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solution through the means of a very peculiar solvent it would be the most agreeable and twnomical fire wbie"
Rheaumur enclosed alimentary matter in tubes, which families could wish for, as it may be kindled in a moment. Comprehending Notices of new Discoveries or Improve. were pervious at both ends, and introduced them into the and extinguished merely by closing a valve. It is free ments in Science or Art; including, occasionally, sin- stomach of animals: when they were discharged he found from all danger, as the liquid will ignite only in the caul. qular Medical Cases : Astronomical, Mechanical, Phi, that the substances which he had enelosed in the tubes dron in which it is used. Experiments are about to be losophical, Botanical, Meteorological, and Mineralogical were so acted upon by the gastric juice as to be almost dis- undertaken for applying it to the boilers of steam-engines; Phenomens, or singular Facts in Natural History; solved. Sometiines a part of the stomach itself has been and, if they be favourable, as there is no reason to doubt Vegetariat, &a; Antiquities, &c.
found dissolved or digested, after death; but this pheno- that they will be, steam-boats may soon traverse all the
menon is rarely found in those who have died of any lin. seas on the surface of the globe, as the liquid that supplies DIGESTION
gering malady; it usually occurs in such as die suddenly, the fire may be contained within a very moderate compass.
and are, at the time immediately previous to their death, This important discovery has as yet been exhibited only (Froa the New London Literary Gazette.) in good health ; it is observable also, that, in these cases, to two or three persons; we were of the number, and re
it is always the upper portion of the stomach which disap- ceived permission to describe it to this extent. We have The food, being received into the stomach, is prepared pears. The following interesting experiments, made by only to add, that we have repeatedly seen it in operation, for asimilation with the body
by digestion, which we shall Dr. Stevens, will show, in a very torcible manner, the and that we have no doubt whatever that it will fully 835 proceed to consider and explain. This process, to effect of this peculiar process of solution. The first series answer the expectations entertained of it. Like all exborrow the words of an acute modern writer, taken in its which we shall describe was made upon a man who was traordinary things of the kind, this discovery was the result most general and most proper sense, may be defined the in the habit of swallowing stones. Alimentary matter was of accident, and it is so simple that when it is made public, sonversion of dead into living matter; at all events, it is introduced into hollow silver spheres, divided into two every body will be surprised that it has not been in use the conversion of dead animal and vegetable substances cavities by n partition, and having a number of apertures since the beginning of the world.—Monthly Revier. into an aninialized Algid, qualified to enter into the current on the surface to allow the gastric juice to mix freely with of the circalation, and then to become part and parcel of the food. In one experiment a portion of meat was pat the living machine. No other fluid, not even milk from into one of the cavities; and into the other a portion of
Correspondence. the lising adder, can be poured into the blood vessels fish: when the sphere was discharged, both the substances
PHRENOLOGY. váhoat risk of life; and, therefore, we are authorized to were found to have been acted upon by the gastric juice, conclade, that the chole (that is, the digested food) is a but more especially the fish. In another experiment the
TO TAE EDITOR. Vitalized fluid, like the blood itself. If this be a correct doctor wished to ascertain if the cooking of meat retarded representation, all inquiry as to how the change is effected its digestibility. For this purpose be introduced a quan.
SIR,—I was present last Thursday evening, at the will be just as successful as the inquiry how man was tity of boiled meat into one part of the sphere, and some Literary and Scieatific Society, on the occasion of a diechanged from a lifeless clod into a living animal, at his roasted into the other ; when it was ascertained that the cussion as to whether phrenology be founded on truth. Best creation. But the prying eye of the physiologist has boiled meat was more dissolved than the roasted. The Not being a member, I was unwilling to offer my opinion, penetrated into some of nature's secret operations, and next discovery he wished to make was the comparative but request the favour of your insertion of this, that the here are several very curious and interesting phenomena effect of this extraordinary solvent upon food previously uteadast on the process of digestion, which we shall glance masticated, and upon that which was swallowed whole. adversaries of the science may not come off with quite so in this essay,
This experiment was conducted like the former, and the much eclat as they are inclined to imagine. There have been various opinions concerning the manner food, which was previously
masticated, was more dissolved The first genileman who spoke against the subject in s which the digestive process is carried on The ancients than the other.
debate asserted that there was a great difference between opposed that it was effected by beat ; and this opinion Finding that animal substances thus submitted to the
en formed from a consideration of the situation of the action of the gastric juice were easily digested, he made the persecutor Saul, and the apostle Paul, althoagh the ftomach, which they thought was in the hottest part of the many similar experiments on vegetables, which were also brain remained the same (admitted ;) but -though the bundy, being placed in the cavity of the abdomen, and suf-digested, but not so speedily as animal matter. Inani- effects were different, was not the cause the same
unded by numerous soft organs. That heat acts as an mate substances not being so readily soluble, he next (veneration ?) Does not · St. Paul say himself, that preliary to digestion, is not to be doubted; but it can inquired how far living animals were capable of resisting vious to his conversion he was zealous to God as you all
ever be considered as a principal agent in the process; the action of the gastric juice. cold blooded animals are known to digest their food To ascertain this, he enclosed a leech in a sphere to are this day. He persecuted the Christians because he maliciently well to supply the wants of the machine, al. prevent its wounding the stomach. The man swallowed thought he did an acceptable service unto God; and after Bagh ceis temperature is but little higher than that of it, and when voided, nothing was found in the sphere but he found that his zeal was improperly directed, does not samosphere.
