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No. III.


Men and Manners. spatches of his favourite sea-söngs, with his Nan by and a large Union Jack flag was thrown over it, it

his side; it was his foible; but which of us is free stead of a pall.
from all failures?

Curiosity induced me to inquire who was the vi
I bave strayed thus far from the original object tim to the fell destroyer, Death, when I learned the
I had in view, merely to give some idea of poor Davy's particulars I have just related. That he was a fathe
family; for, despite of all his little failings, he was and a good one, I might know from the weepit

beloved by them, as a good husband and a kind, in wife and three children, who followed in the mela i Grally we go o'er the salt blue seas,

dustrious father. And the wave breaks white before us;

choly train.-- The churchyard lay a short distan The crowded canvas bends to the breeze,

As I before said, he and his companions went out off, near the town of B It is situated on d And light flies the pennant o'er us."

to the bay on as fine a morning as could well be ex- sea side, and the frail relics of mortality, which tin

Mariner's Song pected at the season of “cold and chill November,” and decay may have brought to the surface of ti With a blithsome and merry heart did Davy Wil. with light hearts, and expectations buoyant with earth, are often borne away, when springtides liams and his three companions loose the moorings success; but are not our brightest prospects too often, storms 'are abroad. Here a grave was prepared of their small fishing smack on the morning of the alas! clouded and dimmed, and that

, too, when we the remains of poor Williams, and thither acced twenty-second of last November, to go and fathom least expect it? It was even so with Davy and his panied them. His body was consigned to the Ocean's depths for their own and their poor families associates, for they had not been long at their labours, amid the shrieks and sighs of his relations, subsistence. A smart breeze from the westward gave when, on a sudden, a gust of wind arose, the sky re echoed in the calmness of the evening air, them cheering hopes of a good day:" the sun,

became obscured, and a most violent storm of rain the silent tears of many of his associates. The tin although low in the horizon, dispensed its beneficent and hail succeeded; the aspect of “old ragged was well suited for such a melancholy scene, for rays, and gave the otherwise dreary coast some looks Ocean” soon assumed a terrific appearance; wave was under the “serene and holy smile" of the se of comfort; the dew-drops sparkled upon the brown mounted on wave, and their roar made the very bath evening. I remained to muse upon the way and leafless heath; and the side of a neighbouring rocks echo. Our fishermen, of course, quickly pre- tragic affair-silence was afloat, and there was hill, from whence that most lasting of all minerals, pared to tack about for their home: a chaotic dark- thing to disturb my meditations ; for

* In hallowed quiet, human stir was hushed, compact granite, is daily being taken away, for the ness covered the whole face of the deep, and the

'Twould almost seem that the external world use of some extensive public works in its vicinity, tumult of the waves increased. Being well ac

Felt God's command, and that the sea waves euri'd sbone like molten gold in the sun's reflection. quainted with the line of coast, they had but little

More blandly, making music as they rushed." Davy, always the first to display that care had no difficulty, even amid the raging of the elements, to Dublin, December, 1827.

J. G. hiding place in his heart, lilted one of his favourite make land, for the wind had veered directly about,

FIELD SPORTS FOR JANUARY. sea-songs, (for he had been a man-of-war's-man,) and their orison of thanks was silently offered up while he adjusted the sails and tackling, making for the intervention of Providence in rescuing them

The pursuit of the groure, a hardy and manly reca signal preparation to wage deadly war against from the a' gry commotion of the boisterous seas. tion, has already ceased, December breezes moaning whiting, codling, herring, or any other of the

finny When the boat neared a headland, formed by the requiem : but partridge shooting may, and will, beri tribe, which might, unwarily, take the “specious intrusion of a craggy rock, on which they had hoped hitherto been but little disturbed, the birds ] bait." There is a small wretched-looking cabin con- to cast their anchor, (for the water all around the generally speaking, admit of the near approach tiguous to the shore, and sheltered by an immense place was several fathoms deep, and the waves spent fowler. Pheasants in extensive preserves will bile stone of several tons weight, which, in some 'revolu- their fury ir foaming and

