utmost limits of our !

phere ; and when we take into consideration the mag. double bass; and it is notorious, that a strong man will of the great utility of this excellent establishment. A poor merizing influence of the violer ray of light, and the mag soon become tired of dangling or nursing a young child, woman, whose husband was in the Infirmary, was reduced, Deze metals that constitute these bodies, it appears to me, which a delicate girl will carry in her arms for hours to with her family, to the most pinching distress, and might tak something like a clue to their origin offers itself from all these peculiar circumstances, wlien taken in con

gether, with apparent ease. It must be obvious, therefore, have starved, if the proprietor of the cellar in which she nexion

that a series of exercises which agreeably bring into suc. lived had not had compassion on her. Upon hearing of My conclusion has, therefore, heen, that upon the same cessive action all the muscles of the body, will, if perse- her case, a lady of our particular acquairitance called principles that water holds in solution particles of various vered in, wonderfully improve the general strength, and, upon her, to ascertain her actual situation. She asked the substances, of minerals, metais, and metallic oxides, evi- consequently, the health of those who practise them. desced in different mineral springs, whose exhalations are

pour woman why she had not applied for relief from the continually mixing with the matters of the atmosphere,

Some persons appear almost terrified at the very term parish ? Her reply was, that, if she did so, she and her that these gases, after having been absorbed by water in gymnastic, which they have been accustomed to associate children would be sent to Ireland; and that she would ind spon the earth, may bold in solution particles of de with the idea of immense and painful muscular exertion, subunit to any privation rather than leave Liverpool, as amposed or oxidized metals and minerals, not however incompatible with the powers of delicate persons. This is

, her husband would be out of the Infirmary in a setk or i constituent principles, but merely as so many adventi. however, a mistake, as they will soon discover, if they will two, when he could get work again. Now, we do not rah

, they convey into the higher regions of the atmo- put themselves in training under an experienced master, mean to say that the parish officers will give no relief to bere

, in which the oxygen and nitrogen gases, in the act who knows how to husband their powers, and to direct persons in the situation of this poor woman; the law, their renewal, are disengaged from these particles: and their efforts. There are, it is true, gymnastic feats taught we believe, requires that the relief should be in the way of

s, by virtue of the electro-magnetic attraction, are by the professors of the art, which can only be performed removal: but we think it very natural that the woman

ught readily to combine, and thus to constitute the by persons of great natural strength and activity; but should be reluctant to be separated from her husband, and leus of these aëroliric compounds, which continue to olve with our atmosphere, and to accumulate similar these feats are by no means the most useful that can be sent to Ireland, where she would have no claim upon any alters, until disturbed by the causes occasioning their taught :- there is an endless variety and gradation of mus. one for assistance. It is in such cases as this that the sition, and consequent explosion or projection to the cular exploits, which may be acquired by the most delicate Strangers' Friend Society visitors step in, and, by dispensm; and these causes I conceive to be, either the spon-persons, with the most unquestionable advantage to their ing a shilling or two, for two or three weeks, prevent starper inflammation of the substances, or their gravita.

vation, or the breaking up of a miserable family, tempopowards the region of thunder and lightning in the strength and general health. estrata of the atmosphere, by which they are exploded.

It is impossible to set bounds to the improvement of the arily deprived, by sickness, of the support of their father. d this opinion of their formation in the atmosphere ac human mind, and it is almost equally vain to limit the Without meaning to dictate to those who have the res stil greater weight, when it is considered that capabilities of the human frame when duly cultivated. It management of the poor, we cannot omit expressing an fecus vapours are abundant in the lower regions of the is said of Alexander Selkirk, that long practice and neces. opinion, that it would not only be humane, but prudent osphere, and hold in solution particles of silex, alu. &e. that these vapours may be rarified and consity had enabled him to outstrip the deer and other ani. also, to afford some temporary assistance to persons in the

Had she been sent to ed into hydrogen, still holding in solution these par. mals, which he hunted for subsistence. This speed was situation of this poor woman.