a viscid black miasma--the undefined remains of the di- bis conduct convince us that he had veneration in the Another soury was, that digestion was effected by a gested leech. atrefactive process, but by experiments made on some Dr. Stevens, having no longer an opportunity of con- highest degree? The same speaker affirmed that a person almal meh were induced to eat putrid meat, and after. ducting his experiments on the
man, had recourse to dogs who wanted the organ of colour was employed by • men vand inded, it appeared, upon examining the contents of and ruminating animals. Having previously weighed a milliners and ladies” to match silks, &c. This is not a he sonact, that the fator of the food was considerably quantity of animal and vegetable matter, he enclosed case in point; he might have had the organ of comparison ; iminished-thereby establishing the direct converse of them in different ivory spheres, and made a dog swallow he might have distinguished by the touch ; and it has le position, and puring that the gastric juice possesses them. Some hours after this the dog was killed, and the been proved that the blind can discriminate between
anti-septic quality. Agzis-Digation was supposed to be accomplished by The gastric juice of these animals has such a strong solvent colours, by the feel, as in the case of Miss M'Avoy.. aration. This arose from a knowledge of the action of power, that the ivory spheres which
were employed were Another gentleman very kindly gave us permission to call he satu in virus; a similar action having been gra- found to have been acted upon. He then made several a portion of the brain the os frontis, and this brings me to sitously imposed upon the stomachs of other animals
, experiments on herbiverous animals,
quality of be insisted upons because, the muscular coat of the When these were discharged, the animal food had under a nue by the shape of the shell. If the kernel were not inteachine and quadrupeds, is not of sufficient gone no alteration, while, on the contrary, there were no shrunk, I say he might, but the kernel might have been trength to act on the food in this way. remains of the vegetable matter.
diseased, and so might the brain, and in this case phre. The best idea was, that of fermentation ; but this, like These experiments plainly prove that digestion is not nologists do not pretend to judge. Mr. M‘K-, who je other theories, is erroneous; for the food does not rc-effected by heat, putrefaction, trituration, or fermentation, evidently paid more attention to wit than argument, and alin e sufficient time in the stomach to allow of fermen, but by solution, in which process the gastric juice is the substituted ridicule for reason, commenced by commendpd, in the second division of this work, that it may and solves it, and combines with it previous to its propulsion into ing, and cnded by depreciating the science; he laughed
induce disease, Sir John Pringle-and Dr. Macbride the intestines, where the process of assimilation is further at phrenology, because he said that the passions were first ade several experiments upon this subject. By com- advanced. It also appears from these experiments, that discovered, and then the corresponding protuberances. ning alimentary matter with water and saliva, and keep some animals can only digest vegetable substances, while Bat I would ask how would any phenomenon be acsi in a temperature equal to that of the animal heat, others are only capable of digesting animal food-every found, after a time appearances similar to those prospecies of animal
having, in fact, its peculiar gastric juice. counted for, but by reasoning from the effect to the cause ? med in wujmon cases of chymical fermentation : but it
Who would ever have discovered the pressure of the wuld be foolish to infer, from this experiment that the A New Fire.--Captain Parry, on preparing for the sin, atmosphere but byobserving the effect ? This gentleman me change takes place in the stomach, because the gastric gular expedition in which he is now engaged, found
great condemns the science, because Dr. Gall was a schoolbog wbiel is the principal agent in the process of diges- difficulty, we believe, in providing for the necessary process when the idea struck him; but was not the greatest imso does not appear to have been employed: besides, of cooking during the period he and his companions would could me aseertain from this whether this fermentative be likely to be absent from his ship. At length he fixed provement in the steam-engine suggested by a boy? roos vere healthy or not? This theory has been com-on the lamp with incombustible wick, which is fed with The same speaker says, that because the Brahmins never letely negatired by experiments which have been made spirits of wine. This sort of fire is not only very weak, destroy so much as a Ay, they must want the organ of peto alimentary matter, mixed with gastric juice, instead but very expensive,
and is of course incapable of being destructiveness : but does the causing the Hindoo widows water and saliva, and placed in a situation favourable applied upon a large scale. We have very recently seen to burn themselves on the funeral pile of their departed fermentalinn; and in which fermentation did not take another description of fire, which is procured from a very lace,
cheap and common liquid, without the interposition of husbands prove a want of this organ ? " I do not wish to The best founded theory is that of solutiony that is, of wicks of any kind. The heat which it produces is so in trespass upon your valuable columns, but should this
tense, that it boils a kettle of water in a few minutes, and meet your approbation, I shall communicate a few facts Dt. James Johnson, whose Essay on the Morbid Sensibi- causes a much greater ebullition than coal fire. It is appli- that have come under my own eye. of the stomach and Bowels is one of the best works cable to all the
purposes of cookery, to any extent that may meh has yet been written on that everlasting subject be required. It would, therefore, be peculiarly convenient
July 2, 1827.
CRANIUM. duestion, and its consequences. We strongly recommend so perual to all our young professional readers. the naval and merchant service. In the summer season,
• See a note to correspondents, Miss MAYOY.-Edit. Kat.
Extreme Thermu- Extreme State of
5 30 25 6 30 36 7 30 30 8 30 29 9 30 18 10 | 29 85
0 57 0 61 0 58 0 58 0 58 0
61 0 66 0
h, m.h. m.ft. in.
Literature, Criticism, &c. is pouring a thousand streams of inspiration throughout
(From the Liverpool Courier.]
is room for apprehension, in reference to the prospects
of our literature. For, let us ask, what is the general taste
of readers, and what the general object of authors of the 4 29 39
N.W. Fair. however, and the influence of classical taste, growing out has it been thought necessary to employ so many artifices, of classical erudition, advanced, literary compositions were in order to sweeten the useful and medicinal potion, and freed from the defects. Among the first great authors who crick, men into knowledge and virtue. Our children are
Tide Table. contributed to these results is to be numbered the illustri- not suffered to have useful truth addressed to them in that
Days. Morn. Even. Height. ous Locke; and, during greater part of the last century, direct and simple manner in which, after all, they apprethe process going on upon our literature was a process of hend it most readily, and feel its influence most strongly; Tuesday. 7 5 12 5 45 12 1 Cambridge Term ends, gradual improvement in polish, exactness, and system, but they must have it presented to their minds, disguised Wednesday18 8 2 5911
(1891 The natural influence of these changes was much increased under narrative, or enveloped in the mysteries of a game Friday ....2 8 43 9 10 11 9 Margaret.