bellowing against the jut- ployment for volley upon volley of battu artillery : tion of nature, had become detached from its native ting sides of the shore,) Williams, always prompt in mean in the hedge rows, and a field, with a sig bed, and had rolled on until it received the com- danger, stood up in the bark, with the Aukes of the pointer, a clever setter, or a faithful retriever, as alis mand, —"Thus far shalt thou go, and no farther :' anchor ready in his hand to cast from him, when he but little execution will be done. This was was terte but the legends of gossip tales of the neighbourhood conceived he was near enough to accomplish his probability, good wild fowl shooting will be to be badar do not fail to attribute it to the force of some giant purpose. The moment came, he exerted his power- latter end of the month, the birds being sought for of olden times, and the traces of his fingers and thumb ful strength, and effected his aim; but, in the effort, cipally in the neighbourhood of fens and marsties. are shown upon its weather-beaten, moss-grown sides, he lost his balance, and fell overboard, never more to will follow hard upon the arrival of the first viste as proofs of the story. In this hut, whose itt-thatched rise. Help from his companions was not to be looked Woodcocks have shown a fair average as to nuubes roof seems scarcely sufficient to keep of the rain- for, night having covered all around in the gloom of year, and there are yet enough, and to spare, for the drops, and whose misshapen windows, the frames of darkness, and the storm still raging without any to hire hunting and coursing we consider January which are stuffed with an old hat, a wisp of straw, abatement.

peculiarly kind; the hares, especially if a week's and other such ready substitutes for that more costly They were compelled, in their own defence, to se should occur to brace up their sinews, generally rarea luxury, glass, serve not to allow the broad light of cure their little boat, their only means of support, and even greyhound, than at any other period of the com heaven to shine in, but for the breeze to whistle fly from the “pelting of the pitiless storm,” sorrow. The pursuit of the stag is also in its newest gloss." through the chinks, and ventilate the soot-coloured ful, indeed, and the heralds of heart-rending intel-hunting, the most famous, as it is the finest field apartments,-lived the wife of Davy, and three fine ligence to the cabin of their friend, where the wife the scarlet is mounted ; the cry of hounds in every ruddy children; in their faces were the roses of un- of Davy, with her children around her, were offering heard ; whilst the melody of the merry-conéd hort tainted health, and their sturdy, brawny forin's were up the vows and prayers of innocence and affection over 'hill and valley, covert and plain. well suited to the fatigues imposed on them. In to the great God“ who giveth and taketh away." Roach, chub, and pike, may, certainly, be taken

For Anglers, this may also be termed a blank ma the summer season, they assisted their father in all Here was a scene which neither pen nór pencil could then, it is so rare an occurrence to find a favourabled the purposes of his occupation, and, during the in- portray-the intenseness of grief felt: the wife who and unfouled water, at this season of the year, that clement season of winter, were used to carry the pro. has lost a good husband, the children who have lost labour is frequently

greater than the proficie di duce of their father's nets to the neighbouring toiyn, a dear parent-(but his were not sensible of their

pointment far beyond the pleasure of the fisherma for sale. Their condition, however, was far better loss)--can 'alone formh an idea of it. This melanthan the general class of our labouring peasantry, choly catastrophe I merely relate as a prelude to the

METEOROLOGICAL DIARY. and their cabin bore evident marks of that:-maiden scene I saw. His body was discovered 'next morn.

[From the Liverpool Courier.] ray, ling, cod, and other fish, salted and dried, hung ing drifting 'a short distance from where he' met his up all round the ample chimney corner; and, though fate, and brought to that home of which he had so the exterior was so forbidding in its aspect, yet, in: long been the only support. ternally, the hungry traveller would stand a good Round the brow of a hill, in the neighbourhood of chance of not being long without some relief. Davy, his cabin, I was walking, solitarily, when I met a like most men of the sea, loved his can of grog as funeral procession winding slowly on. It was the well as'another, and never felt himself truly happy more remarkable as it was principally composed of but when he charmed his boon companions with adafaring men ; the coffin was borne by four sailors,




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Fine Arts.




[WITH ENGRAVINGS.) Abrigged from an Essay in the Philosophical Transactions.