which, uniting with those of the metals, become acquired by habit, which has, with great propriety, been (Ireland, she would, in all probability, have returned, as 5 aecreted in the atmosphere, where they may continue termed “ second nature.” It is well known that a prac- soon as she learned that her husband had recovered: or, zasing in magnitude, and revolve for ages, or until tised pedestrian will distance the best horse in a few days, perhaps, he would have got himself passed, and have gone arrive at those limits to which, by a law of nature, they or, to adopt the regular phraseology, a man will “ walk to Ireland to bring her back to England, not being able destined. pon this principle we may very rationally account for down a horse.” From Turton's edition of Goldsmith's to find employment in his native country. towers of sulphur, which have fallen in different parts Earth and Animated Nature, we learn, that “the king's What a subject for melancholy contemplation is the le sorld since that recorded by Moses, and the shower messengers of Ispahan, who are runners by profession, go condition of the wretched Irish, whose wants drive them ed dust which fell at Gerace in Calabria during a thirty-six leagues (or 108 miles) in fourteen hours." to England, to depreciate the wages of the poor English. der storm. The analysis of this dust proved it to be

If we recollect well, the immortal Socrates, at an ad-man ! e same origin with the meteoric stones. “Its constivare silica, alumina, iron, and crominm; mixed vanced period of life, learned to dance; and we have In order to facilitate the access of needy persons to the the rain it became black; when exposed to a red heat always admired the old Grecian for having had the philo- visitors of the Strangers' Friend Society, and prevent poor Herrenced with acids."-( Annals of Philosophy, for sophy to defy the sneers of his cotemporaries, after he had shivering wretches from wandering up and down the town, nuary, 1817.)— It is highly probable that this had been once made up his mind that their ridicule was directed seeking for some subscriber, to furnish them with recom

cemented by the silica and alumina; that it had not against a practice conducive to his health and cheerfulness. mendations, there is an office, No. 1, Love-lane, where a arrived at the necessary degree of compactness and What are termed the Callisthenic exercises, intended for person attends to fill up the notes, and direct applicants mes, when it came within the sphere of the influence females, may be practised with perfect propriety and ad. to the residence of the visitors. No establishment can be Mining, and was thus exploded and precipitated to the vantage by young ladies of eight or nine years of age, and more economically managed than this. The person who I in the form of red dust. And, upon similar principles, upwards. The system has been encouraged in many of attends to fill up these notes keeps a little shop, and is rm of small stones, sand, tire, mercury, &c. From the most respectable seminaries in this country, and on content, in order to eke out a scanty living, to fill up the begoing considerations I have been induced to con- the Continent; and has been uniformly attended with the blanks for six shillings a week ; and, when it is known that, that these bodies are produced by electro-magnetic most obvious benefit to the papils.

during the past year, several thousand recommendations tion, since no other than magnetic metals have ever Once more we congratulate the ladies and gentlemen of hare been filled up at this office alone; and, when it is detected in them; and in them only have all the Liverpool upon the introduction of gymnastic and callis- recollected, that, owing to this arrangement, the subscribers brings me to the consideration of the numerous metals thenic exercises among them; and we trust that, at no are spared the trouble of much personal application by have been lately discovered and added to the former distant period, the system will be generally introduced, to poor people, we think they ought, in fairness, to contribute

counteract the evils which are inseparable from sedentary something towards the expenses, as the regular funds of habits, or neglect of exercise.

the Strangers' Friend Society cannot be appropriated to The Salcidoscope.

We shall venture, in conclusion, to address to gymnastic such purpose. Hitherto, however, the wages of the agent

and callisthenic pupils the advice which an illustrious has, we think, rather unfairly, been paid by us, as will GYMNASTIC AND CALLISTHENIC EXERCISES. Roman gave to his son, and which is particularly applica appear by the following statement, which we publish with

ble lò the subject. “ Amusements (says Cicero) ought to a view of inducing some of our townsmen to lighten a basing, for many years, recommended gymnastic be enjoyed like sleep; which, if used to excess, becomes burden which ought not to fall exclusively to our share, Alishments in our native town, it affords us much gra- dangerous—and instead of reviving the powers of the as a great deal of personal inconvenience, independent of ation to perceive that the youth of Liverpool have now mind, render them torpid.”

expense, attaches to us, from the publicity of our office, opportunity of acquiring profieiency in an art which, Thus, in the exercises we are recommending, it is pår. and our known connexion with the society. eminent degree, combines the “utile dulci.” ticularly desirable to use them, especially at first, with

he ohjeet of the gymnastic exercises is to put in action great moderation, and to desist before they produce fatigue Dr.. THE STRANGERS' FRIEND SOCIETY OFFICE..Cr. the muscles of the body, many of which, in the ordi. or uneasiness, remembering the old adage

Dec. 23, 1826. * Gulta cavat lapidem, non vi, sed sæpe cadendo." routine motions of walking, or of daily exercise, are

£ s. d.

