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TO THE EDITOR.

ercise! The Germans more closely resemble the English | auction along with the arm-chairs of the members of the them by the system of Broussais, think themselves mos than any other nation. Pleased am I, then, Sir, that acting committee, and the rostrum of the orators. This fortunate that some royal caprice has not again brough Professor Voelker is coming amongst us to teach this patroness represented Opportunity; a Roman allegorical long beards into fashion. grand moral lesson (and let not divines refuse to hear it) divinity, who presided over the moment most favourable

Finis. -weakness of body induces weakness of mind-weakness to the success of an enterprise. She had the figure of a and superstition of mind induces weakness of body. Exer- young female, with one foot in the air, the other resting

To Correspondents. cise is the safety-valve of both, and, with Massinger, we upon a wheel; bearing a razor in one hand, and a veil in may say of the gymnastic, “ His toil is his delight; and the other. This same divinity was painted in fresco on to complain of weariness would show as poorly in hini as the ceiling; but, instead of having a razor in her hand, sbe 0 ERRATUM.In the article "Rise, Greatness, and Declin if a general should grieve for a wound, received upon his was represented as running swiftly along the edge of one, of Artists in Hair," in our publication of the 230 ultimo, forehead or his breast, after a glorious victory” Not to which, according to the archaiology of the perruquiers, was 136, first column, 35th line, instead of "Prince Metterni trespass too much on your columns, I shall resume the more agreeable to the Greek tradition. However this may then," read “the Metternich of that day." subject in another note.

K.

be, both figures appeared with a razor, which was sufficient TH: MONDAY'S PAPER.The editor of this paper fancien 1 to determine the choice of the members of the art. The

has made a grand discovery this morning. We have a banner of the corporation had disappeared some years be. CHESS QUERY.

ready disclaimed the authorship of the Dirge which ! fore, during the Vandalic devastation of the uniformists mistook for fine writing. We never affected to We have not been able to arrive at any certainty with

that we were ignorant of the plan that was laid to

his judgment to the test. On the contrary, we entire SIR,—The admirable and universally.esteemed game of regard to what has befallen it; and its fate, to this day,

approved, and still approve, of the scheme, although remains as impenetrable as that of the Oriflamme, the chess, so justly considered as such in your excellent paper,

neither wrote the verses nor forwarded the packet may, for the immense variety, amusement, and (I think í sacred banner of the ancient kings of France. We sin.

the enraged editor. Wo said that we PREPARED the pia

for him, and so we did; but we did not say we wrote may add) instruction, which it contains, be compared to cerely deplore a loss so much to be regretted ; but after the miraculous re-appearance of the holy vial for the con

If we had said so, many of our friends would have know nothing more justly than your Kaleidoscope. Amongst

that it was not the fact We never before heard to the many varieties of which chess is capable, there is a secration of Charles the Tenth, we do not despair of again

& porson who prepared a communication was necessari particular one for which I have in vain looked through seeing this glorious standard of the perruquiers, if the

tho writer, as this wiseacre would persuade his reada your Kaleidoscope, and to the occurrence of which I was peruque should ever again be brought into vogue, and One of his correspondents lately prepared a piece for 11

about the Damask Rose, but he did not write it. This an actual spectator a few months since. It was as follows: resume its place in the train of things which came back

sensitive editor, whose affectation is truly laugbable, A and B were in the midst of a game. A had all his with the restored Bourbops. It will, undoubtedly, interest

nothing about his mutilation of some lines of ours, alter pieces remaining except his black bishop, (I mean that the reader to learn what this banner, of famous memory,

the number of lines, spoiling the point, and then putte bishop which moved on the black squares) B had lost a represented ; let him know then, that, on a ground of royal Liverpool Mercury at the foot-nor does he say one

about fabricating a stupid speech to put into the mouth great many of his pieces. Now it so happened that A bad purple silk, was a coat of arms Or, with seven stars argent

a clever man who was politically opposed to him." brought forward one of bis pawns to the farthest row, when in the field; these seven stars signifying the constellation

upon such affectation!" It has been suggested, that ift he had, of course, the privilege of redeeming any lost piece, situated near the tail of the Lion, and called the Hair of

be any thing in the shape of a GENTLEMAN connected but the pawn arrived at the furthest row on a white square. Berenice, from a fable invented by Conon, the astronomer,

this scurrilous Journal, it would be desirable to bring Query.Could A recal his black bishop, which, if re- who, to calm the grief of Ptolemy Evergetes on not finding to light. We will thank any correspondent to enligte

us on this point, for our future guidance. called, must take the place of the pawn on the white square, the hair which his wife had sacrificed to him, in the temand then A would have two white bishops, or two bishope ple, pretended that it had been carried to heaven, and Music In the next Kaleidoscope it is our intention to an moving on white squares ?

duco a celebrated minuet of Mozart, as very elechy Yours, &c. formed into a constellation.

ranged for the piano forte, with six variaticus

, o South Shields, Nov. 6, 1827.