Por. Figuri %, see page 225.

When we consider the precision with which we com. usly judge whether the eyes of another person are fixed poa ourselves, and the immediateness of our perception, at even a moinentary glance is turned upon us, it is very rprising that the groands of so accurate a judgment are Edistinctly known. Though it may not be possible to nonstrate what these are by experiments on the eyes of ng persons, we may fiod convincing arguments to prove e influence, if it can be shown, in the case of portraits, 1 the same ready decision which we pronounce on the section of the eyes, is founded, in a great measure, on the of parts which, as far as I can learn, have not been sidered as assisting our judgment. Dae night imagine that the circular form of the iris

d be a sufficient criterion of the direction in which an fru Leking, since, when the human eye is looking at us, part is always circular, but cannot appear strictly so

targed in sueh a manner that we view it with any ree of obliquity. But we cannot judge of exact circuwith sufficient precision for this purpose, even when whole circle is fully scen ; and in many cases we see wall a portion of the circunference of ibe iris to dis. aish wlacther it is circular or elliptic. In a portrait,

the isis be drawn truly circular, and consequently the face is pointed downwards, the eyes looking at us of objects, even in the most oblique direction in which the ars so is a direct view, still

, in oblique positions, it must be turned upwards from the position of the face to be seen as an ellipse; and the eyes continue to look which they belong. And if to eyes, so drawn, an upward plane, and, consequently, will seem still to be in a ling

representation can be viewed, are sţill in the same vertical E spectator, though he views them very cobliquely, cast of features be substituted for the former, the eyes with us, exactly as in the front view; seeming, as we move, Es then of a form most decidedly elliptic. seem immediately to look above us.

to turn round with us, froni their first direction, toward we examine tbe eyes of a person opposite to us, we When the turn of a pair of eyes partakes of both incli. any oblique position that we may choose to assume. Edhe Epost perceptible variation in the appearance of his nations, so as to be in a direction laterally upwards, the in consequence of their lateral motion, is an increase alteration produced by changing the position of the face,

In portraits, the phenomena of direction with reference

to the spectator, and corresponding change of apparent decrease of the white parts at the angles of each eye. affords the most striking exemplification of the force of position in space when he moves to either side, depend he central position the two portions are nearly equal. this principle. as may be seen in figs. 1 and 2.

precisely on the same principles. A nose drawn directly this we decide that a person is looking neither right

But the effect thus producible is by no means limited to in froni, with its central line upright, continues directed ket, bet straight forward, in the direction of his nose. the

mere extent of deviation, as a total difference of chabe turn his eyes to one side, we are made

sensible of racter may be given
to the same eyes by due representation right side of the nose is represented, it must appear directed

to the spectator, although viewed obliquely: or, if the hange by a duninution of the white of the eye, by of the other features. A lost look of devout abstraction, ich lese se are able to estimate in what degree they in an uplifted countenance, may be exchanged for an ap

to the right of the spectator in all situations; and eyes that

turn in a due degree from that direction toward the spec. les in tirection from the face to which they belong pearance of inquisitive archness, in the leer of a younger tator, so as to look at him when viewed in front, will conSee their direction, with reference to ourselves, is per- face, turned downwards, and obliquely toward the opposite tinue to do so when viewed obliquely. ly distinct from this. In judging of which, even in side. The under eye-lid, which, in the former position, In any extended drawing, the lines of direction admit of eyes, we are not guided by the

eyes alone, but are conceals a portion of the ball of the eye, from an effect being clearly marked in the relative position of objects e by the position of the enure face. In a portrait this apparently of mere perspective, will, in the latter, seem at different distances; but in portraits, the circumstances

be prssed by experiment. If a pair of eyes be drawn raised with effort, and thus give the appearance of a smile are less distinct, for want of some vişible mark indicating Jeetly, looking at the spectator, unless some touch, be to the same eyes, if supported by corresponding expres the

direction of the eyes. But if any object be represented o suggest ihe turn of the face, the direction of the sion of the rest of the countenance. These instances suf. in front of the picture, so that the centre of one of the egis yague,

and their direction will not appear the ficiently show, that the apparent direction of the eyes, to eyes may appear to be exactly over it, we have then a to all persons. To the same person they may be or from, the spectator, depends upon the balance of two cir- marked line of direction, which, by its permanently ver. appear directed either to him or from hin, by the cumstances combined in the same representation,

namely, tical position, renders the relation of the appearances, in a len of other features strongly

marking that essential ist, The general position of the face presented to the portrait, to the correspopding phenomena in extended unstance, the position of the face.