To Balance rendered 7 7 2 By Contributionis, In brought into active play. is well known that a

Dec. 31, 1827.

from .. R. Freme, R. or delicate person, by the partial exercise of certain

THE STRANGERS' FRIEND SOCIETY.

ToCash pd. (53 week's

Rathbone, & H. Wileles, will be able to perform feats which a much more

Wages, at 6x.)..

son, Esqrs. £1 each, 1st person, who has not had the same practice, finds In reply to our frequent and urgent appeals in its behalf,

Feb. 20, 1897.

23 5 23 we have often been asked wherein the peculiar merits of self unable to accomplish.

By Contribution,

} kus, we have seen very delicate persons possessed of the Strangers' Friend Society consist? We will adduce

Balance carried down 15 5 24 Rishing muscular power in the fingers of the left hand, one case, to which thousands of a similar description to Balance due ....15 524 pired simply by playing the violin, violoncello, or might be added, and wliich may serve to explain our views

Dec. 31, 1827.

23 5 25

IN ACCOUNT WITH EGERTON SAITA.

Feb. 7, 1827,

8. d.

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from M. W. S.

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son's district, No. 4;

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5

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Correspondence.

to be foand in this town may be attributed, in a great The Beauties of Chess. measure, to the want of those salatary regulations which

prevail in the North? If those regulations are thought OX FEMALE SERVANTS.

Ludimus effigiem belli."-VIDA. too severe, why not try one half of the penalties which they impose? Some wise and moderate enactment on this subject

SOLUTION TO STUDY CLXV. Is this thject is of much importance, and one which would, unquestionably, tend very much to fill the pockets

1 King .B-7

1 King ......Emoears ikely to grow upon our hands, we shall, for the of many active and skilful, but unruly maids, because, as

2 King ....C-7

2 King ....FSorureconfine ve discussion to the Kaleidoscope as the I have said before, it would obiige them to give greater sa- 3 King D-7

3 King ....Grians won the colonna of a newspaper are too numerous tisfaction to their employers, and, of course, to obtain

4 Pawn ...... .E-7

4 King ......Hand diversified to admit of ample space for the inser. higher wages.

JAMES MACGOWAN. 5 King

5 King ......Guinn 5 what may be considered moral essays. As the Hope-street, Jan. 7, 1828.

6 King ......F-5

6 King ......H7 King ......G-4

7 King ....GS Fonly # J.S.D., to a letter of Mr. Macgowan, has already

8 King

8 King ......H_ meast in the Kalriincope, we shall take advantage of APPEALS AGAINST THE SUPPLEMENTARY CHARGES

FOR ASSESSED TAXES.

9 King .H25

9 King ....Gor sgplemental namber to transfer from the Mercury THE COMMISSIONERS acting for this Borough, in

10 Pawn F-7X 10 King ......Hmother letter of Mr. M., in order that the series may be execution of the Acts relating to Assessed Taxes, will attend 11 Pawn ......G-7X 11 King zainterrapred. This we shall, next week, follow up with mine the appeal of all such Persons as may feel aggrieved

12 Pawn ......G-6XMATE. the wond reply of J. S. D.; and we sincerely hope that by the Supplementary or increased charges made upon them

STUDY CLXVI. the dramasion will lead to a right understanding of that Warehousemen, Porters, and Cellarmen, which are specially White to move, and win with the pawn in tweltene th, for important duty-the conduct of the employer to the appointed, as stated below.) on

without taking the bishop. WEDNESDAY, the 23d instant, for all Persons within 3r. en ploged.

Walthew's district, No. 1;

FRIDAY, the 25th instant, for Persons within Mr. Dowdall's
TO THE EDITOR.
district, No. 2;

Black.
$IR.--Your correspondent J. S. D. thinks the miscon- SATURDAY, the 26th instant, for Persons within Mr. Ward's
dact of servants is occasioned more by the misconduct of Monday, the 28th instant, for Persons within Mr. Richard-

V g 3 a od 9H masters, than by the defects of the laws; and in this

at Ten o'clock in the morning of each day. opinion he may be correct. 1 fully agree with him that

ALL Appeals against the charges for Clerks, Warehousethere masters and mistresses who prevent their servants men, Forters, and Cellarmen, will be heard in the PUBLIC

Oprice, opposite Bridewell, on Thursday, the 24th instant, frorns attending a place of religious worship and instruction at Twelve

o'clock at noon.