CHECKMATE. After the denouement of the tragedy of Napoleon, when townsman, Mr. James Walker,

the Bourbons re-imported the wreck of the emigrant party, POBĪTIONS AT DRAUGHTS.-T. R., of Alnwick, suggests 90

their anti-national train was closed by a troop of pertu. sitions which we do not find very conclusive as to their te Tales, Romances, &c.

quiers, who, allured by the odour of the happy windfall minations. The intended winner should forcebisadresser that presented itself, calculated upon enjoying a good

which is not absolutely the case in the positions before THE RISE, GREATNESS, AND DECLINE OF ARTISTS share of the royal cake. But the two orders of nobility,

If our correspondent can show that the white can IN HAIR.

force, win, in the game wherein black has only on preserving equal rights by the charter which Louis the

thrice, and the white twice, he will throw & new AN HISTORICAL PRAGMENT, SERVING TO COMPLETE

Eighteenth would have been very willing to withhold, had upon the subject.
IMPORTANT ILLUSTRATIONS,

he known how to dispense with such a passport, mutually PAUL COFFER.-.-In compliance with repeated solicitations

made some accommodatory concessions, the better to share bave re-printed, from the original, the memoir of (Concluded from page 136.) , between them, like thieves in a fair, the august favours of

worthy, intelligent, and enterprising African; tegel The success of the French Republic becoming more ancient nobility were, the peroque, powder, and siles de the new court. Amongst the concessions made by the

with a portrait, which we are assured is a very contact

semblance. assured, the disconsolate perruquiers were reduced to

THE WINTER WARATH.We shall next week select an area extremities, whion Bonaparte, suddenly throwing aside pigeon, in order that they might accommodate themselves,

from this interesting domestic repository, as we pro the mask of equality, restored at once the monarchical in some degree, to the taste of a nation long accustomed

in our publication of November 2, in which we introda to a simple and uniform toilette, such as its military man. Miss Jane Roscoe's verses addressed to Nature. The system, solely for his own benefit. However, although

tion we have in contemplation is rather longer than the newly-made Monarch soon collected in the Tuileries pers required. However, the most talented of the emigrant

have been compatible with our limits this week, un the handful of the ancient noblesse who had survived the friseurs, we speak of those wbo could read, write, or reign of terror, in order that they might serve as a model foreign countries, where, from father to son, they still TAR CITY OF tag DenONS is given at length in our pro

had excluded other articles, to the Insertion of what dance a little, had established themselves as professors in

were in some measure pledged. to the new batch of imperial nobility, the latter did not

pursue that trade ; these, peaceably continuing to teacb implicitly adopt the ancient costume. Napoleon, more

publication. over, wore his bair short, a l'antique, -the better to ape escaped the disappointment which awaited their brethren to others what they had need learn themselves, have

THE SHELTER. We have not declined this compostios the Roman Kmperors ; and this was amply sufficient to in France; and they will probably continue their new

soi-disant Clown; but it must be submitted to some cor

tion previously to insertion. There are occasional mistak proscribe the peruque and powdered ringlets, not only

such as the following, which betray haste, or a defectired amongst his courtiers, but even amongst all his cousins, mystery as long as they shall find dupes to take advantage

on the part of our correspondent:the Emperors and Kings of the Continent. ruquiers alone, then, being excluded from the general recal To resume, we will say, in a few words, that the per.