2 King George IV. erorted in reference to poetical composition, by the prevalence of of tetotum. In the same way are we apparently regarded Saturday: :2.8 36 18 56 13
(Magdalen. French tastes and opinions, which followed the Revolu. as children, and from day to day our admiration is soli- Monday - 23 10 53 11 10 14
8 6th Sunday after Trinity, tion. A complete revolution took place in the character of cited, and too often obtained, by what has nothing of Tuesday .-24 11 29 11 44 15
5 New Moon, Oh. 31 m. mors our poetry; and, instead of its former exuberance, free intrinsic worth to recommend it, and only dazzles us by dom, and energy, it became distinguished by a hard its gilding and garnishing. Few, or none, can trust them. and artificial brilliance, weight, and penetration. To selves to speak simply, and the public do not seem willing
To Correspondents. wards the end of the last century, the way began to to hear what is simply told them. This hankering after Txx Index and TITLE-PAGE TO THE SEVENTH VOLUME OF TH be prepared for a return from art to nature, by the effect, to the entire exclusion of any thing like substance, genius of Gray, of Goldsmith, and especially of Cowper. is a very dangerous system, which imperiously requires
KALEIDOSCOPE are prepared in type, and will positively )
ready for delivery with the next number. And the revolution has, in our own day, been carried into to be counteracted. The loss is, that to be extravagant is complete effect by a host of genius, which, in its amount so much more easy than to be simply great, that for one
Miss M'AVOY-Although we are not at all disposed to reti and its activity, is altogether unrivalled in the history of who is the latter, a thousand literary men make them
the M'Avoy controversy, which, in our opinion, has bee literature. The literature of our day cannot be described selves the former. The simple writers of our age—the
completely set at rest, we cannot suffer that female's F by any distinct and definite character, like that of former Stewarts, the Halls, the Campbells are among the least
tended faculty to be adduced as a confirmation of an
theory; as it is our decided opinion, founded on no slim ages. There is such a quantity, such a restlessness, such prolific; and for this simple reason, that for one ingot of
grounds, that she could no more distinguish colours by el a versatility of talent in operation, throughout the literary their gold, there is more value condensed than the price
touch, than we can distinguish flavour by the ear or the world, as makes it impossible to fix on any separate name, of all the tinsel which an ordinary writer would sprinkle
If we were once, for a very short time, of a different opinie study, or peculiarity, by which to designate it. There over whole bales of his flimsy gauze, the
we assigned reasons for that circumstance, and also fort
woven change in our opinion, or rather we should say, convicta have been men, it is freely confessed, in former ages, wind" of the ancients. It was a similar taste in ancient on the subject of the pretended phenomenon. whose consecrated names shall be sphered higher in the times that gave birth to the conceits of Ovid, the epigram FIELD SPORTS.Our correspondent Rusticus will perett firmament of renown, and shall blaze with more dazzling of Sautus, the coarse dark copiousness of Lucan, and the lustre through the dark depths of time, than any single insane turgidity of Statius. All these were men of the
that we have adopted his suggestion by introducing
the Kaleidoscope the enumeration of field sports, wbieb! star of that galaxy of intellectual splendour which glorifies loftiest genius, but they prostituted their talents to a shall continue to do monthly, although field sporta our horizon. But never before was so 'thickly clustered a vitiated taste, and the offspring was ill-favoured and ill. general are not at all to our taste.
We feel with Cowy constellation seen in the heavens of literature, and never starred. The same danger impends over us. “ Moniti
on the subject: was the hemisphere, so full of light. Nor is it merely the meliora sequamur !"-Yours, &c.
" Accursed sports,
That owe their pleasure to another's woes." amount of literary talent and general information by
J. WN. It is not affectation on our parts when we say that we ner which our age is distinguished, that claims our attention.
* We had but the other day a lecturer on poetry, at the
could be reconciled to hunting, coursing, fishing, nor A still more remarkable phenomenon, which, indeed, may Royal Institution, George L. Craik, Esq. of the Inner Temple,
tirely to horse-racing. There are sports in abundan be regarded as the cause of the former, is the extreme a man celebrated as well for his classical learning as for his
which inflict no turture upon living creation, and they restlessness of effort with wbich this talent and this know. original genius for poetry: we are only sorry that he met with ledge are operating ; “many are running to and fro, and so little encouragement from the public of Liverpool. I can Tue CHABB, FROM THE GERMAN.--The Arst portion of
translation is reserved for the next Kaleidoscope
. In knowledge is increased;" the intellect which is diffused only account for this by his not being suffciently known.
meantime, we shall be obliged to our correspondent for ti through all classes of society will remain dormant in none, "scribimus indocti doctique ;" titled and plebeian, rich was witnessed by the writer of this article, will not be un.
The following instance of ingenuity in a spider, which
continuation or the remainder. and poor, soldiers and sailors
, are equally candidates for interesting :-X web was observed to be tightly stretched J. His Stanzas to Miss H. and the Falry Song, shah baw intellectual fame, and, through the thousand channels of across a garden path, about five feet in breadth, the reti- wholly independent of the merit of the pieces, as west the press, inundate and fertilize the land with ever-flowing culated portion occupying the centre, and one of the prin
explain to the writer when we next meet him. thought. Formerly, to print a book used to be an awful cu direction ; upon examining in what manner this was The Plague in MANCHESTER-Our readers will recollect thing. The literary adventurer stood full in the eye of the fastened to the ground, it was found that the ingenious our last volume contained the commencement of the world; he could not hope to pass muster in the multitude of insect, instead of having permanently fixed it to the gravel ginal legend. We were not aware of the great length his associates, or to elevate his pigmy intellect on stilts, with path, had coiled it round a stone a little larger than its which the story would extend; but when we ascertal out being discovered : but now, such are the crowd in the own body, and had raised this about a foot from the walk, that it would probably consist of twenty chapters arena, from every side, that no feeling of awe or peril has where it was swinging in the air, giving the necessary de
thought it advisable not to proceed further until the gree of tension to the net-work of the web, but not afford. mencement of our new volume. Having lately receive room to visit the adventurer; and then, if he succeed, what ing a sufficient resistance to the wind to occasion its de- continuation of the piece, we shall proceed with it ca better can he do than try again ? If he fail, still what can struction.-Monthly Magazine.
with, and shall reprint the portion which appeared in he do better than try again? Thus it is that the whole em.
seventh volume; and in order to compensate our read pire of literature exhibits the spectacle of fierce commotions, labourer on an errand, a short distance into the country :
A few days ago, a gentleman of this town sent an Irish
for the repetition, it shall be contained in a gratuitous
plement. canons the most ancient and renerable disregarded, the on his return, Pat was asked what his charge was" Nine. old paths forsaken, and restless talent wandering over the pince, Sir," he replied ; " Sixpince for going, and three. LITERATURE—The essay of L. is in the hands of the print whole amplitude of things in search of novelty and ori- pince for coming back, Sir,-ii was up the hill all the way and shall appear in our next. ginality. Nor is the variety of intellectual capacity in there."-Sheffield Iris.