7 on the Sabbath, are themselves totally destitute of true

By order of the Commissioners,
Liverpool, January 14, 1828. H. PENINGTON, Clerk.

6
religion.
The Apostle's directions for the conduct of masters are

ASSESSED TAXES. quite as agreeable to me as those which he gives for the

This day is published, price 3d. conduct of servants ; and I should be no less willing to

A Brief but Comprehensive SKETCH of the Laws repromote the improvement of the one class than of the other. to the Appellants against Surcharges.

lative to the ASSESSED TAXES, intended as a Guide Mr. J. 8. D. seems to have written under the impression BY THE EDITORS OF THE LIVERPOOL MERCURY. that I was not altogether friendly to servants, and that I

SOLD AT THE MERCURY-OFFICE. wished to see them behave with " abject submission.” But what have I said or done to give any ground for such a The following Publications, at the Mercury-office, Clasupposition? Is there any thing unfriendly in wishing rendon-buildings, South John-street, Liverpool ; and them to behave like Christians ? or in wishing that the law

may be had of the Agents of the Mercury and the
should be so framed as to assist them to conduct themselves
Kaleidoscope in Town and Country :-

А в
VARIOUS SUGGESTIONS for PRESERVATION from

C D E F G H with propriety? I am confident that a law, imposing a SHIPWRECK, and other Dangers of the Sea; containing va reasonable penalty on insolence and disobedience, would rious Modes of expeditiously forming Rafts, from materials

WHITE greatly promote the interest of servants; for it would enable always at hand ;-an approved Method of constructing a them to remain some years in one place, and to obtain ad- Temporary Rudder; an expeditious Mode of converting any To Correspondents. vanced wages, in consequence of their superior skill in per ordinary Boat Into a Life Boat ;-a safe and approved Mode

of carrying out Anchors in Rough Weather ;-Directions for forming the duties to which they had long been accus. the Recovery of Persons apparently Drowned;- Precautions

SKETCHES OF THE LIFE OF MARY.-We wish to see the tomed. I have had several maids, who were so clever, that against the Etfects of Lightning at Sea ;—Taylor's useful In

tinuation of this original narrative before we decide

the propriety of giving it publicity. We fear that is I would willingly have doubled their wages at the end of structions for the Management of Ships at Single Anchor;

course of what is to follow, there may be personal one year, if they would only have refrained from incivility Precautions against Infection ;--and a great Variety of Mis

local allusions too pointed to be mistaken, and which cellaneous Suggestions, useful to Seamen in general. By and disobedience.

give offence to respectable families. If we should te EGERTON SMITH.-Price Half-a-Crown. Ilustrated by seveSubjection, or submission, is implied in the very name

taken in this apprehension, we will readily insert the ral Engravings.

rative in the Kaleidoscope, as a probable means of aidin of servant; but, from what circumstance your correspond. HOME TRUTHS, descriptive of the condition of Liverpool writer, if she merits public sympathy. ent infers that I am in favour of “abject” submission, I in the Year 1811, originally published in the first Volume of the correspondent, whose first communication appa know not, unless he infers it from the terms of the Scripture the Liverpool Mercury. To which is now added, an ORIGINAL

this day's Kaleidoscope, will take the trouble to send directions for the conduct of servants. The words are-COUNTERPART, applicable to the condition of the Country

office any time after Wednesday at noon, his messer:

find a note addressed to Lares. “Servants, be obedient to your masters, with fear and in the Year 1826. Written also for the Liverpool Mercury

Price Twopence trembling, not answering again ;” and in another place,

BAGATELLES. Our fair correspondent, Kitty, does De An elegantly engraved VIEW of the LIVERPOOL TOWN

be aware that there are some rules which must notre “ Servants, be subject to your masters with all fear." But HALL, with a Plan of the SPLENDID SUITB of Rooms, and a

lated, even in the composition of the charade, &e. The Mr. J. S. D. is not entitled to infer, from these words of full description of that admired Edince.-Price Sixpence.

bic division of the word should be observed: nor ean er the Apostles Paul and Peter, both that the Scriptures are A TRIP to the CHAIN BRIDGE, near Bangor, and to be made out of barm and aid. We have inserted to against abject submission, and that I am for it!