spectator; and, 2d, The turn of the eyes from that posi- views, complete. le perspective form which correctly represents a certain tion. eyes in one position of the face, cannot be an exact sentation of the same eyes in another ; but in cases of the general perspective of the face in a portrait has upon

With this previous knowledge of the influence which slight obliquity as is usually given to the eyes in a the apparent direction of the eyes, we shall be prepared to

To R. Wheeler, of High Wycomb, for improvements on form of the lide from obliquity is less than the diffe in front of the picture, they follow, and appear to look refrigerators for cooling fluids.-- Dated tlie 22d of Novobservable in the eyes of different persons. Hence, at him in every other direction.

1827.-6 months allowed to enrol specification. of eyes.drawn looking at us, best admit of being

To W.J. Dowding, of Poulshot, Wiltshire, for im. ed from their intended direction by a new position of sition with reference to any other perspective drawing, we

If we consider the effect produced by our change of poprovements in machinery for rollering wool from the cardother features of the face.

To J. Roberts, of Wood-street, Cheapside, and G. inally, looking a little to one side, may be made to jects represented with respect to our elves, and correspond. Upton, of Queen-street, Cheapside, for improvements on

the converse of this may also be shown. Eyes drawn, find a similar permanence of apparent position of the ob ing engine...22d of November - 2 months. lat us by applying other features in a suitable position. ing change of direction with reference to the plane of re: Argand and other lamps.—24th of Nov.-6

months. m of go degrees cannot be produced. If an attempt shall be able, in this case, distinctly to trace its origin in Street, London, for a process of preparing or bleaching ade to carry the experiment beyond reasonable limits, the simplest principles of perspective drawing:

pepper.-26th of November.-6 months. hat the perspective form of the eyes is glaringly ill When two objects are seen on the ground at different dis- To J. Apsey, of John-street, Waterloo-road, Lambeth, d to the rest of the face, the effect is impaired, but tances from us in the same direction, one will appear, and tor an improvement in machinery to be used as a substi

altogether løst. Some persons, much accustomed to must be represented, exactly above the other. The line tute for the crank.-27th of November. - 2 months. sing the human eye, who are in the habit of attending joining them is an upright line on the plane of the picture, To J. Jenour, jun. of Brighton-street, Pancras, for his ately to the shape of the lids, may not feel the full and represents a vertical plane passing through the eye cartridge or case, and method of more advantageously ine perceived by others; but still the change of direc. and these objects. When objects that are at different closing therein shot or other missiles for loathug fire arms.

that is admitted by the generality of those who have elevations are said to be in a line with us, the strict mean.-28th of November.-6 months. bing to warp their judgment, shows how little influ. ing is, that they are so placed that a vertical plane from To T. Bonnor, of Monkwearmouth Shore, Durham, e the eyelids really have in giving apparent direction the eye would pass through them. Now, since the upright merchant, for improvements on safety.lampsunid on poinparison with the more prominent features. line (drawn, or supposed to be drawn, on the plane of the December.—6 months. The same principles which apply to the lateral turn of picture, and representing a vertical plane) will be seen up.. To W. Fawcett, of Liverpool, and M. Clarke, of Ja.

eyes and face, apply also to instances of moderate in right, however far we move to one side, and will continue maica, for improved apparatus for the better manufacture dation of the face upwards or downwards. For, when to represent a vertical plane, it follows that the same set of sugar from tbe canes.-sch of December.-- month.


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Insect in Solid Wood.-We, some time ago, informed

365 is cubed in the following very easy way :Miscellanies. our readers, that the workmen of Mr. Atkinson, cabinet

maker, in Liverpool, in sawing up a log, of hard zebra.

wood, had discovered, in the centre, a large grub or in.