“ They plac'd me by the tireside,"

This we have changed to “They plac'd me by the . of all the personages, who could give to the new court the ruquiers, politically speaking, are extinct, inasmuch as

fireside," as the reader must else make " Bre” into a dis appearance of the old, their body became incorporated, the peruque remains blasted by that reprobation which

lable. We shall probably publish the piece in our next by degrees, with the middle classes of the nation, and the revolution still causes to be felt, and that powdered The Mysterious MANUSCRIPT (from Ryley's entertaining soon exchanged the comb and scissors for the bayonet and toupets, and ailes de pigeon, are now nothing more than

nerant in Scotland) Is reserved for our next. the sword. From this epoch we date the almost entire the powerless standards, around which still rally some few we have to acknowledge communications from D. Niw extinction of the transcendent celebrity of the perruquiers. incorrigible ultras, derided alike at court and among the lena B.-G. P.-W.X. Y. 2.--S. The hall where the chief coiffeurs had been accustomed people. The coiffeurs, properly so called, are restricted 1.6. R's communication is not exactly sultable to such a man to assemble, once a month, to discuss the interests of their to the superintendence of the heads of the fair sex, and to

as the Kaleidoscope. community, was abandoned for ever; their patroness, the application of the curling-tongs to the ridiculous already multilated by the sans.culottes, who had mistaken ringlets of a few vaporous dandies. her for a saint, was cast from her pedestal, to be sold by

And the barbers, ruined by the coup de grace given to

Printed, published, and sold, every Tuesday, by B. SMITI

and Co., Clarendon-buildings, South Joho-stresi.

The per•

Literary and Scientific Mirror.

OR,

“ UTILE DULCI.” This timlilar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CÂTTICISM, Men and MASSIES, AMUSEMENT, elégant EXTRACTS, POETRY, ANECDOTES, BIOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, the DRAMA, Arts and SCIENCES, Wit and SATIRE, Fashions, NATURAL HISTORY, &c. forming a handsome ANNUAL VOLUME, with an INDEX and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this work from London through their respective Booksellers.

PRICE 3d.

No. 386.– Vol. VIII.

TUESDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 1827.

Scientific Notices.

those who have inspected it, and seen it in operation, the brightest gas-lamp at the distance of five hundred can require no further explanation.

yards. This is an insuperable objection to which all teleComprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improvements in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin- Before we proceed to the history of the telegraph graphic communication is subject; and the only substitute galar Medical Cases ; Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi; to which we have just adverted, we shall transcribe tion, which is necessarily tedious and

imperfect.

for visual transmission of signals is auricular communicalosophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical the following prefatory article, which appeared in Plenomena, or singular Facts in Natural History: the last Mercury.-Edit

. Kal.

TO THE EDITOR. Vegetation, &c. ; Antiquities, &c

SIR,-It appears to me to be a great drawback to the utility of the telegraphic communication, lately estate

lished between Holyhead and Liverpool, that, in foggy The establishment of telegraphic communications be weather, the

signals are not visible, and, consequently, TELEGRAPHIC SIGNALS BY DAY & NIGHT.

tween Holyhead and Liverpool forms an era in the history during such times the telegraph is prevented from being

of|the town, and will hand down the name of Lieutenant used. This I should think a subject of sufficient impor. Although our Encyclopædias and other scientific

Watson to posterity as a public-spirited, and, we hope, tance for the consideration of practical men. It is very ris have long since made the public well acquaint- not unrequited benefactor of the town. The gratification probable that something might be devised fully to insure a

with the principle and the properties of the tele- we experience in the contemplation of sthis expeditious well as the day. The following appears to me a plan ph, we trust that it will not be unacceptable to mode of conveying intelligence is increased by the reflec- which, in want of a better, might answer the purpose: readers of the Kaleidoscope to have laid before tion, that the benefit we derive from the plan is unaccom- Twenty-five lamps (made peculiarly for the purpose, with 12, in one article, the various information on the panied by animal suffering ;-and this circumstance, in large reflectors, such as are used at lighthouses) would Vect which is to be met with in different scien- the estimation of every considerate man, greatly enhances the w; and with a little machinery to effect the raising of be works which bave treated on telegraphic com- the value of the establishment, for which we are indebted any number of them to a visible point of the telegraphic mitation. to the enterprise of Lieutenant Watson..

tower from a place beneath, where they would be hidden, Some weeks since Lieat. Watson, the ingenious Owing to our proximity to the sea, fogs, such as those might communicate as fast as the present method. For njector of the Holyhead and Liverpool telegraphs, we have recently experienced, will, of course, often inter. Holyhead, the order of raising the lamps, with the

numhave just commenced operations, politely pre frequently readers the ordinary Bidston signals unavailing. 1, 16, 15, 12, 5, 15, 14, and if done by the means before ated us with some lithographic plates illustrative

