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ercise! The Germans more closely resemble the English auction along with the arm-chairs of the members of the them by the system of Broussais, think themselges me than any other nation. Pleased am I, then, Sir, that acting committee, and the rostrum of the orators. This fortunate that some royal caprice has not again brough Professor Voelker is coming amongst us to teach this patroness represented Opportunity; a Roman allegorical | long beards into fashion. grand moral lesson (and let not divines refuse to hear it) divinity, who presided over the moment most favourable

FINIS. -weakness of body induces weakness of mind-weakness to the success of an enterprise. She had the figure of a and superstition of mind induces weakness of body. Exer- young female, with one foot in the air, the other resting

To Correspondents. cise is the safety-valve of both, and, with Massinger, we upon a wheel; bearing a razor in one hand, and a veil in may say of the gymnastic, “ His toil is his delight ; and the other. This same divinity was painted in fresco on to complain of weariness would show as poorly in him as the ceiling; but, instead of having a razor in her hand, sbe ERRATUM In the article "Rise, Greatness, and Deelle if a general should grieve for a wound, received upon his was represented as running swiftly along the edge of one,

ewiftly along the edge of one. l of Artists in Hair," in our publication of the 230 ultimo forehead or his breast, after a glorious victory” Not to which, according to the archaiology of the perruquiers, was 136, first column, 35th line, instead of "Prince Mettern trespass too much on your columns, I shall resume the more agreeable to the Greek tradition. However this may then," read “the Metternich of that day." subject in another note. be, both figures appeared with a razor, which was sufficient

TH: MONDAY'S PAPER. The editor of this paper fancien ! to determine the choice of the members of the art. The

has made a grand discovery this morning. We have d CHESS QUERY.

banner of the corporation had disappeared some years be. ready disclaimed the authorship of the Dirge whieb fore, during the Vandalic devastation of the uniformists mistook for fine writing. We never affected to We have not been able to arrive at any certainty with

that we were ignorant of the plan that was laid to TO THE EDITOR.

his judgment to the test. On the contrary, we entire SIR,_The admirable and universally.esteemed game of regard to what has befallen it; and its fate, to this day. I

approved, and still approve, of the scheme, althour

neither wrote the verses nor forwarded the packet chess, so justly considered as such in your excellent paper. I remains as impenetrable as that of the Oriflamme, thel may, for the immense variety, amusement, and (I think I sao Cand think 1 sacred banner of the ancient kings of France. We sin the enraged editor. Wo said that we PREPARED the pa

for him, and so we did; but we did not say we wrote may add) instruction, which it contains, be compared to cerely deplore a loss so much to be regretted ; but after

If we had said so, many of our friends would have kno! nothing more justly than your Kaleidoscope. Amongst the the miraculous re-appearance of the holy vial for the con

that it was not the fact. We never before heard ta the many varieties of which chess is capable, there is a secration of Charles the Tenth, we do not despair of again

& person who prepared a communication was necessar

tho writer, as this wiseacre would persuade his reada particular one for which I have in vain looked through seeing this glorious standard of the perruquiers, if the

One of his correspondents lately prepared a piece for your Ruleidoscope, and to the occurrence of which I was peruque should ever again be brought into vogue, and!

about the Damask Rose, but he did not write it. This an actual spectator a few months since. It was as follows: resume its place in the train of things which came back

sensitive editor, whose affectation is truly laugbable, A and B were in the midst of a game. A had all his with the restored Bourbons. It will, undoubtedly, interest

nothing about his mutilation of some lines of ours, alte pieces remaining except his black bishop, (I mean that the reader to learn what this banner, of famous memory. I

the number of lines, spoiling the point, and then purt

Liverpool Mercury at the foot-nor does he say one * bishop which moved on the black squares) B had lost a represented ; let him know then, that, on a ground of royal

about fabricating a stupid speech to put into the mouth great many of his pieces. Now it so happened that A bad purple silk, was a coat of arms Or, with seven stars argent)

& elever man who was politically opposed to him. brought forward one of bis pawns to the farthest row, when in the field; these seven stars signifying the constellation

upon such affectation !" It has been suggested, that it he had, of course, the privilege of redeeming any lost piece, situated near the tail of the Lion, and called the Hair of|

be any thing in the shape of a GENTLEMAN connected but the pawn arrived at the furthest row on a white square. Berenice, from a fable invented by Conon, the astronomer, I

this scurrilous journal. it would be desirable to brinz

to light. We will thank any correspondent to enlight Query.-Could A recal his black bishop, which, if re-who, to calm the grief of Ptolemy Evergetes on not finding |

us on this point, for our future guidance. called, must take the place of the pawn on the white square, the hair which his wife had sacrificed to him, in the tem-1 and then A would have two white bishops, or two bishop) ple, pretended that it had been carried to heaven, and Music.In the next Kaleidoscope it is our intention to la moving on white squares ?

duco a celebrated minuet of Mozart, as very cleverly Yours, &c. formed into a constellation.

ranged for the piano-forte, with six variations, South Shtelds, Nov. 6, 1827.