12775 In Paris, on New Year's Day, which is called le Jour sect, which we imperfecıly described. The insect is still

133255 d'Etrennes, parents bestow portions on their children, living, and the phenomenon is, in our opinion, so interest

666125 brothers on their sisters, and husbands make presents tó ing that we are preparing an exact engraving of it, which we shall soon present to our readers, with a more minute

466:"75 their wives. Carriages may be seen rolling through the description of the insect than we gave when we first nostreets with cargoes of bon-bons, souvenirs, and the variety ticed its discovery.

48627125 of et ceteras with which little children and grown-up chil.

885 is thus squared, 1925 dren are bribed into good humour; and here and there

The Fireside. pastry.cooks are to be met with, carrying upon boards In order to employ one part of this life in serious and impor.


13475 enormous temples, pagodas, churches, and playhouses, tant occupations, it is necessary to spend another in merc amusemade of fine four and sugar, and the embellishments ments." —John Locke. Tkere is a time to laugh and a time to weep."-SOLOMON.

14895 which render French pastry so inviting. But there is

How are these operations accounted for? ene street in Paris to which a New Year's Day is a whole

O In our last we intimated that if our readers would year's fortune--that is the Rue des Lombards, where refer to our 6th volume, page 243, they would find an eso how must this be done, I having no other coin

Having occasion to pay for a goose that cost 5 the wholesale confectioners reside ; for in Paris every cellent recreation with cards. We are sorry to have

occa: guineas, and the person of whom I bought it ha vize! trade and profession has its peculiar quarter. Forsioned considerable trouble by misquoting the page, which but half-crown pieces ? several days preceding the first of January, this street is 213. Our readers would do well to make the correction is completely blocked up by carts and waggons laden with a pen, to prevent useless researches.

To Correspondents. with cases of sweetmeats for the provinces. These are of every form and description which the most singular fancy

No. VII.

The PLAGUE IN MANCHESTER.--In consequence of a no could imagine ; bunches of carrots, green peas, boots and


felt called upon to address to our readers last week shoes, lobsters and crabs, hats, books, inusical instruments,

have received a communication from the writer SOLUTIONS TO THE PUZZLES, &c. IN OUR LAST. Plague in Manchester, who observes, that he was surg gridirons, frying-pans, and sauce-pans; all made of sugar,

Another Solution to No. 23.

and hurt at our having called him "capricious." and coloured to imitate reality, and all made with a hol.

I think that I can,

forms us that he has by him the whole of the manual low within to hold the bon bons. The most prevailing

If you wish for a plan

of his romance; but that it requires some correctie devise is what is called a cornet ; that is, a little cone To plant your new grove, send you one ;

revision before he can forward it to us. In a ornamented in different ways, with a bag to draw over

But if it wont do,

he promises us the whole; but we are compelled the large end, and close it up. In these things, the prices

I shall not claim from you,

that he assigns no adequate reason for a procrasti of which vary from one franc (ten-pence) to fifty, the

Permission to see it when done.

which kias so much the appearance of triding

readers, as to justify the expressions we used in this bon-bons are presented by those who choose to be at the

At each side, if you please,

to it. If J. H. had been indisposed, or absent from expense of them ; and by those who do not, they are

Plant three sycamore trees;

he might have intimated as much, and thus bave te only wrapped in a piece of paper; but bon-bons, in some

You may sit 'neath their shade in warm weather ; any suspicion that we had any share in the delas, way or other, must be presented. It would not, perhaps,

And three in the centre;

would behave with all due courtesy to our correspa be an exaggeration to state, that the amount expended

But in order to enter,

but we, also, owe respeet to our friends and reader for presents on New Year's Day in Paris, for sweetmeats

They must be rather closer together.

was natural we should be solicitous to exonerat alone, exceeds 500,000 francs, or £20,000 sterling. Jew

I have placed, as you'll see,

from the suspicion of being capricious, or disse ellery is also sold to a very large amount; and the fancy

A dot where each tree

those to whom it is our pride and pleasure to the articles exported in the first week in the year, to England Should stand.-Now may not I claim

our obligations. The verses which accompanied tas and other countries, is computed at one fourth of the sale

The permission you granted,

of J. H. are reserved for our next. during the twelve months.