The correspondent, whose letter we shall presently insert, mentioned, would not take up more time than the present his telegraphic apparatus ; and we fully expected fancies that he has, in some degree, obviated the objection and lowered, would conveniently serve for the whole

al be would himself publish a pamphlet on the to which we have just adverted; but our opinion is, that, twenty-five lamps. Three of the pieces should have five isbject, which we intended to review in the Kaleido although the plan he proposes might answer very well in lamps each, one piece four lamps, one three lamps, one ve arailing ourselves of the same opportunity to the night, when a thick fog does not intervene, it would be two lamps, and one should have one lamp. To raise nineiter pretty much at large into the general subject of little or no use on a foggy day. Fogs in our climate are teen lamps (or make the signal S) the three pieces having telegraphic and other modes of communication sometimes so dense, that a mariner cannot discern the ad- five lamps

each, and the one having four lamps, would be

moved. To raise seven lamps (or make the signal G) one jacent lighthouses; sometimes he cannot see from stem to piece baving five lamps, and the one having two lamps, opted by the ancients and moderns. The lithographic plates of Lieut. Watson's tele- stern; and at other times the sun itself, brighter than a would be moved, &c.

I believe that any species of intelligence, commonly phic apparatus naturally led us to the conclusion, Under such circumstances artificial light, however concen communicated by telegraph at present, might be sent bý in the projector was about to publish something trated, would be utterly useless. Still the suggestion of weathers." Nor do I think that any fair objection could Aber respecting his plans; and it has been owing

our correspondent, as applicable to nocturnal communi. be made to this plan on the score of the number of lamps this circumstance alone that we have not, until cations, is worth the consideration of our townsmen, and not being sufficiently distinguishable, if the lamps on the

taken up a subject, to which our attention was of the intelligent and respectable projector of our new different pieces were disposed thus
dicularly directed, since we were favoured with telegraphic establishment.

five
four

three 0 cimens of the lithographic plates.

The Greeks were very ingenious in the use of signals by The editor of the Tuesday's paper has anticipated night, and could carry on communications on any subject for this way of setting them appears to be completely in an editorial article on the subject, in which he by means of flambeaux. Dr. Beattie, in one of his distinct. Portable gas might be used to light the lamps.

Yours, &c. 7-16-16, 1, 24, 14, 5. brought into one view much of the scattered works, says that Clytemnestra, at Argos, received the

Liverpool, Nov. 12, 1827. formation respecting telegraphs, which the reader news of the taking of Troy by signals of fire, as described

• Our correspondent is mistaken in this opinion; and we by Æschylus, in the tragedy of Agamemnon. These sig- beg to refer him to our prefatory remarks.-Edits. Merc. Add not have obtained without considerable per- nals might, however, have been merely the ordinary fire Ferance and expenditure of time. The article is beacons, similar to those once so common in this country. We shall now proceed to transcribe the following complete, and so likely to suit the taste of our In the 8th volume of Rollin's Ancient History there is article, from the Tuesday's paper, together with the

Adlers, that we shall appropriate the whole, with a chapter of about a dozen pages, entitled, “Digres description of Lieut. Watson's telegraph. Its length Eacknowledgment, in preference to incurring the sion of Polybius on the Signals made by Fire.” It is will oblige us to divide it into two portions, reserving acessary drudgery of original collation.

illustrated by an engraved representation of the method of the latter for the next Kaleidoscope. We shall, in imitation of our contemporary, intro- communication. If our correspondent is inclined to direct zoe a vignette of Lord George Murray's telegraph, his further attention to the subject of night signals, he may though it is more for the sake of embellishment find ample materials in all the Encyclopædias, and also in of intelligence having been established in this town, in

Hooper's Rational Recreations ; but he may despair of connexion with a line of telegraphs along the coast to ad of illustration; as almost all our readers must

ever transmitting light through the dense fogs which visit Holyhead, we are persuaded that our readers will be gram Ise seen the beautiful large working model of this our island. At this moment (Tuesday morning, eight lified by a short sketch of the history of telegraphs, and by schine publicly exhibited here a few years since, o'clock) the weather is so extremely hazy that we cannot a description of the manner in which the machine is conther by Phillipstall or some other ingenious ma- discern one of the gas-light posts, which is not fifty yards highly interesting ;-from the recent date of the invention, sinist. It was very much admired at the time; from the place where we are sitting; and we believe that, from its being beyond comparison the most rapid mode of ad it rendered the system so extremely simple, that if it were night, and equally foggy, we could not discern transmitting information which has ever been employed,