CHECKMATE. | After the denouement of the tragedy of Napoleon, when townsman, Mr. James Walker.,

the Bourbons re-imported the wreck of the emigrant party, POSITIONS AT DRAUGHTS. T. R., of Alnwick, suggests by

their anti-national train was closed by a troop of pertu. sitions which we do not find very conclusive as to the Tales, Romances, &c. quiers, who, allured by the odour of the happy windfall minations. The intended winner should forcebisadrese

which is not absolutely the case in the positions belee that presented itself, calculated upon enjoying a good THE RISE, GREATNESS, AND DECLINE OF ARTISTS share of the royal cake. But the two orders of nobility,

If our correspondent can show that the white , IN HAIR.

force, win, in the game wherein black has only w preserving equal rights by the charter which Louis the

thrice, and the white twice, he will throw & De AN HISTORICAL PRAGMENT, SERVING TO COMPLETE

Eighteenth would have been very willing to withhold, had | upon the subject. • IMPORTANT ILLUSTRATIONS.

he known how to dispense with such a passport, mutually | PAUL CUFFER.--In compliance with repeated Bollcltation

made some accommodatory concessions, the better to share bave re-printed, from the original, the memoir of (Concluded from page 136.),

between them, like thieves in a fair, the august favours of worthy, intelligent, and enterprising African; tugi The success of the French Republic becoming more the new court. Amongst the concessions made by the

with a portrait, which we are assured is a very email

semblance. ancient nobility were, the peruque, powder, and ailes de assured, the disconsolate perruquiers were reduced to

THE WINTER WRATH.We shall next week gelect an B pigeon, in order that they might accommodate themselves, extremities, wlien Bonaparte, suddenly throwing aside

from this interesting domestic repository, as we proen in some degree, to the taste of a nation long accustomed the mask of equality, restored at once the monarchical

in our publication of November 8, in which we introds to a simple and uniform toilette, such as its military man Miss Jane Roscoe's verses addressed to Nature. The system, solely for his own benefit. However, although

ners required. However, the most talented of the emigrant tion we have in contemplation is rather longer than the newly-made Monarch soon collected in the Tuileries friseurs, we speak of those wbo could read, write, or

have been compatible with our limits this week, unle the handful of the ancient noblesse who had survived the dance a little,--had established themselves as professors in

had excluded other articles, to the Insertion of what reign of terror, in order that they might serve as a model

were in some measure pledged. foreign countries, where, from father to son, they still to the new batch of imperial nobility, the latter did not pursue that trade ; these, peaceably continuing to teach

THE CITY OF THE DEMONS Is given at length in our pro implicitly adopt the ancient costume. Napoleon, more

publication. to otbers what they had need learn themselves, have over, wore his hair short, à l'antique,the better to ape escaped tbe disappointment which awaited their brethren

Tas SHELTER.We have not declined this composition the Roman Kmperors; and this was amply sufficient to

soi-disant CLOWN; but It must be submitted to some cury in France; and they will probably continue their new tion previously to insertion. There are occasional DS proscribe the peruque and powdered ringlets, not only

mystery as long as they shall find dupes to take advantage such as the following, which betray haste, or 8 defective amongst his courtiers, but even amongst all his cousins,

on the part of our correspondent: the Emperors and Kings of the Continent. The per.