And when your grove's planted,

Lares is informed that the following note was, este In Paris it is by no means uncommon for a man of 8,000 Occasionally visit the same.

addressed to him in the Mercury, but was withdrar or 10,000 francs a year to make presents on New Year's


want of room:-“ Lares is informed, that we fear the Day which cost a fifteenth part of his income. No person

establishment will not admit of any offer wart

26. Because it is herring (her ring.) able to give, must, on this day, pay la visit empty handed.

ceptance. If he would himself make some specie

27. Because she is Mersey full ( merciful.) Every body accepts, and every man gives according to

posal, we could give a more definite answer." the means which he possesses. Females alone are excepted

28. Because it is a corporation (corporation. )

One of our correspondents, who has sent us a charade

29. Brace. from the charge of giving. A pretty woman, respectably 30. Carnation.

word candle, seems to have forgotten that del is not connected, may reckon her new year's present at some

31. Murmur. thing considerable. Gowns, jewellery, gloves stockings,

32. Palais.

H.W. J.'s two favours have been duly received, and and artificial flowers, fill her drawing-room ; for in Paris

33. Tour.

disposed of according to uniform custom. This este it is a custom to display all the gifts, in order to excite emulation, and to obtain as much as possible. At the pa.

34. Compère, commère.

correspondent will find one of his former pieces in

ceding page. lace the New Year's Day is a complete jour de fete. Every


SUPPLEMENTAL SHEET.-- Next week, or the following branch of the Royal Family is then expected to make hand.

it is our intention to present our readers with another some presents to the King. For the six months preceding

tuitous supplement, in order that they may be no les

CONUNDRUMS. January, 1824, the female branches were busily occupied in preparing presents of their own manufacture, which would

35. Great K, little k, and k in a merry mood ?

the Music, or by the insertion of those articles wdi

occasionally copy from the Mercury. fill at least two common sized waggons. The Duchess de

36. Who was that scriptural king whose name comprises Sonnet OF AN IMPROVISATORE.-One of our corresport Berri painted an entire room of japanned pannels to be set a father calling his son and the son's answer ?

has succeeded in the very difficult task of giving an a up in the palace; and the Duchess of Orleans prepared an 37. What was the name of the person buried beneath version of the Italian sonnet, which we re-published elegant screen. An English gentleman, who was admitted the stone containing the following inscription ?

the Winter's Wreath, in the Kaleidoscope of Dec. $ suddenly into the presence of the Duchess de Berri two

So did he live, and so did he die;

the peculiar construction of the original schnet is months before, found her, and three of her maids of ho.

So, so! did he so? So let him lie.

dered, we think our correspondent has acquitted bi rour, lying on the carpet, painting the legs of a set of 38. There is a certain word in the English language, of very cleverly. chairs, which were intended for the King. The day three syllables, containing only four letters, three of which Schiller's Gaost Seep. In order to make room for commences with the Parisians at an early hour, by the are vowels.

three long, and, in our opinion, very interesting articl interchange of their visits and bon-bons. The nearest

39. There is another word, in very common use, espe. have postponed the conclusion of the Ghost Seer unti relations are visited first, until the furthest in blood cially in epistolary correspondence, of only two syllables, week, when it will be brought to a termination. have had their calls; then friends and acquaintances. and yet contuining five letters, four of which are vowels. The conflict to anticipate each other's call occasions the

TALES OF A GRANDFATHER.--We shall next week gire most agreeable and whimsical scenes among these profi.

40. My first's the guard of peasant's lowly cot;

further specimens of this work. cients in polite attentions. In these visits, and in gossip.