The lines of A. M. shall be attended to. our day less striking than its amount or its activity. All A gentleman finding his stock of wines and spirits ra. the endless diversities of scientific research, and specula- pidly on the decline, asked his black budler, Sancho, We shall in our next address notes to S. C. J. and 17.3
Birmingham, whose manuscript we have just recovere tive or imaginative literature, are pursued by innumerable bow is it the last wine has gone so quick ?” Received for
“ Why, Massa's friends drink great deal, and votaries. Sciences, whose names were before unknown, Sancho's friends drink great deal.” The difficulty was at Printed, published, and sold, EVERY TUESDAY, are daily added to the vocabulary of philosophy. Poetry once cleared up.
E. SMITH & Co 75, Lord-street, Liverpool
more to our taste.
This famiijar Miscellany, from which all religious and political matters are excluded, contains a variety of original and selected Articles; comprehending LITERATURE, CRITICISM, MEN and
MAXSEES, ANUSEMENT, elegant EXTRACTS, POETRY, ANECDOTES, BIOGRAPHY, METEOROLOGY, the DRAMA, ARTS and SCIENCES, Wit and SATIRE, FASHIONS, NATURAL HISTORY, &c. forming a handsome ANNUAL VOLUME, with an Index and TITLE-PAGE. Persons in any part of the Kingdom may obtain this work from London through their respective Booksellers.
Literature, Criticism, &c. since the Revolution. That the English language has much above the precepts of Horace, Aristotle, and Lon.
been greatly improved by extricating it from the clogged, ginus, as he is generally below them. His plays are LITERARY DISCUSSION.
ponderous, and cumbrous periods which characterize both neither tragedies por comedies, but a heterogeneous mass
the prose and poetry of the Elizabethan age, is quite ob- of ludicrous raillery, grovelling buffoonery, sententious * Vir bonas et prudens versus reprendat inertes, Culpabit duros, incomtis allinet atrum
vious; and it is no less evident that the writers since the sorrow, and sublime passion; he stoops too frequently Transverk Glamo signum."-Horace.
Revolution have effected so desirable a reformation. The from the elevation of his grandeur to quote a pun, or inTO THE EDITOR
names of Addison, Hume, and Johnson, stand pre-emi. verse a jest: from the mountain top he descends to pen a SIE,-- As your little miscellany seems well adapted to the nently high in the list of our improvers, and their writings quibble, or lift a grain of sand.• 'Dryden, his great adingenuous discussion of literary as well as of scientific sub alone have contributed much to the present state of our mirer, corroborates this by his criticism_" He is many jects, I beg to trouble you with the following remarks, in language, which will yield to no modern or dead tongue, times flat and insipid ; his comic wit degenerating into reply to a letter signed Thespis, in the Kaleidoscope of the in either sublimity, harmony, pathos, or energy. This clenches, and his serious swelling into bombast." And 28th ult.
circumstance cannot but directly contribute to render Johnson, a still greater critic and moralist than Dryden, The question involved in the essay read before the Scien. modern poetry more agreeable and instructive. If the says that “Shakspeare sacrifices virtue to convenience ific Society, on Thursday, the 19th instant, was, as already reader compare the Davideis of Cowley with the Pleasures bis precepts and axioms drop casually from him; he tated, "Whether England has produced greater poets of Hope, or The World before the Flood, he will imme, makes no just distribution of good and evil, nor is he always before or since the Revolution ?" and on which occasion diately perceive the force of these remarks. The general careful to show in the virtuous a just disapprobation of the meeting decided, after a long and interesting contro- tendency of the old poets (particularly the dramatic) was the wicked; he carries his persons indifferently through was, in favour of the latter period, by a majority of always immoral, frequently vulgar, and generally licen- right and wrong, and at the close dismisses them without Barly three to ope! But as Thespis has been, by his own tious, and even blasphemous.", We know that female further care, and leaves their example to operate by chance. smission, in the minority, it will be but justice to your writers excel in touching and describing the lively and This fault the barbarity of his age cannot extenuate, for alers generally, to state here a few of the prominent ar- pathetic emotions of the heart, and in giving that tran. it is a writer's duty to make the world better, and justice paments brought forward by your correspondent, as well scription of their own minds which displays the delicate is a virtue independent on time and place.” We may say a those by the gentlemen who contended the point with sensibilities of the soul, and unites the refinement of social with Sophocles, that his lines are, him and his colleagues.
harmony and moral and intellectual intelligence, for which "Loud sounding blasts, not sweetened by the stop." Is the commencement of the dispute it was fully and the sex is so remarkably distinguished.