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from the very important ends it may often answer, and sent the alphabet, capable of being varied ten thousand These six shutters move on axes, and when turned edgs/ from the probability there seems to be that further im- ways. He also states that none but the two extreme ways to the spectator, as is the case with shutter 6, they provements may render this instrument available to a very correspondents

shall be able to discover the information are invisible at a distance. The letters, figures, &c. are is great extent for private as well as public purposes.. conveyed.” He calculates that the same character might dicated by the shutters being opened or closed, that is, edge

It is obvious that the telegraph is the most rapid means be seen at Paris the minute after it was represented in ways, or presented broadside to the view. This telegrapa of communication which man can ever hope to possess. It London. His plan consisted in having boards of different is capable of making 63 separate and distinct signal, 91 not only outstrips the wind, but leaves far behind even the shapes, squares, triangular, &c. answering to the several of which stand for the letters of the alphabet, (and aërial waves of 'sound. It conveys intelligence from bill letters of the alphabet, hung up in a large square frame being omitted) 10 for the Arabic numerals, 1, 2, 3, &c. to hill, and from promontory to promontory, as swift as divided into four compartments. Each of these pieces of the o, and the rest for the words most in use, as admiral, light itself; and though the necessity of observing and re- wood represented a certain letter, according to the com- tain, ship of the line, frigate, arrived, sailed, harbour, di peating the signal at every interval of eight or ten miles partment in which it was hung. Shortly after this time, or, when used to communicate the operations of armies, te occasions some delay, yet, under favourable circumstances, M. Amontons, of the Royal Academy of Paris, published words, general, regiment, camp, &c. Lines of telegrapi a single signal, communicating an important fact, has been a similar project ; and by means of the scientific works in on this principle were established from London to Paris transmitted at the astonishing speed of a hundred and forty- which both these inventions appeared, they must have been mouth, Plymouth, Deal, Yarmouth, &c. The plan wa four miles in a minute. Sound travels at the rate of 1142 known to the learned over all Europe.

to spell all the communications by means of the alphabet feet in a second, which is thirteen miles in a minute ; a Nevertheless it was not till more than a century after but the stenographical principle was adopted, of putin cannon ball passes through the air with the velocity of a this period, that any attempt was made to reduce the in- only the consonants, with the initial and final vowels

, a. mile in three seconds, or twnty miles in a minute ; and the vention to practice. In the year 1794, M. Chappe in occasionally, one in the middle of the word, as Agwan fiercest hurricane which sweeps the Antilles does not exceed vented a telegraph, for communicating between the Con- for Agamemnon: Inoncble, for Invincible, &c de the rate of two miles in a minute. In speed, therefore, the vention at Paris and the French army in Holland. The words, as the, of, to, &c. were frequently omitted; add telegraph is only surpassed by the sun-beam, which needs French were at that time engaged in the seige of Lisle, news compressed into as few words as possible

. It is of er no relays, and is never exhausted by distance.

and a line of telegraphs having been erected along the consequence, on this plan, to place the most importa But as simplicity of form and movement is indispen- heights, the orders of the Convention were transmitted to words first, owing to the suddenness with which fogs son sible to the telegraph, which is to be visible at a great the army in two minutes, and intelligence received of mi- times come on in the midst of an operation. A curia distance, it may seem unfitted to convey more than a few litary operations in the same length of time. The follow. illustration of this is given. During the war, the Londoa very simple messages. This, however, is not the case. Few ing figures represent the telegraph of M. Chappe; figure legraph received from Portsmouth, one morning, the wall as the movements of the machine are, they are capable of a shows the machine at rest, and figure b represents it in Wellington defeated”—when a fog rendered the ri expressing with certainty many thousands of different words operation :

of the message invisible. Great suspense and alarm and sentences. As the twenty-six letters of the alphabet

THE FRENCH TELEGRAPH.

vạiled through the day, till, on the clearing of the aim compose all the words of nearly all the languages in Europe,

phere in the evening, the whole message was recere the movements of the telegraphs may be varied, and their