" They plac'd me by the reside,' ruquiers alone, then, being excluded from the general recal | To resume,--- We will say, in a few words, that the per

This we have changed to “They plac'd me by the of all the personages, who could give to the new court the ruquiers, politically speaking, are extinct, inasmuch as

fireside," as the reader must else make " Breinto 3 o became incorporated, the peruque remains blasted by that reprobation which lable. We shall probably publish the piece in our next. by degrees, with the middle classes of the nation, and the revolution still causes to be felt, and that powdered

auu wa powuerca THE MYSTERIOUS MANUSCRIPT (from Ryley's entertaining 4 soon exchanged the comb and scissors for the bayonet and toupeis, and ases de pigeon, are now nothing more than nerant in Scotland) Is reserved for our next. the sword. From this epoch we date the almost entire the powerless standards, around which still rally some few | We have to acknowledge evrinction of the transcendent celebrity of the perruquiers. incorrigible ultras, derided alike at court and among the lena B.-G.P.W.X. Y. 2.-S. The hall where the chief coiffeurs had been accustomed people.

tomed people. The coiffeurs, properly so called, are restricted
The coiffeurs, properly so called, are restricted ,

. 6. R's communication is not exactly suitable to such as to assemble, once a month, to discuss the interests of their to the superintendence of the heads of the fair sex, and to lose the Kat community, was abandoned for ever; their patroness, the application of the curling-tongs to the ridiculous already multilated by the sans.culottes, who had mistaken ringlets of a few vaporous dandies.

Printed, published, and sold, cuery Tuesday, by B. SMIT her for a saint, was cast from her pedestal, to be sold by! And the barbers, ruined by the coup de grace given to and Co., Clarendon.buildings, South John-stresla

th

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The famlilar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, MEN and MANNERS, AMUSEMENT, elégant EXTRACTS, POETRY, AN ECDOTES, BIOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, the DRAMA, ARTS and SCIENCES, Wit and SATIRE, Fashions, NATURAL HISTORY, &c. forming

bandsone ANNUAL VOLUME, with an INDEX and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this work from London through their respective Booksellers.

No. 386.– Vol. VIII.

TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 1827.

Price 3d.

O which

Scientific Notices.

those who have inspected it, and seen it in operation, the brightest gas-lamp at the distance of five hundred can require no further explanation.

yards. This is an insuperable objection to which all telemaprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve

mph graphic communication is subject ; 'and the only substitute Dents in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin. Before we proceed to the history of the telegraph grapor

for visual transmission of signals is auricular communicaular Medical Cases; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi to which we have just adverted, we shall transcribe: ical. Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical the following prefatory article, which appeared in 1

tion, which is necessarily tedious and imperfect. Phenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History; the last Mercury.-Edit. Kal.

TO THE EDITOR. getation, &c.; Antiquities, &c.

SIR,-It appears to me to be a great drawback to the

utility of the telegraphic communication, lately esta

he lished between Holyhead and Liverpool, that, in foggy TELEGRAPHIC SIGNALS BY DAY & NIGHT.) The establishment of telegraphic communications be

| weather, the signals are not visible, and, consequently, tween Holyhead and Liverpool forms an era in the history during such times the telegraph is prevented from being

of the town, and will hand down the name of Lieutenant used. This I should think a subject of sufficient impor. Uthough our Encyclopædias and other scientific

Watson to posterity as a public-spirited, and, we hope, tance for the consideration of practical men. It is very is have long since made the public well acquaint

not unrequited benefactor of the town. The gratification Pr

he ratification probable that something might be devised fully to insure a rith the principle and the properties of the tele-ve

communication in all weathers, and during the night as we experience 10 the contemplation of this expeditious well as the day. The following appears to me a plan ph, we trust that it will not be unacceptable to mode of conveying intelligence is increased by the reflec- which, in want of a better, might answer the purpose: readers of the Kaleidoscope to have laid before tion, that the benefit we derive from the plan is unaccom Twenty-five lamps (made peculiarly for the purpose, with in one article, the various information on the panied by animal suffering ;- and this circumstance, in

large reflectors, such as are used at lighthouses) would

answer to the twenty-five letters of the alphabet, excluding lect which is to be met with in different scien- the estimation of every considerate man, greatly enhances

the w; and with a little machinery to effect the raising of eworks which have treated on telegraphic com- the value of the establishment, for which we are indebted

any number of them to a visible point of the telegraphic Lication to the enterprise of Lieutenant Watson..

tower from a place beneath, where they would be hidden,

might communicate as fast as the present method. For some weeks since Lieut. Watson, the ingenioas) Owing to our proximity to the sea, fogs, such as those

instance, to report the ship Napoleon having passed Rector of the Holyhead and Liverpool telegraphs, we have recently experienced, will, of course, often inter

Holyhead, the order of raising the lamps, with the num'cept our telegraphic communications; but the same cause ber of them used each time, would be as follows :-14, ich have just commenced operations, politely pre- cep

frequently renders the ordinary Bidston signals unavailing. 1, 16, 15, 12, 5, 15, 14, and if done by the means before red us with some lithographic plates illustrative"