A gentleman at the meeting ably and justly exposed the In order to arrive at å just conclusion on this point, let levity and absurdity of Hamlet calling his father's ghost dearly explained, that by " the greatest poets” was understood the greatest quantity of good poeiry produced in us examine in what species of poetry the writers before the true penny;" and Mercutio, with the buffoonery of a either period, and not the comparative merit of one poet Revolution excelled, and what degree of originality, sub. jester, is made to pun the solemnity of death itself: he with another; as if we were to inquire whether Shakspeare limity, and moral tendency, can be attributed to them. remarks, on getting his wound, that " it is not so deep as was a greater dramatic writer than Rowe, Congreve, or lo pastoral poetry can the palm be disputed with the lat: a well
, nor so wide as a church-door--that he was pepMorton; of the Paradise Lost a greater poem than the ter writers? The ballads of Shenstone, and the Gentle pered, he warranted, for this world !” thus making this Lorida. Such queries evidently admit of no discussion; Shepherd of Ramsay, have the natural ease and simplicity pattern of threatrical morality a buffoon during his life, but when we ask if all the dramatic poetry written since of any thing produced by Theocritus or Virgil, and as and a punster even in the shades of death, when he is be Revolution be greater or equal to that of Shakspeare, much originality. The pastorals of Pope and Phillips are about to enter into the invisible world! The tragedy of and other dramatists before 1688, in refinement, delicacy sufficiently known, and The Seasons of Thomson, whe- Humlet opens in describing the stillness of night, with A sentiment, vividness of imagination, and moral tenden- ther considered descriptive, didactic, or pastoral, may be the ludicrous simile that “not a mouse stirring :'-(ridi, the question immediately assumes a disputable shape. said as having embraced the Georgics and Pastorals of Vir- culus mus.) Should Homer or Sophocles have com Various definitions were given of what poetry is, and gil, as much as that poet's productions do the Idyllia of menced with such contemptible figures, they would have ome of what it is not. Among the rest was given Haz. Theocritus. In lyric poetry I know not any thing in the been justly doomed to sink for ever into the shades of obit's definition. Touchstone says that "the truest poetry English language that can surpass or equal Dryden's Ode livion. Timon of Athens is made to live a fool, and die a
the most feigning ;” according to which, the poetry to St. Cecilia ; and the imitations of it by Pope and Ad. blaspheming misanthrope, cursing himself, the sun, moon, founded on truth is the most untrue. Johnson says, that dison are no mean productions. Gray is another great and all mankind !_Excellent morality! The Rambler,
to attempt to define poetry shows the narrowness of the original lyric writer, not to mention Collins, Warburton, No. 168, critically exposes the absurdity of bombast in leiner." The simplest, and perhaps best definition is, that and many others. Thespis mentioned Wyatt, or Wy: which Macbeth speaks of “Heaven peeping through the Lina species of writing which, by pleasing, instructs. Keep cherly, as having been the father of English lyrical blanket of the dark.” This is even worse, if possible, Ing this in mind, I proceed to the following observations. poetry; if so, let him produce his works. In descrip- than Milton's "pavement of heaven.” To make the Many of the earliest English poets, as Gower, Chaucer, tive poetry none equals, much less surpasses, Thompson ; Omnipresence of heaven" peep" through any thing, saBarbour, and others, are sometimes found in our private and the names of Goldsmith, Akenside, Armstrong, Som-vours too much of the ornamenta ambitiosa ; " for who, Ibraries, but seldom read with pleasure, interest, or in. merville, and others, need no encomium. In dramatic (says Johnson) without some relaxation of his gravity, can struction; to read them we must have a glossary, and poetry it must be confessed that no individual poet ever hear of the avengers of guilt peeping through a blanket ?" when we have obtained a glossary, we must procure an surpassed Shakspeare, yet I am inclined
to think that if In Henry IV. we have Boreas playing the piper, as Dean Astiquary to instruct us in the meaning and application all the dramatic poetry written within these hundred and Swift judiciously remarks of the obsolete words in which our authors are written. forty years were to be expunged from our language, Shak
"The southern wind From this, as well as from a general view of the old Eng-speare would badly compensate the loss: the same allu.
Doth play the trumpet to his purposes." lish poetry, I must confess that neither the language nor sion applies to Milton, and the general poetry since his In short, I cannot better represent this fustian and overversification (generally) before the end of the reign of time. If we judge Shakspeare by the rules of Grecian strained unnatural poetry better than by the words of LonElizabeth, can please, in the present improved state of and Roman criticism, we cannot vouch for his greatness ginus :—“Forced and unnatural images corrupt and deeur language. The advocates for the latter period pre- as a writer of taste and judgment; yet he is sometimes as base the style, and cannot possibly adorn or raise it; and mised the following positions :-Ist, The improvement of
Characters and incidents from the sacred Scriptures were
whenever carefully examined in the light, their show of the English language, and, consequently, of English generally the subjects of dramatic representation previous to being terrible gradually disappears, and they become cons poetry; 2d, The general moral tendency of our poetry the manly attack of Collier, in 1698, in his Immorality of the temptible and ridiculous.” ince 1639; and, 3d, That all the female poetic writers are English Stage
See a note to correspondents,
There are several tragedies since 1688 equal, if not make sharps," &c. The mind can never take pleasure in sacrificed to the zeal or ignorance of the pious visitors superior, to any that were ever written by Shakspeare. investing the Deity with passions like his creatures ; and the reign of Edward VI. I may enumerate, as particula Cato, Douglas, and Bertram, not to mention Virginius, when he assumes the sceptre of tyranny, cruelty, and op- patronized by Humphrey,-Leonard Arctus, Piero i Jane Shore, and others, are superior in taste, unity, and pression, and evinces revenge, and other despicable pas. Monto, Titio Livio, and Flors Julii, whom he constitut diction to any of the Shaksperian tragedies; no foolery, sions, we fear the poet's fancy has superseded his judg. his poet and orator, and Antonio Beccario, his secretar or fustian and ridiculous swellings, are found in thein ; ment. That Milton copied not only from Continental but whose translation of six tracts of Athanasius, undertak they keep their place on the stage, and will in the closet, ancient poets, is very evident; for his Battle of the Angels by command of the Duke, is among the royal manuscrii as long as good taste and morals are found among man- is found, more or less, in every poet, from Homer to the in the British Museum. The first of those Eagli kind.
Battle of the Giants of Ovid. We owe our knowledge and scholars who studied the Greek language in Italy, it Thespis, after defending Shakspeare, (for which, by his our veneration of this poem to my Lord Somers and Mr. the only school of polite letters, are Joha Tiptcft, Earl own confession, he had been subpæned, I shall not say Addison, who, being themselves fond of the marvellous in Worcester, Lord Chancellor to Edward IV., and Jol hired,) came to the conclusion that this poet was not only religion, took every opportunity to recommend the work Free (or Freat, as he is called by Leland,) with Gra the greatest man that England ever produced, but even to others. A gentleinan ably and critically said of Milton, Fleming, and Gundorp, passed over to Italy from Oxfor the greatest man the world ever saw! This assertion was that, whenever we could not understand him we would be and, either together, or at no great interval of time fra worthy of a Thespian, for none else could possibly have astonished, and, when not astonished, were sure to be each other, became pupils of Guarini; of which the cel made it. I remember a country squire whose library con- amazed.