And of my next is happiness the lot;

Varieti.-We shall have much pleasure in giving a ing at the confectioners' shops, which are the great lounge

My whole a harmless form remains,

our next to the excellent lines on Variety, by our for the occasion, the norning of New Year's Day is passed;

of iron laws and slavery's chains.

correspondent, W. P. from whom we shall be glad a dinner is given by some member of the family to all the

further, without the formality of paying the postage. rest, and the evening concludes, like Christmas Day, with


An Antiquarian is informed that the article he reconut cards, dancing, or any other amusement that may be pre

is already on our file, waiting its turn for inserton. ferred. One of the chief attractions to a foreigner in Paris Question from Bonnycastle's Arithmetic. Music. We have in reserve several pieces of music, is the exhibition, which opens there on New Year's Day, Multiply loft. 4in. 5pts. by 5ft. 8in. 6pts. decimally, 60 which, we believe, we have acknowledged. of the finest specimens of the Scyrus china, manufactured that the result may be the exact answer, which is 59ft. at dhe royal establishment, in the neighbourhood of Ver. 2in. 2° 6 6”, and the decimals not to exceed 8 places Printed, published, and sold, every Tuesday, by E. SA sailles, during the preceding year.--Every Day Book. from the separating point.

and Co., Clarendon-buildings, Lord-street.


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fla familiar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, MEN and MaxxERS, ANUSEMENT, elegant EXTRACTS, POETRY, ANECDOTES, BIOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, the DRANA, Arts and Sciences, Wit and SATIRE, FASHIONS, NATURAL HISTORY, &c. forming a handsome ANXUAL VOLUME, with an INDEX and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this work from London through their respective Book sellers.


No. 394. Vol. VII.


Scientific Notices.

shall continue to be a railroad, or a road formed off of a martyr. At his call, the Knights of St. John mprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve equally unyielding materials. For, suppose O P to assembled from all parts of Europe, bringing with

in Science or art; including, occasionally, sin- yield to the pressure of M N, and let N sink to n, and Italy. Among them was the Viscount D’Aubuspalar Medical Cases; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi. then m n represents the wheel so sunk-whose centre

son, brother of the Grand Master. The brothers sophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical is q, and q r the direction of the propelling power, were descended from Renaud D'Aubusson, brother Puedemena, or singular Facts in Natural History; Vegetation, &c. ; Antiquities, &c.

capable of drawing the wheel along O P, but not of Turpin, who was Bishop of Limoges in the year

along o p, (which, of course, follows.) At the point S, 898. Louis de Craon, Scaligero della Scala, and STEAM-CARRIAGES ON ROADS OF THE COMMON where the periphery of the sunk-wheel touches P, others whose names were spurs to their valour, CONSTRUCTION.

joined this illustrious company. The Turks, on the join at right angles to o P, then S p represents the other hand, were directed by Misach Palæologus, of

resisting power of the hole which the wheel makes the imperial family of Constantinople, who had TO TBE EDITOR.

for itself in the yielding material ;-join q S, and at risen by apostacy to the rank of first Pacha of the -Thinking you may not have seen the an

Turkish monarchy. S join S T at right angles to qs then S T represents ed diagram, I have thought proper to extract it the inclination of the plane on which the wheel must

The force destined to besiege Rhodes was comna London paper, as the subject has, I believe,

posed of one hundred and sixty large vessels, and travel to get out of the hole, and before it can get on one hundred thousand troops. "In May, 1481, the ited no small degree of interest in this town. It

OP: now, before the wheel can travel on the in- Turks commenced the siege, opening their first communicated to the editor of the Sunday Times, clined plane S T, the propelling power must take the battery against Fort St. Nicholas, which was es, person of the name of Geo. Bruges, 14, Baker. Bagnigge Wells, “in pity,” as he says, “to

direction 9 f, parallel to St. Hence the propelling teemed the key of the town of Rhodes. The Grand unfortunate persons now wasting their time and power must, on a hard road, take the direction Q R; the breach ; his helmet was knocked off by a stone mance in silly speculations; and by which to and, on a soft road q f.

he took a soldier's hat, and continued to fight with

Now, as all inanimate power acts always uniformly desperation, till the Janizaries, after suffering imrustrate, mathematically, that no steam-carriage possibly travel except on railroads, or roads formed in one direction—and it has been shown that, in case mense loss, were obliged to retreat. The Turkish equally unyielding materials.” He concludes

of steam-carriages, a power is required to act accord- general then resorted to other measures, and directed demonstration by stating, he is aware that to his ing as circumstances may demand, in more directions his artillery against the quarter of the Jews, where tory may be opposed what seems to be the evidence than one-some contrivance must be discovered to set non had made considerable impression, he found, 10 fuets; and that it will, doubtless, be asserted, that aside the laws of inanimate matter, before a steam- his dismay, that D’Aubusson had built'a second wall im-carriages have actually travelled on other than carriage can possibly travel on other than railroads, or behind the former, of stronger and better materials.