Wellington defeated the French," &c. It would signification extended, to an equal degree. Nor is it neces.

been better—"'Wellington has defeated," or, "F sary to resort to the comparatively slow process of spelling

were defeated.The six-shutter telegraph was abate the communications. A vocabulary may be composed,

on its being proved that the arms of the semaphore which renders it as easy to transmit words and sentences as

much more distinctly seen at a distance, and in bazy letters ; and further improvements may yet be made in this

ther, than the shutters of the telegraph. This was a department, to an almost undefinite extent.

the subject of several experiments, the uniform red The greatest impediment to telegraphic communications

which was, that the semaphore was better seen than is mist, which, by intercepting vision, is an absolute bar

old telegraph. to the transmission of intelligence by this mode. Dark- The machine, as will be seen from the figures, consists In 1807 Capt. (now Col.) Pasley published a plan el ness alone need not be an impediment, as various plans in an upright post, with a moveable bar of wood on the instrument, which he called a polygrammatic telegra have been suggested, which seem quite feasible, for the top, and at each end an arm capable of being drawn, by and which consisted in two arms fixed on the top of a construction of night telegraphs; but the occasions are so strings and pulleys, into many different positions. It and turning on a pivot. He afterwards proposed to few, in which it is of any moment to transmit messages so admits of a very great number of positions and combi- tiply its powers, by having four poles, with two atos ad rapidly during the night, that it has not been thought nations, but the objection is made to it that its move and finally he suggested the placing of three pairs én worth while to try the

experiment on a large scale. ments are too complicated to be rapidly and correctly on one pole. This last plan comes extremely near the ben The word Telegraph signifies, literally, to write at a executed, unless by persons of great experience. Another of telegraph adopted by Lieut. Watson in the Liverpong distance . But the name

of Semaphore appears to indicate kind of telegraph has been invented in France, which has and Hülyhead line, and which will be explained bereits two words, signifying to bear or convey. The machine pole ot beam of wood, but it has not superseded the old the subject of telegraphs, and published his specuhta rather conveys signs or signals, than writes. The latter one, which is obvious to every visiter of Paris on the height in 1808. He preferred the shutter-telegraph, and a word has been more employed lately, but with a distinction of Montmartre. of which we do not see the reason. The instrument made Although the French were the first to reduce the tele. of six : but this would greatly increase the indistinca with shutters, which was employed by Government till graph to practice, the subject had not enterely slept in which was the fault of the old Admiralty

Telegraph machine which has superseded the former, and which Richard Lovel Edgeworth proposed a numerical tele- spelling system, and the adoption of the numericals makes signs by bars of wood placed in certain positions, graph, consisting

of four upright posts

, with a wedge or in connexion with a dictionary of words; the latter is called a Semaphore. Some of these machines, and the cone moveable on a pivot at the top of each. This tele would admit of many thousand words being correr Liverpool one amongst the rest, are called Semaphoric graph mignt be used either alphabetically

or numerically, the machine, in a manner

which we shall hereafter the Telegraphs, which is a tautology. Those who adopted and the letters or figures were indicated by the positions of As he proposes three rows of shutters, his plan enahka as the more correct, but have been induced to add tele- cated and too indistinct for distant vision. The French another tens, and another units: this advantage is cha graph as the more generally understood.

invention was brought to England by way of Frankfort, in Lieutenant Watson's plan, by means of the semap HISTORY OF TELEGRAPHS.

and immediately several plans, supposed to be improve with three pairs of arms. The principle of telegraphs was not wholly unknown to ments on it, were broached in his country. In the year

(To be concluded in our next.) the ancients. Æschylus, who wrote nearly 500 years 1795, the Rev. J. Gamble suggested two distinct plans; before the Christian era, mentions, in his Agamemnon, that the first consisting in five boards of different lengths, the fall of Troy was known to Clytæmnestra in Argos, by placed longitudinally one above the other, and

all move who died twenty-five years ago in Bengal, left to the

School of Arts.-Major-General Martin, a Ly rived to tell the story. The prophet Jeremiah, who wrote able spokes or arms projecting from

it, like the radü of of Lyons 250,000 rupees, (1,200,000 francs.) on cord two centuries earlier than Æschylus, mentions the same semicircle. Semaphores on this principle, though with that the interest should be applied to an institution, kind of signal

as used in the wars of his times. The fewer radii, were erected by the French along the coast of should be acknowledged to be the most useful fel Romans also employed flags, called vexilla, for signals, the channel in 1803.