brated teacher has related, as a striking evidence had sisted of a few old classics he had had at Eton, and Shak. Thespis, among other most extraordinary assertions, deeply interested his feelings were in the learned pursai speare's works, with a few volumes on field sports : he had said that didactic poetry might as well be written in prose ; in which he was engaged, that having, while studying two topics on which he was always eloquent during the so might the tragedies of Shakspeare, as well as those of Greece, under the celebrated Chrysolorus, collected to circulation of the bottle, these were-Shakspeare and the Schiller, Morre, and Lewis : but Dr. Blair, with more large boxes of manuscripts, the loss of one of thes, b chase. When asked who was the greatest historian ? he taste, and certainly more judgment, than Thespis, re- the shipwreck of the vessel in which he was returning would answer Shakspeare. The greatest astronomer ? marks, that "it has several advantages over prose treatises, Italy, caused him such profound concern that his bar Shakspeare. The greatest general of antiquity ? Shak-on moral or philosophical subjects. By the charm of ver- became gray in a single night. Tiptoft brought by speare. What is the most rational amusement ? The sification and numbers it renders instruction more agree with him to England, (whither he was accompanied chase. Who was the greatest mathematician? Shak, able.” The Essay on Man would receive little commen. the Italian scholar Ludovicus Carlo,) a valuable collect speare. And the greatest agriculturists? Shakspeare and dation, or give little instruction, in prose. Doctors Aken- of manuscripts, intended both for his private use and myself. The assertion thus made by Thespis was unte. side and Armstrong are amongst the first didactic poets; enrich the Humphredian Library at Oxford. Theses, af nable, unphilosophical, and injudicious, uttered without Dor should Young's name be omitted in the first rank of his execution, upon the restoration of Henry VI., follow premeditation, and maintained without judgment. moral and preceptive English poets.
the fate of the rest of Duke Humphrey's library. Tin Homer is unquestionably the father of all epic, if not of In modern poetry we have the improvement of language left several works in Latin and English; at the end dl dramatic poetry, and he has been looked upon as such by and versification; and the many illustrious names, whe. | impression of one of which, (a version of two oration every civilized nation; for the plays of Sbakspeare are not ther in original productions or exceilent translations, are Banatusius Magnastio,) the printer Caxton has paid to the Iliad what Horace's Satires are to the Ænead. It sufficient to allow us to give the palm of superiority tribute of enthusiastic affection to the memory of was remarked, however, by a person at the meeting, (and, wherever it is due. No poetry can possibly be great that accomplished Earl. I think, with more correctness than prudence,) that These is not good; and, to be good, must tend to mend or Of Free we are told there remain high encomiums pis's opinions were influenced by his interest and profes.enliven the heart; and that poetry, how great soever it the pen of Guarini himself, in the collection of his epis sional partialities. This he attempted to refute; but the may be, in novelty of images or sublimity of conception, preserved in the library of Baliol College. Johan charge was too true to be repelled : and, whatever fine and cannot merit the name of great or good, if it create a blush Anglicus (Free was styled; by the bye, he shared the di sententious speculations are made on human life, they are on the cheek of innocence, or tend to lead the heart astray with more than one other Englishman of about the never so convincing as the practice of it; for we seldom from virtue.
period) stood 80 high in the estimation of the accomplie see tax-gatherers or excisemen vote against Government, I beg to draw your correspondent Thespis's attention to scholars of Italy, that, when time or accident had efs or a royal pensioner deny the minister his aid : nor do we my concluding remark, as it may benefit him in his fu- the original monkish epitaph upon the tomb of Petrar often see a corrupt minister act up to the golden rule; ture experience in life. We ought always to avoid two he was requested to compose an inscription, to succeed yet their judgments are said to be quite uninfluenced by things in disquisition,—the folly of exaggeration, and the more consonant with the approved latinity of the s their professions."
prejudice of profession : enthusiasm may prompt the one, It was that, the beginning of which is given by Lela To Milton great praise must be given, particularly for and self-interest will naturally uphold the other. Pre- and Warton :-“ Tuscia me genuil,” &c. Several his Paradise Lost, although many critics, and even Durnes, suming on the indulgence generally granted to old corres- tinguished panegyrics upon this scholar are colleet have pronounced the subject as unhappily chosen. To pondents for the diffuseness of their remarks, I am, Some of his works, deposited in Jesus College, Oxf give natural organs, common thoughts, and actions of men, June 2, 1827
L. have perished ; those which remain are, Cosmogta to the Divinity, even by personification, may possibly,
Mundi, consisting of extracts from Pliny–a translat and, indeed, frequently does, lead to more evil than good. ON THE FIRST INTRODUCTION OF GREEK LITERA. of some parts of Xenophon—a collection of ten La The poem is founded on an Italian comedy, which Milton,
TURE INTO ENGLAND,
epistles and a little poem, " Carmen ad miraculum in his youth, saw acted at Florence, and called Adoma. INCLUDING SKETCHES OF THOSE EMINENT ENGLISH PATRONS AND clegans,” (says Leland) addressed to Tiptoft
. It is The subject was the fall of man; the actors God, the SCHOLARS THROUGH WHOSE EXERTIONS THE MONASTIC IGNO opinion that you may reckon among the causes et devils, angels, Adam, Eve, the serpent, death, and the
operated in the introduction of Greek literature among seven mortal sins. The topic, so improper for a drama,
the intercourse that necessarily took place between caught the attention of Milton, whose great and sublime mind, enriched by knowledge, and strengthened by con- learning was Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, brother to the different papal councils. At the Council of Consta
Among the first and most liberal encouragers of Greek orators, assembled from different nations of Europe The play, which was dedicated to Mary of Medicis, opens earnestly laboured to dispel the gloom of barbarism
in out as representatives of England, had an opportantes with a chorus of angels, and a cherubim thus speaks for which England was in his time involved, by his own conversing with Chrysolorus, the father of Creek het dle of the heavens; let the planets be the notes of our enlightened patronage of contemporary efforts of learning, ardent restorers ; which, from the known literes i the rest : “Let the rainbow be the fiddlestick of the fid- example as an author and a scholar; by munificent and in Italy, and with Poggio Bracciolini, one of its o music ; let time beat carefully the measure ; and the wind especially of such as were directed to enrich modern of some individuals among them, it is supposed * Thepis sneered at the Puritans and Puritanical times; Europe with Latin translations of the Greek classics, (a would not wholly neglect. I am, yours, &c.
Liverpool but it was the sneer of a comedian only, and had no effect. labour in which the learned in Italy were at that time He ought, or rather might have known, that a Puritan (Col- largely occupied ;) but chiefly by forming collections of lier, in 1698,) reformed the British stage; and that many of the best authors. Of the latter mode, his present to the
Tide Table. the most learned and best men of the present and former ages University of Oxford, of above six hundred splendid have written volumes on the immoral tendency of the drama.