uther Parts of NORTH WALES, including Beaumaris, Car- collection elsewhere. I certainly think that servants ought to be obliged to be narvon, the Lakes of Llanberris, Conway, Llanrwst, Llan. SUPPLEMENTAL SKRET.-As an equivalent for our ceea

gollen, &c. By a GENTLEMAN of LIVERPOOL-Price Sixpence. subject to their masters and mistresses, at least, in as great

introduction of music, and a repetition of articles

EMIGRATION. a degree as a midshipman is to his captain, or as gentlemen This Day ls published, price Nidepence, at the Mercury-office,

have previously appeared in the Mercury, we presei

readers with another supplemental sheet. in inferior offices are required to be to those who are in Lord-street, Liverpool, and sold by the Agents of the Mer. The Laws of Whist VERSIFIED, which appear among higher offices. I suppose no honest man will attempt to cury and Kaleidoscope,

poetry of this week, will probably be quite a novelty maintain that the words of the Apostles imply less than REFLECTIONS on the subject of EMIGRATION from majority of our readers. this; and I have no desire to make them imply more.

EUROPE, with a view to Settlement in the UNITED STATES, CYLINDRICAL Wheels FOR CARRIAGES.We shall forth My experience does not d.ffer much from that of your containing brief Sketches of the Moral and Political character

peruse the communication on this subject, with whi

By M. CAREY, Member of the American Philosophical, and Friend has favoured us. correspondent with respect to Scotch servants. Many of of the American Antiquarian Society, and Author of the olive M. N. 0. has omitted to send the solutions Fith the bagat them, on coming to Liverpool, and getting free from the Branch, Vindiciæ Hibernicæ, Essays on Banking, on Political

We have further to notice the communications of R05. wholesome restraint to which they have been accustomed, Economy, and on Internal Improvement. are but too apt to indulge their natural spirit of contradic

To which are added,

The Ghost Story of B. is intended for the next Kaleidoscop tion, as they see others do. But, does not this just tend to together with Important ADVICE to EMIGRANTS, and

The ENGLISH EDITOR'S COMMENTS on the SUBJECT; HORE HIBERNICÆ, No. IV., sball appear in our next. prove what I wanted to prove, that the insolence and dis. CAUTIONS AGAINST IMPOSITIONS PRACTISED in the Printed, published, and sold, every Tuesday, by E. SAT obedier. of so large a proportion of the female servants OUTPORTS.

and Co., Clarendon-buildings, Lord-street.

1

OR,

Literary

and

Scientific Mirror.

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passengers. The engine occupies the hind boot, where it appears completely shut in, but in the model is seen at work from the top. It is, as will be noticed, immediately above the middle wheels, upon which it directly operates,

and thus they become the propellers of the other four, I

which turn upon a swivel on the usual plan. These can

be retarded or stopped, in running down hill, by a powerЕ.

ful lever and friction break, which acts on the two fore wheels, within reach of the conduetor ; at the same time, by a crank and rod, the throttle valve is closed, which shuts off the steam : the engineer behind can likewise, at pleasure, stop the engine.

“ Over the hindmost wheels there is meant to be a seat for the engineer, who, by a balcony placed round the boiler, will, at any time, be able to inspect its surface, feed the furnace, (which is at present done by an opening in the funnel) and superintend the details of the machinery. We are assured, that although, in the model, the boiler

does seem somewhat disproportioned, in the running coach A

it will not be more than 44 feet in height. It is, as will be seen, of a bell. like shape, and ingeniously contrived so

as to expose the greatest possible surface to the flame of Scientific Notices. from wrapping up his explanations in obscure or technical the furnace, the ribs of which bend upwards in its in

terior, in accordance with its external form. It consists phraseology, he gives them in a manner that may be un of two cylinders of copper, which are apart at all points mprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve- derstood by all

. menta in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin

but the top and bottom rims, where they are attached to palar Medical Cases; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi

The general speed of the model is 3} to 4 miles an hour, each other. Round the exterior surface of the inner plate Tosophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical which can be kept up as long as the fuel and water last; a series of shelf-like troughs is fixed, each of which hold a Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History; but to show its power of sustaining rapid motion, it is, at considerable quantity of water, the top one being filled Vegetation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.