public good in his native city. The institution but there were merely for the field of battle. Polybius In the year 1795 Lord George Murray invented, and called the Martinière. The Royal Academy of 1 invented a telegraph, composed of the letters of the Greek offered to the Admiralty, the plan which was used by Go- decided on the 10th of December, that the Mari alphabet. But, with the exception of the fire-signals, vernment from that time till the year 1816. It was called should be a gratuitous school of arts and trade, espa there is no evidence that any system of signs was ever the six-shutter telegraph, and is represented in the follow- applied to the progress and perfection of Lyonese inde generally adopted by the ancients, or that even these were ing figure : used for any other purpose than the communication, by

fessor of philosophy, has been placed at the head a

LORD GEO. MURRAY'S SHUTTER TELEGRAPH. previous concert, of one or two simple messages in time of

course of instruction, and has been directed to rep va".

Paris, in order to become acquainted with the cours The merit of the invention of telegraphs applicable to

fessed by Baron Dupin; and thence to Chalons-sur-fi universal purposes, belongs to Dr. Hooke, who, in 1684,

to learn the organization of the Royal School of Art communicated to the Royal Society the plan of a telegraph,

Trades at that place. The instruction will be thieer which approaches the modern instrument in power, and

and practical. The theory will embrace grammar nearly equals it in rapidity. His paper on the subject will

metic, drawing and designing, architecture, nota be found in the Philosophical Transactions for that year.

algebra, elementary and descriptive geometry, and He describes the distances of the stations, mentions the use

6

applications to the arts, a course of chemistry, appli of the telescopes, and suggests a set of characters to repre

especially to dyeing, and a course of mechanics The

cipal shops attached to the school, shall be those of jot Chap. vi. v. 1. "Blow up the trumpet in Tetoa, and set

lockmaking, turning in wood and metals, casting, up a sign of fire in Beth-haccerem."

chinery, and silk dyeing.--Silliman's American Jouri

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Then I have gaz'd upon this flower,
Through many a sad and lonely hour,
And thought how soon, if scorn'd by thee,
My heart, like it, would withered be.

SLENDER

BABYLON.

Poetry.

How la Baby lon become a desolation among the nations in

Jer. l. v. 23.

SADHU SING.

(Vide Chronicles of the Canongate, vol 2, page 326.)

For scarce the marriage rites were said,

And parting blessing spoke,
When, as returned the cavalcade,

A slumb'ring tiger woke,
And springing from his lair on her,

The gala's idol, flew;
One shriek of anguish rent the air,

Andmaddening sight to view la
Bleeding and dead, bis Mora lay,

And phrenzied by the sight,
Her Sadhu raised the beauteous clay,

And with a giant's might,
Nerved by revenge, with 'whelming blow,

Fierce desperation's own,
Laid at his feet the monster low ;-

Then, with the dead alone,
Refusing aid, he raised the tomb

Where calm his Mora lies ;
And watching there through summer's bloom,-

And there 'neath chilling skies ;
Mute, motionless, and all alone,

May Sadhu yet be seen ;
Fixed, gazing on the pale gray stone,

Where high the grass waves green!
And there, 'till joined his angel bride,

When death shall set him free;
There yet will mourning love abide,

There still will Sadhu be!
Liverpool

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STANZAS.