Thus foiled a second time, he attempted, by emisroads. To this he replies, that no well authen- roads constructed of equally unyielding materials. ted instance can be produced of a steam-carriage N. B.—The same diagram readily explains the saries, to poison the Grand Master, but the plot was Hlling on a road where the materials have been reason why wheels sunk to a certain depth do, when people. He then returned to the plan of attacking a laid for the purpose of making a new, or mend acted on by a given power, continue to revolve, with the fort of St. Nicholas. This fort was separated An old road; and until this be done, he asserts out obtaining a progressive motion ; for, suppose the from the Turkish camp by a narrow channel. The This theory will remain unshaken.-I am, Sir, wheel m n sunk to n, then S P will represent the Pacha built a bridge of boats, and one of his soldiers

diving a considerable depth, fastened an anchor to respectfully, S. J. quantity and direction of the power which impedes

a rock under water, close to the fort, and passing a ringfield, January 2d, 1828.

the progressive motion of the wheel. Now let 15 cable through the ring of the anchor, hoped to draw

represent the power acting on mn at q, then it is the bridge of boats to the wall. But an English M

plain that m n, as a wheel put in motion, must re- sailor, of the name of Gervas Roger, who perceived volve in some direction: if it be impeded by a resist the stratagem of the Turk, dived in his turn under ing power greater than the propelling power, as it! water, and detached the cable. The Turks, thus

baffled in their stratagem, towed their bridge, by cannot revolve with a progressive motion, it must means of a number of boats, close to the fort. They revolve with a motion not progressive or retrograde; began the attack during the night, and attempted to but if the propelling and resisting powers be equal, scale the wall, but the fire of the Christians, directed then will the wheel move with neither a progressive by the sound, was exceedingly destructive. The few

who reached the top of the wall were all slain, nor retrograde, but a stationary revolution.

After several repulses, the Turks still renewed the

assault; the whole of the night passed amidst the P The Bouquet.

noise of artillery, the confused voices of the assail

ants, the cries of the wounded, and the explosions Et M N be the wheel of the steam-carriage, tra

I have here only made a nosegay of culled powers, and have caused by the fire-ships of the Grand Master. When

brought nothing of my own but the thread that ties them." day at length appeared, the cannon from the fort ng on the road O P; and let Q R be the pro.

broke the bridge, and all who were on it were ng power, acting at right angles to the spoke Q N;

THE SIEGE OF RHODES, BY MAHOMET. drowned. The Turks, in despair, were obliged to plain that the wheel M N will revolve on the

retire, with the loss of numbers of their best and O P only when Q R is parallel to 0 P, and dis- From Lord John Russel's recently published work,—a Discourse bravest soldiers. After some fresh attacks, the Pacha

on the Establishment of the Turks in Europe. from it by a space equal to Q N. Now Q R

tried the way of negotiation, and proposed to the

besieged an honourable capitulation. Many of the Be parallel to N P, and distant from it by a space The island was in possession of the Knights of knights, seeing the immense force of the enemy,

to Q N only when N P is a straight line. Now St. John of Jerusalem ; on the approach of danger were inclined to listen to terms, and even blamed will continue to be a straight line only when they assembled in council, and agreed to pay implicit the Grand Master for his obstinacy; but D'Aubusshall continue to support, without yielding to, the obedience to their Grand Master, D'Aubusson, who son, using the absolute power with which he had vore of M N; or, in other words, so long as 0 p joined to the wisdom ifla prudent commander, the been invested, called the knights together, and said,


Gentlemen, if any one of you does not think him

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