The correspondent, whose letter we shall presently insert, mentioned, would not take up more time than the present bis telegraphic apparatus; and we fully expected le | fancies that he has, in some degree, obviated the objection

on method, Six pieces of machinery, to be separately raised

and lowered, would conveniently serve for the whole h. Khi to which we have just adverted; but our opinion is, that, twenty-five lamps. Three of the pieces should have five dieet, which we intended to review in the Kaleido although the plan he proposes might answer very well in lamps each, one piece four lamps, one three lamps, one

ärailing ourselves of the same opportunity to the night, when a thick fog does not intervene, it would be two lamps, and one should have one lamp. To raise ninea pretty much at large into the general subject of little or no use on a foggy day. Fogs in our climate are

teen lamps (or make the signal S) the three pieces having

five lamps each, and the one having four lamps, would be telegraphic and other modes of communication sometimes so dense, that a mariner cannot discern the ad.

moved. 'To raise seven lamps (or make the signal G) one pted by the ancients and moderns. jacent lighthouses; sometimes he cannot see from stem to

piece having five lamps, and the one having two lamps, he lithographic plates of Lieut. Watson's tele-stern; and at other times the sun itself, brighter than a |

would be moved, &c. thousand gas-lights, is but dimly seen, if at all discerned. I believe that any species of intelligence, commonly ke apparatus naturally led us to be conclusion, Under such circumstances artificial light, however concen. communicated by telegraph at present, might be sent by the projector was about to publish something trated, would be utterly useless. Still the suggestion of

the twenty-five lamps, and be visible during nearly all Her respecting his plans; and it has been owing our correspondent, as applicable to nocturnal communi. I be made to this plan on the score of the number of lamps

weathers. Nor do I think that any fair objection could circumstance alone that we have not, unications, is worth the consideration of our townsmen, and not being sufficiently distinguishable, if the lamps on the taken up a subject, to which our attention was of the intelligent and respectable projector of our new different pieces were disposed thus Tcularly directed, since we were favoured with telegraphic establishment.

five 0 four

three o baimens of the lithographic plates. The Greeks were very ingenious in the use of signals by

two 00 0 0

0 0 The editor of the Tuesday's paper has anticipated night, and could carry on communications on any subject for this way of setting them appears to be completely han editorial article on the subject, in which helby means of flambeaux. Dr. Beattie, in one of his distinct. Portable gas might be used to light the lamps.

Yours, &c. 7-16-16, 1, 24, 14, 5. I brought into one view much of the scattered works, says that Clytemnestra, at Argos, received the

news of the taking of Troy by signals of fire, as described

the taking of Trov by signals of fire ne described Liverpool, Nov. 12, 1827. formation respecting telegraphs, which the reader by Æschylus, in the tragedy of Agamemnon. These sig. Bes to refer him to our prefatory remarks.-Edits. Merc.

Our correspondent is mistaken in this opinion; and we ald not have obtained without considerable per-1.

nals might, however, have been merely the ordinary fire Bce and expenditure of time. The article is beacons, similar to those once so common in this country. We shall now proceed to transcribe the following nomplete, and so likely to suit the taste of our! In the 8th volume of Rollin's Ancient History tbere is article, from the Tuesday's paper, together with the ders that we shall appropriate the whole, with a chapter of about a dozen pages, entitled, “ Digres- I description of Lieut. Watson's telegraph. Its length Tecknowledgment, in preference to incurring the sion of Polybius on the Signals made by Fire.” It is

18 will oblige us to divide it into two portions, reserving tressary drudgery of original collation. illustrated by an engraved representation of the method of

'\the latter for the next Kaleidoscope. We shall, in imitation of our contemporary, intro communication. If our correspondent is inclined to directo Na vignette of Lord George Murray's telegraph,

his further attention to the subject of night signals, he may

find ample materials in all the Encyclopædias, and also in of int Kragh it is more for the sake of embellishment

One of these important instruments for the transmission laterials in all the Encyclopædias, and also in of intelligence having been established in this town, in

Hooper's Rational Recreations; but he may despair of connexion with a line of telegraphs along the coast to of illustration; as almost all our readers must

ever transmitting light through the dense fogs which visit Holyhead, we are persuaded that our readers will be graTe seen the beautiful large working model of this

our island. At this moment (Tuesday morning, eight lified by a short sketch of the history of telegraphs, and by ted here a few years since, lo slocks the weather is so extremely hazy that we cannot la description of the manner in which the machine is con. her by Phillipstall or some other ingenious ma- discern one of the one light postewhich is not 6 word. I structed and worked. The subject is, on many accounts, Rist. It was very much admired at the time; from the place where we are sitting ; and we believe that, from its being beyond comparison the most rapid mode of

highly interesting :—from the recent date of the invention, it rendered the system so extremely simple, that if it were night, and equally foggy, we could not discern transmitting information which has ever been employed,