He sat beside bis Mora's tomb,

In his despair alone;
Yet 'thwart that chill, unearthly gloom,

Was heard nor sigh nor moan.
For all too vast and stern his grief

For gentle sigh or tears ;
While onward swept the current brief,

The deepening stream of years :
And Sadbu thought but of his bride,

His owo loved Mora fair;
And nothing saw, save by his side,

The whitening relics bare;
The savage tiger's ghastly bones,

Beneath whose fangs of dread, 'Mid echoing shrieks, and rending groans,

Her spirit heavenward fled !
He sat in his despair alone,

As one in woe's extreme;
And thought but of the radiance gone,

The light of Hope's gay dream!
And ever still, o'erwhelmed of thought,

Unheeded Sadhu Sing,
When food the stranger, pitying, brought,

Or water from the spring.
And nought his spirits' trance might break,

Save, when in opening bloom,
Oft friendship token-flowers would take,

Bright flowers, to deck her tomb!
And then a smile, a gentle smile,

Upon his lip would play;
Fleeting, but bright as gilds awhile

Night's brow, fair Dian's ray!
And thus four dismal years had sped,

And still sat Sadhu Sing,
A lonely watcher by the dead,

And scarce like liviog thing.
Thus Sadhu sat, 'mid trophies wild

Of mingled grief and ire ;
In prime of youth, yet, woe despoiled,

His eye had lost its fire.
And ah, the storm op Sadhu Sing

Had stamped the impress stern
Of age, while yet in manhood's spring,

Nor might the joyous learn,
Or solve the feeling strange, of awe,

The wond'ring sense that bound;
For what knows Joy of Sorrow's law,

Or of that fest'ring wound,
Which prostrate e'en in matin bloom,

Still bends the lofty low;
While fleetest passage to the tomb

Is aye the vale of woe ?
A tale of misery and fear,

To agony allied;
A withering tale of love,-despair,-

Was Sadhu's, and his bride.

The zone that circling round thy waist

A line of brightness drew;
This rosebud once in beauty grac'd

With fair unfaded hue.
It was a sweet and lovely flower,
When shining in its native bower,

Bedeck'd with gems of dew :
But brightly though it blossomed there,
'Twas never half so sweet or fair,
As then, when glowing on thy breast,
It gloried in its place of rest.
Awhile I mark'd it there display'd

In blooming beauty gay,
And there methought, if it had stay'd,

It might have bloom'd for aye;
But chance the favour'd flower displac'd,
And dropping from thy slender waist,

Before my feet it lay :
And though no act, no wish of thine,
Had made the hallowed flow'ret mine,
Yet who the pure delight may tell,
That made my throbbing bosom swell ?
It rested once beside thy heart,

"Tiś treasured now by mine, A worshipped relic kept apart,

Within a secret shrine;
And ne'er did pilgrim's ardent zeal
A warmer thrill of rapture feel,

From relics' touch divine,
Than this diffuses through my breast,
When to my lips in transport press'd ;
For it has touch'd thy hand of snow,
And felt thy heaving bosom glow.
It has been moistened, too, with tears,

That pride could not control,
When thou didst frown, and gloomy fears

Came darkly o'er my soul, As clouds that o'er a star-lit sky, Obscuring all its brilliancy,

In sullen masses roll;

O'er the proud towers of Babylon,

Woe and destruction drear,
Unlook'd for, suddenly came down,

And mocked each dreaming seer ;
Mysterious writing had unrollid

The downfal of her throne,
The doom of other lands he told,

He could not read his own.
Fallen are her halls, her palaces,

The chambers of her kings,
And left a howling wilderness,

Where the night demon sings:
Here lies, to desolation given,

All that was bright and fair ;
The tower, "whose top should reach to heaven!

Its relics moulder there.
From age to age her stream hath kept

Its joyous course along;
Its banks, as when the Hebrews wept,

Are echoless to song:
And he who asked the captive's lay

Of old, by “ Babel's stream,”
Is now as desolate as they,

His land, like their's, a dream.
For lo ! Heaven's cleaving curse, foreshova,

Hath 'swept the peopled land;
Chaldea's pride, and Salem's throne,

Have felt an equal hand :
But, Judah l yet shall happier days

Break on that night of thine,
And brighter than the noontide blaze

Thy evening star shall shine.
But o'er that city of the day,

The hope of morning never
Shall dawn; a home for beasts of prey,

For ever and for ever :
Never to hear man's busy bum,

Nor echo to his tread,
While Desolation walks the dumb

Drear city of the dead !
Here, where in pride the monarch dwelt,

Where slaves their homage paid,
While to the sun the Magian knelt,

And the Chaldean prayed :
Alike the sunshine and the cloud,

The calm, the tempest's sweep;
No ray so bright, no voice so loud,
To break that iron sleep.

• Genesis 11 4. Ltverpool, Nov. 12, 1827.

H.W.

KEEPING GOOD HOURS AND GOOD COMPAYN, ADDRESSED TO A MEMBER OY AN ANCIENT AND LOYAL CLE

CHOICE FELLOWS

You keep but low company, some people say,
Add very bad hours, turning night into day;

But they wrong thee, Jack, prithee ne'er mind 'ed Whilst with your choice fellows, you drink the chal

round, If any such thing as good hours can be found,

Or good company, sure you must find 'em. Llverpool, 1813.

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