Morn. Even. Height. There are nearly fifty different works on this subject, down volumes, written on vellum, and elegantly embellished
h. m. h. m. ft. in. from Collier to the Rev. Rowland Hill. Thespis may rest as- with miniatures and illuminations, is a noble specimen. Tuesday ..24 11 29 11 44 15 sured that mankind would be better if all the thentres were It is deeply to be lamented that a single specimen only Wednesday 25 11 59 razed to the ground, and if in their stead gymnastie schools, survives of this monument of Humphrey's taste and Friday ....27 0 501
Thursday..26 0 16 0 33'16 or schools of art, or libraries for the people were erected. At present the public taste seems gradually to be on the de- munificence : it is a beautiful manuscript, in folio, of Saturday. 28 i 23 i 39 16 cline; but which evinces neither a diminution of good sense Valerius Maximus : the rest, under suspicion of contain: Monday 30 2 37 2 58 15 nor of virtue.
RANCE OF OUR NATIVE SCHOOLS GAVE WAY BEFORE THE LAN-
5 New Moon, Oh.31m.me 2 St. James. 7 St. Anne. 9
ing malter savouring of Popishi superstition, having been Tuesday 31 32i 3 47 14
1 7th Sunday after Trin
6 Morn's first quarter.
ling in this propensity that the death of the reverend gentle- | Wylie interested the owner's feelings by relating the man may be indirectly attributed. After the perpetration wonderful escape he had made, and before tasting a more
of the sanguinary deed, he was first discovered by two of sel himself, saw his steed rubbed down, and suppered in a THE REV. MR. WATERHOUSE
these boys, lying in a mash-tub, groaning deeply, with his style that would do honour to the grooms at Kew Palace. letter from Huntingdon, written on Tuesday se'nnight, diately quitted the house, and acquainted a neighbour with above adventure tended so much to enhance his value,
legs hanging over the side of the vessel. The boys imme- The animal had always been a great favourite, but the tains the following interesting particulars of the eccen. the circumstances, when they were answered that their that his master was often heard to say, that no vile dog or habits of this unfortunate gentleman :
master only did it on purpose to frighten them. Screams carrion crow should ever tear the flesh from his bones. The deceased was a gentleman of eccentric and not were also heard issuing from the house ; but from the And this resolution he kept so religiously, that “ Rattler,”
dignified habits, though he at one time offered him singular character of the deceased, or from culpable negli on his death, was buried at the bottom of a sunny knoll, E as a candidate for the Mastership of Catharine Hall, gence, they were in like manner disregarded. Assistance and the decent ceremony honoured with a tear, as grateful
aabridge, of which college he was ihe oldest remaining at this moment might have saved the life of the unhappy as ever dropped from a human eye.
[From the London Weekly Review.] Taxer, &c. His latter years presented a woful con
to the honourable scenes amongst which his youth à manhood were spent, and furnish ample matter for
(FROM THE MANUSCRIPT JOURNAL OF AN INDIAN OFFICER.] 1 action to those who love to study the various phases d aberrations of human nature. For the last twenty or
(From the Dumfries Courier.) y years of his life, the reverend gentleman might be
As a young officer of the Bengal army was proceeding sidered no bad representative of a certain class of the The following very remarkable circumstance has been up the Ganges, on his way from Berhampore to Patna, glish clergy of the last century, who sat as models for communicated to us by a correspondent, who has nothing he beguiled the tedium of his voyage by exercising his epen of Fielding and other satirists, but who are happily credulous or gossiping in his nature, and who, from the fowling-piece on the innumerable feathered tribes which
fast disappearing. In dress and manners he was sim- numerous inquiries he has made on the subject, is willing haunt the sunny banks of that noble river. Though not le as Abraham Adams himself, though it must be con- and able to attest its accuracy.
a first-rate marksman, his skill was by no means coo. saed, in some parts of his character, he bore a closer re In the year 1796 or 7, the late Mr. John Wylie, in temptible. In the course of his sporting adventures, mblance to Parson Trulliber. The land attached to his Wylie's parish of Dornock, paid a visit to a friend on the however, he met with an accident which had nearly made story at Stukeley, which was worth about £400 per an. English side of the Solway Frith, and while returning him curse the fidelity of his aim during the remainder of
10, he retained in his own occupation, and busied him- home, attempted to cross by a well-known ford, about å his life. One sultry day, in pursuance of his accustomed - If incessantly, though often very unprofitably, in the mile or so to the eastward of Bowness. He travelled on pastime, he threw up ihe venetian window of his budge
management of his rural affairs. As he would seldom horseback, was well-mounted, and knew the time pre- row," and perceiving, as he imagined, a very numerous wy his labourers the wages usually given in the parish, cisely of low water; but an intense frost lay on flood and assemblage of dark.coloured birds on the opposite shore,
ground remained unculcivated, if work was to be ob. field, and in the course of a very few hours, the process of he levelled his gun with more than ordinary caution, åned elsewhere, and last year he had not completed his crystallization had gone forward so rapidly, that the ice, and pulled the trigger, under the firm conviction that
ay-barvest till considerably after Michaelmas. The large which deeply incrusted the sand-banks, and crackled he should at all events disturb their lever. He watched rnd elegant rectory-bouse he converted into a sort of gra. under his horse's hoofs, stretched even far into the mid- the ball leap along the glassy surface of the water,
a ary for his long-hoarded grain; and at one time loads of dle of the frith. With much difficulty he groped his way until it seemed to penetrate into the very midst of sorn, sacks of wool, and bushels of fruit, the produce of through the river Eden, and, on reaching the Esk, the them; but strange to relate, not a wing stirred! An. uis farm and orebards, might be seen in rooms decorated air became so cold, and the atmosphere so hazy, that his other shot—and another and another ; but the little Frith Tarkey carpets, and the other insignia of refined senses were not a little bewildered. His gallant steed, dark figures remained as stationary as ever. His head ciety. Consistent with this plan of utility, in utter con- unlike his wont, evinced great reluctance to proceed, and throbbed, and his eye ached from the intensity of the heat zapt of taste and ornament, Mr. Waterhouse had nearly though admonished by both whip and spur, went forward and glare. The distant shore appeared at times as a dizzy 21 the windows of his house blocked up, to save the pay at a very lagging pace. This, to the rider, seemed an mist: the broad smooth river reflected intolerable radiance; sent of the window tax.. Out of twenty in front, troo ominous circumstance, and while pausing to reflect on his and the hot air seemed composed of glimmering masses of gly were suffered to remain. He lived constantly in the situation, the sagacious animal turned gently round of its ever-moving atoms, like the sun-illumined sands of the