SE

DHL

from the very important ends it may often answer, and sent the alphabet, capable of being varied ten thousand | These six shutters move on axes, and when turned edes from the probability there seems to be that further im- ways. He also states that “ none but the two extreme ways to the spectator, as is the case with shutter 6. the provements may render this instrument available to a very correspondents shall be able to discover the infor

correspondents shall be able to discover the information are invisible at a distance. The letters, figures, &c. are is great extent for private as well as public purposes. conveyed.” He calculates that the same character might dicated by the shutters being opened or closed, that is, edge

It is obvious that the telegraph is the most rapid means be seen at Paris the minute after it was represented in ways, or presented broadside to the view. This telegrar of communication which man can ever hope to possess. It London. His plan consisted in having boards of different is capable of making 63 separate and distinct signal, 21 not only outstrips the wind, but leaves far behind even the shapes, squares, triangular, &c. answering to the several of which stand for the letters of the alphabet, Gjerd aërial waves of sound. It conveys intelligence from bill letters of the alphabet, hung up in a large square frame being omitted) 10 for the Arabic numerals, 1, 2, 3, &c to bill, and from promontory to promontory, as swift as divided into four compartments. Each of these pieces of the o, and the rest for the words most in use, as admiral, light itself; and though the necessity of observing and re- wood represented a certain letter, according to the com- tain, ship of the tine, frigate, arrived, sailed, harbour, & peating the signal at every interval of eight or ten miles partment in which it was hung. Shortly after this time, or, when used to communicate the operations of armies, t occasions some delay, yet, under favourable circumstances, M. Amontons, of the Royal Academy of Paris, published words, general, regiment, camp, &c. Lines of telegrapi a single signal, communicating an important fact, has been a similar project; and by means of the scientific works in on this principle were established from London to Park transmitted at the astonishing speed of a hundred and forty, which both these inventions appeared, they must have been mouth, Plymouth, Deal, Yarmouth, &c. The plan va four miles in a minute. Sound travels at the rate of 1142 known to the learned over all Europe.

to spell all the communications by means of the alphabet feet in a second, which is thirteen miles in a minute; a Nevertheless it was not till more than a century after but the stenographical principle was adopted, of putti cannon ball passes through the air with the velocity of a this period, that any attempt was made to reduce the in-only the consonants, with the initial and final vowels, o mile in three seconds, or tronty miles in a minute ; and the vention to practice. In the year 1794, M. Chappe in occasionally, one in the middle of the word, as Aguas, fiercest hurricane which sweeps the Antilles does not exceed vented a telegraph, for communicating between the Con- for Agamemnon: Inoncble, for Invincible, &c. the rate of two miles in a minute. In speed, therefore, the vention at Paris and the French army in Holland. The words, as the, of, to, &c. were frequently omitted; and telegraph is only surpassed by the sun-beam, which needs French were at that time engaged in the seige of Lisle, news compressed into as few words as possible. It is of a no relays, and is never exhausted by distance.

and a line of telegraphs having been erected along the consequence, on this plan, to place the most importa But as simplicity of form and movement is indispen- heights, the orders of the Convention were transmitted to words first, owing to the suddenness with which fogs som sible to the telegraph, which is to be visible at a great the army in two minutes, and intelligence received of mi- times come on in the midst of an operation. A curia distance, it may seem unfitted to convey more than a few litary operations in the same length of time. The follow. illustration of this is given. During the war, the London very simple messages. This, however, is not the case. Few ing figures represent the telegraph of M. Chappe; figure legraph received from Portsmouth, one morning, the war as the movements of the machine are, they are capable of a shows the machine at rest, and figure b represents it in -" Wellington de fealed” when a fog rendered ther expressing with certainty many thousands of different words operation :

of the message invisible. Great suspense and alarm pe and sentences. As the twenty-six letters of the alphabet

THE FRENCH TELEGRAPH.

vạiled through the day, till, on the clearing of the atm compose all the words of nearly all the languages in Europe,

phere in the evening, the whole message was receive the movements of the telegraphs may be varied, and their

Wellington defeated the French,&c. It would signification extended, to an equal degree. Nor is it neces.