any time, by giving more steam, impelled at a rate of 7 first by communication with the cistern, and that under

to 8 miles ; of course, these speeds are but the fourth part of neath becoming replenished from the overflow of the one TESSRS. BURSTALL AND HILL'S STEAM-CARRIAGE those of the full sized coach. The most striking example of immediately above, &c. The model boiler holds about

the power of this machine, was putting a boy, who stated one gallon of water, and the full.sized one in these cells Te have visited the large room at the Golden Lion, his weight to be 6 score and 2 pounds, upon the top; he would contain about forty. The principle of the engine the purpose of inspecting the model of the intended was carried round the circle and up the hill, 1 in 18, with is nearly that of the high pressure ones employed so exredaneum for stage-coaches drawn by animal power. the greatest rapidity and apparent ease, clearly showing tensively in Cornwall, and the boiler is made to bear a those who have visited the miniature vehicle, and wit- that a weight is no object with it.-Edit. Kal.

pressure of 300 pounds to the inch, although, in all probaed its operations, we need not say with what pleasure this

bility, never more than 36 will be applied to it, as the was attended; but those who have not, we would strong. The following article is copied from the Scots Times of safety-valve is only loaded to that extent. But, indeed, pommend to take advantage of the opportunity afforded January 12, the editor of which, after complimenting Mr. the pressure Mr. B. means to work with is only from 20 1, and speed to the Golden Lion, where they will find Burstall as “ a plain, unaffected, good humoured, and portly to 25 pounds, as, by the inevitable shaking of the vehicle Sr trouble amply repaid by the novelty of the spectacle Englishman,

whose sole desire seemed to be that every visi- on uneven roads, he expects that so much of the vapour iting them. Over a part of the room there is a circu. tor should become master of the details of his plan, which he will be dispelled as to render a contrivance for carrying off kind of lobby-cloth rail-road, round which the vehicle explained with a frankness

and absence of every thing the surplus steam almost unnecessary. The waste pipe, nia its way, quickening or slackening its speed, accord. like quackery, or exhibition trick and finesse, that at once however, may be made to pass through the water tank,

to the pleasure of the conductor. It is kept in the aid away with much of the prejudice with which, we are and thus, at once, partially condense the steam, and heat de by a slight rod, attached to the centre ; this plan is free to confess,

we went to view his model,” thus pro- the water previous to its entering the boiler. No other med solely from the contracted bounds of the scene of ceeds with the description :

method of condensing is contemplated. The two cylinhou, and, on being released from this, the carriage will

" It is constructed on a scale of 3 inches to the foot, is 5 ders, for the engine is double, are situated on the axle of either a straight or meandering course, and it is feet 6 inches long, 16 inches over the wheels, and 1 foot the middle wheels, and are supplied through sliding valves. onishing to see with what precision it obeys the different 10 inches high, the middle or propelling wheels being 13 They are to be 12 inches in diameter, and the pistons are palses, or checks, given to its progress

. The propelling inches in diameter. It is prepared for being deposited in to make a twelve inch stroke. The model only weighs sebinery, which is thus conformable to orders, adds also the Patent Office in France, in which country Mr. B. is 150 pounds, and is impelled by one half horse-power ; the desirable quality of obedience, that of great power, desirous of securing his right, and is exceedingly neat but the full-sized coach, with water and coke for a ten the carriage not only gets over different obstacles placed and well constructed, giving the spectator a complete idea mile stage, will be about three tons. The quantity of its way with the greatest ease, but also bears a youth, of what aspect the Diligences" yet may have, which, water needed for this will be 600 pounds; of fuel, one vier, we should think, than itself, several times round like this type, will have "London and Paris," with the hundred weight; and at 25 pounds pressure the force

circle, with no perceptible difference as to speed, or Bourbon and British arms upon the pannels. The full of an engine so fed will be ten-horse power. When the parent difficulty in working.

sized carriage, we are told, will be about one foot longer engine makes 75 strokes a minute, the speed, it is exMr. Burstall is a man of frank and open manners, and than a two horse stage coach and horses, 7 feet 4 inches pected, will average twelve miles an hour. Of course, this ll be found ready to give every information in his power; high to the roof, the wheels being the common breadth must be over ground of an average level, we presume, deed, it appears to be bis desire to furnish this, and, far) apart, and be made to carry six inside and iwelve outside and, indeed, a visible diminution of speed is observable

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