been better—"'Wellington has defeated," or, "F sary to resort to the comparatively slow process of spelling

were defeated.The six-shutter telegraph was aband the communications. A vocabulary may be composed,

on its being proved that the arms of the semaphore which renders it as easy to transmit words and sentences as

much more distinctly seen at a distance, and in hazy letters; and further improvements may yet be made in this

(ther, than the shutters of the telegraph. This was al department, to an almost undefinite extent.

the subject of several experiments, the uniform reset The greatest impediment to telegraphic communications

which was, that the semaphore was better seen than is mist, which, by intercepting vision, is an absolute bar

old telegraph. to the transmission of intelligence by this mode. Dark. The machine, as will be seen from the figures, consists In 1807 Capt. (now Col.) Pasley published a plan el ness alone need not be an impediment, as various plans in an upright post, with a moveable bar of wood on the instrument, which he called a polygrammatic tekem have been suggested, which seem quite feasible, for the top, and at each end an arm capable of being drawn, by and which consisted in two arms fixed on the top of a construction of night telegraphs; but the occasions are so strings and pulleys, into many different positions. It and turning on a pivot. He afterwards proposed 0 few, in which it is of any moment to transmit message's so admits of a very great number of positions and combi- tiply its powers, by having four poles, with two arms esc rapidly during the night, that it has not been thought nations, but the objection is made to it that its move and finally he suggested the placing of three paits de worth while to try the experiment on a large scale. ments are too complicated to be rapidly and correctly on one pole. This last plan comes extremely netek

The word Telegraph signifies, literally, to write at a executed, unless by persons of great experience. Another of telegraph adopted by Lieut. Watson in the Late distance. But the name of Semaphore appears to indicate kind of telegraph has been invented in France, which has and Holyhead line, and which will be explained here the real nature of the machine better, being composed of three arms placed in three different parts of an upright Lieutenant-Colonel Macdonald paid great attempt two words, signifying to bear or convey. The machine pole or beam of wood, but it has not superseded the old the subject of telegraphs, and published his sporting rather conveys signs or signals, than writes. The latter one, which is obvious to every visiter of Paris on the height in 1808. He preferred the shutter-telegraph, and word has been more employed lately, but with a distinction of Montmartre.

proposed to make the number of shutters thirteen, of which we do not see the reason. The instrument made! Although the French were the tirst to reduce the tele- of six : but this would greatly increase the indista with shutters, which was employed by Government till graph to practice, the subject had not enterely slept in which was the fault of the old Admiralty Telegrape the end of the war, is still called a Telegraph ; but the England since the project of Dr. Hooke. In 1784, Mr. has the merit of strongly urging the abandonment machine which has superseded the former, and which Richard Lovel Edgeworth proposed a numerical tele spelling system, and the adoption of the numerical makes signs by bars of wood placed in certain positions, graph, 'consisting of four upright posts, with a wedge or in connexion with a dictionary of words; the later is called a Semaphore. Some of these machines, and the cone moveable on a pivot at the top of each. This tele- would admit of many thousand words being convey Liverpool one amongst the rest, are called Semaphoric graph might be used either alphabetically or numerically, the machine, in a manner which we shall hereafter all Telegraphs, which is a tautology. Those who adopted and the letters or figures were indicated by the positions of As he proposes three rows of shutters, his plan enah this term have probably preferred the word semophore the wedges; but the instrument was at once ioo compli- to express three figures at once; one signifying but as the more correct, but have been induced to add telecated and too indistinct for distant vision. The French another tens, and another units: this advantage is on graph as the more generally understood.

invention was brought to England by way of Frankfort, in Lieutenant Watson's plan, by means of the sea HISTORY OF TELEGRAPHS.

and immediately several plans, supposed to be improve with three pairs of arms. . The principle of telegraphs was not wholly unknown to ments on it, were broached in his country. In the year

(To be concluded in our next.) the ancients. "Eschylus, who wrote nearly 500 years 1795, the Rev. J. Gamble suggested two distinct plans; before the Christian era, mentions, in his Agamemnon, that the first consisting in five boards of different lengths, the fall of Troy was known to Clytæmnestra in Argos, by placed longitudinally one above the other, and all move.

School of Arts.-Major-General Martin, a LM means of a line of fire signals, long before any Greek ar. able; and the other in an upright pole, with five move-1

who died twenty-five years ago in Berreal, left to rived to tell the story. The prophet Jeremiah, who wrote able spokes or arms projecting from it, like the radü of

Oslof Lyons 250,000 rupees, (1,200,000 francs.) on two centuries earlier than Æschylus, mentions the same a semicircle. Semaphores on this principle, though with

neinle though with that the interest should be applied to an institution, kind of signal as used in the wars of his times. The fewer radii, were erected by the French along the coast of

of should be acknowledged to be the most useful Romans also employed flags, called vexillæ, for signals, the channel in 1803.

| public good in his native city. The institution but there were merely for the field of battle. Polybius In the year 1795 Lord George Murray invented, and

called the Martinière. The Royal Academy invented a telegraph, composed of the letters of the Greek offered to the Admiralty, the plan which was used by Go.

| decided on the 10th of December, that the Man alphabet. But, with the exception of the fire-signals, vernment from that time till the year 1816. It was called

should be a gratuitous school of arts and trade, esta there is no evidence that any system of signs was ever the six-slutter telegraph, and is represented in the follow

applied to the progress and perfection of Lyonese generally adopted by the ancients, or that even these were ing figure:

M. Tabareau, member of the Academy of Lyons and used for any other purpose than the communication, by LORD GEO. MURRAY'S SHUTTER TELEGRAPH.

fessor of philosophy, has been placed at the head previous concert, of one or two simple messages in time of]

course of instruction, and has been directed to P va".

Paris, in order to become acquainted with the cours The merit of the invention of telegraphs applicable to

fessed by Baron Dupin; and thence to Chalons-suruniversal purposes, belongs to Dr. Hooke, who, in 1684,1

to learn the organization of the Royal School of Art communicated to the Royal Society the plan of a telegraph,

Trades at that place. The instruction will be ttico which approaches the modern instrument in power, and

and practical. The theory will embrace grammar, nearly equals it in rapidity. Hlis paper on the subject will

metic, drawing and designing, architecture, novel be found in the Philosophical Transactions for that year.

algebra, elementary and descriptive geometry, 2014 He'describes the distances of the stations, mentions the use

applications to the arts, a course of chemistry, of the telescopes, and suggests a set of characters to repre.

especially to dyeing, and a course of mechanics. De

cipal shops attached to the school, shall be those of you Chap. vi. v. l. “Blow up the trumpet in Tetoa, and set

lockmaking, turning in wood and metals, casting, up a sign of fire in Beth-haccerem."

chinery, and silk dyeing.-Silliman's American Jouri

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Then I have gaz'd upon this flower, Through many a sad and lonely hour, And thought how soon, if scorn'd by thee, My heart, like it, would withered be

SLENDER

BABYLON.

Poetry.

| How ls Baby lon become a desolation among the nations in

Jer. 1. v. 23.

SADHU SING.

(Vide Chronicles of the Canongate, vol 2, page 326.)

For scarce the marriage rites were said,

And parting blessing spoke,
When, as returned the cavalcade,

A slumb'ring tiger woke,
And springing from his lair on her,

The gala's idol, flew;
One shriek of anguish rent the air,

And-maddening sight to view lo
Bleeding and dead, bis Mora lay,

And phrenzied by the sight,
Her Sadhu raised the beauteous clay,

And with a giant's might,
Nerved by revenge, with 'whelming blow,

Fierce desperation's own,
Laid at his feet the monster low ;-

Then, with the dead alone,
Refusing aid, he raised the tomb

Where calm his Mora lies ;
And watching there through summer's bloom,

And there ’neath chilling skies;
Mute, motionless, and all alone,

May Sadhu yet be seen ;
Fixed, gazing on the pale gray stone,

Where high the grass waves green !
And there, 'till joined his angel bride,

When death shall set him free;
There yet will mourning love abide,-

There still will Sadhu be! .
Liverpool

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STANZAS.

He sat beside bis Mora's tomb,

In his despair alone;
Yet 'thwart that chill, unearthly gloom,

Was heard nor sigh nor moan.
For all too vast and stern his grief

For gentle sigh or tears ;
While onward swept the current brief,

The deepening stream of years :
And Sadhu thought but of his bride,

His owo loved Mora fair;
And nothing saw, save by his side,

The whitening relics bare;
The savage tiger's ghastly bones,

Beneath whose fangs of dread, 'Mid echoing shrieks, and rending groans,

Her spirit heavenward fled !
He sat in his despair alone,

As one in woe's extreme;
And thought but of the radiance gone,

The light of Hope's gay dream!
And ever still, o'erwhelmed of thought,

Unheeded Sadhu Sing,
When food the stranger, pitying, brought,

Or water from the spring.
And nought his spirits' trance might break,

Save, when in opening bloom,
Oft friendship token-flowers would take,
• Bright flowers, to deck her tomb !
And then a smile, a gentle smile,

Upon his lip would play ;
Fleeting, but bright as gilds awhile

Night's brow, fair Dian's ray!
And thus four dismal years had sped,

And still sat Sadhu Sing,
A lonely watcher by the dead,

And scarce like living thing.
Thus Sadhu sat, 'mid trophies wild

Of mingled grief and ire ;
In prime of youth, yet, woe despoiled,

His eye had lost its fire.
And ah, the storm on Sadhu Sing

Had stamped the impress stern
Of age, while yet in manhood's spring,

Nor might the joyous learn,
Or solve the feeling strange, of awe,

The wond'ring sense that bound;
For what knows Joy of Sorrow's law,

Or of that fest'ring wound,
Which prostrate e'en in matin bloom,

Still bends the lofty low;
While fleetest passage to the tomb

Is aye the vale of woe?
A tale of misery and fear,

To agony allied ;
A withering tale of love,-despair,-

Was Sadhu's, and his bride.

The zone that circling round thy waist

A line of brightness drew;
This rosebud once in beauty grac'd

With fair unfaded hue.
It was a sweet and lovely flower,
When shining in its native bower,

Bedeck'd with gems of dew :
But brightly though it blossomed there,
'Twas never half so sweet or fair,
As then, when glowing on thy breast,
It gloried in its place of rest.
Awhile I mark'd it there display'd

In blooming beauty gay,
And there methought, if it had stay'd,

It might have bloom'd for aye;
But chance the favour'd flower displac'd,
And dropping from thy slender waist,

Before my feet it lay:
And though no act, no wish of thine,
Had made the hallowed flow'ret mine,
Yet who the pure delight may tell,
That made my throbbing bosom swell ?
It rested once beside thy heart,

'Tis treasured now by mine, A worshipped relic kept apart,

Within a secret shrine;
And ne'er did pilgrim's ardent zeal
A warmer thrill of rapture feel,

From relics' touch divine,
Than this diffuses through my breast,
When to my lips in transport press'd ;
For it has touch'd thy hand of snow,
And felt thy heaving bosom glow.
It has been moistened, too, with tears,

That pride could not control,
When thou didst frown, and gloomy fears

Came darkly o'er my soul, As clouds that o'er a star-lit sky, Obscuring all its brilliancy,

In sullen masses roll ;

O'er the proud towers of Babylon,

Woe and destruction drear,
Unlook'd for, suddenly came down,

And mocked each dreaming seer;
Mysterious writing had unroll'd

The downfal of her throne,
The doom of other lands he told,

He could not read his own.
Fallen are her balls, her palaces,

The chambers of her kings,
And left a howling wilderness,

Where the night demon sings:
Here lies, to desolation given,

All that was bright and fair ;
The tower, “whose top should reach to heaven

Its relics moulder there.
From age to age her stream hath kept

Its joyous course along;
Its banks, as when the Hebrews wept,

Are echoless to song:
And he who asked the captive's lay

of old, by “ Babel's stream,”
Is now as desolate as they,

His land, like their's, a dream.
For lo! Heaven's cleaving curse, foreshova,

Hath swept the peopled land;
Chaldea's pride, and Salem's thrope,

Have felt an equal hand :
But, Judah 1 yet shall happier days

Break on that night of thine,
And brighter than the noontide blaze

Thy evening star shall shine.
But o'er that city of the day,

The hope of morning never
Shall dawn; a home for beasts of prey,

For ever and for ever :
Never to hear man's busy bum,

Nor echo to his tread,
While Desolation walks the dumb

Drear city of the dead !
Here, where in pride the monarch dwelt,

Where slaves their homage paid,
While to the sun the Magian knelt,

And the Chaldean prayed :
Alike the sunshine and the cloud,

The calm, the tempest's sweep;
No ray so bright, no voice so loud,
To break that iron sleep.

• Genesis 11 4. Ltverpool, Nov. 12, 1827.

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KEEPING GOOD HOURS AND GOOD COMPAYN, ADDRESSED TO A MEMBER OF AN ANCIENT AND LOYAL CLE

CHOICE FELLOWS

You keep but low company, some people say,
Add very bad hours, turning night into day;

But they wrong thee, Jack, prithee ne'er mind 'ed Whilst with your choice fellows, you drink the chal

round, If any such thing as good hours can be found,

Or good company, sure you must find 'em. Liverpool, 1813.

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