Etchen, without any regular female domestic, and per. own accord, and appeared much more willing to retreat Desert. Under these circumstances, the appearance of -rmed the office of cook for himself and workmen. Every than advance. This incident, trifling as it was, determined distant objects might have deceived the strongest vision ; *aturday the reveread gentleman walked to Huntingdon Mr. Wylie to resign himself entirely to the guidance of and he began to suspect that what he had taken for birds Darket, a distance of between three and four miles, fre- his horse; but he had not proceeded' far in the backward night be nothing more than a quantity of scattered stones. Exently driving his pigs before him; and after transacting route, when he heard the distant sound of waters, and he addressed himself to the boatmen, some of whom con. is farining business, he used to carry home, in a basket, ascertained, by more than one indication, that the flood firmed his suspicions, while others assured him that his is tea and sugar, and other necessaries for the week. If tide, unstayed and unrebuked by the frost, was advancing bullet never reached the shore. Vexed, and weary, and 1. Waterhouse's habits were such as are not often found with its usual fearful rapidity. His situation was now half ashamed, he gave another fire, when lo! to his utter amongst the clergy, his dress was equally uncanonical : perilous in the extreme. Placed, in a dark night, be- astonishment, up rose a group of human beings, and ap
coarse blue great coat, with metal buttons, corduroy iween two rivers, neither of them deep, yet sufficiently palled him with their extravagant gestures. li happened Beeches, and light grey stockings, formed his usual cos dangerous with an ocean-tide in the rear that has over that the extraordinary heat of the weather had induced a une. The following
passage in the life of this singular whelmed hundreds in the course of centuries, he literally large crowd of natives to throw themselves on the cool lap tergyman is worthy the pencil of Cruikshank. He had a knew not where to flee or look for aid: to reach the of the goddess Gunga.t Being up to their necks in the
zong, insuperable aversion to beggars of all descriptions; English coast by out-galloping the tide, was an utter im. “sacred stream,” they presented the curious spectacle od, as in most small villages, the domicile of the rector is possibility, even if the Eden had not intervened ; and which misled the now agitated sportsman. He lost not a waarly inferior in importance to the mansion of the 'squire, after commending his soul to Divine Providence, the be- moment in directing the Maunjeet to make the shore, 2 sumbers of these itinerants contrived to way-lay the path wildered traveller took his station on the largest and and learn if any serious wound had been inflicted. On
the rector of Stukeley; of course they were always re- thickest sheet of ice he could find, in the hope, rather than his landing he found, to his great satisfaction, that the pealsed with scorn and indignation; and not unfrequently the expectation, that it would haply float him to dry land. people, though sufficiently alarmed and irritated, were *eteran tars and soldiers might be seen at his gate shoul. The poor animal proved by its trembling that it shared wholly uninjured, with the exception of one man, who ering their crutches, not to show how fields were won, but deeply in the fears of its master, and endangered the had received a spent ball in the palm of his hand. It
attempt the achievement of fresh victories. One Sunday, safety of both by its restlessness, as the wind whistled occasioned, however, so slight a pain, that, on covering while performing divine service, the rector perceived, from louder and louder, and the waters approached nearer and the wound with a few rupees, the patient seemed imme.
window in the church, a sturdy mendicant prowling nearer, until spray and head-wave foamed, and rushed, diately relieved. about his grounds, whom he instantly determined to re- and lashed around its sides. Still Mr. Wylie, who had • A pinnace. Ganges. # Master of the budgerow.
love, in the most prompt and efficacious manner. Wait. previously dismounted, stood unmoved at the extremity 2 og for an opportune moment, the reverend gentleman of the reins, and after a very brief space, he not only
Velocity of Cannon Balls.--Lieutenant Helwig, of Jescended from the desk after prayers, as the clerk was heard the
ice “ break up,” but felt that he was fair under Prussia, has invented a process for measuring the time giving out the psalm, and throwing off his surplice at the weigh. The strong swell impelled the voyagers rapidly occupied by a ball or bullet in passing through a certain Shurch-door, he attacked
the graceless intruder, and fairly forward, but before they arrived at Tardoff point, a dis- space. His process consists in making the ball liberate thrushed him off the premises. Having performed this tance of at least three miles, the slippery raft unfortunately the works of a time-keeper at the moment when it quits fest, Mr. W. quietly re-entered the church, at the conclu- separated, leaving the yeoman standing upon one frag: the mouth of the piece, and in inaking it also stop the sion of the psalm, and proceeded to read the lessons of the ment, and
his companion upon another. When the tide time-keeper at the moment when it strikes an obstacle. day. In one point, the rector of Stukeley was a careful began to ebb, the ice-bergs floated in a contrary direction, The numerous experiments which he has made already, shepherd of his flock : he would not suffer any of his pa- and while again sailing rapidly with the stream, the horse offer interesting results. He finds, for instance, that a rishioners to appear in church dressed in a smock-frock, passed his master at a little distance, and neighed so loud, light body, of the same calibre with the bullet, moves, at the usual garb of our agricultural labourers; and if a hap: that it was perfectly obvious he saw and recognised him. the commencement, with much greater velocity than the less rustic chanced to drop in, arrayed in the prohibited His share of the ice berg was either the largest, or from latter, equal charges being used. He finds also, that small tuga, he was instantly ordered by the pastor to quit the some other cause, it floated fastest; but both at length bodies move more promptly-a circumstance which causes which marked the wayward, ill-regulated mind of Mr. way between Bowness and Cardornack, and at the distance any light body within the piece used.-Bulletin Universel. church! Amongst the most amiable of the peculiarities were safely landed on the Cumberland coast, about half a considerable deviation of the ball, when there is sand
or Waterhouse, may be reckoned a peculiar fondness for the of a quarter of a mile from each other. Their meeting curupany and amusements of children, which contrasted was necessarily a very happy one, and though they had Lately, a dentist of Nottingham extracted from the jaws strangely with his usually selfish, violent, and even morose drifted altogether above eight miles, neither bad sustained of an elderly female, at Sneinton, who was suffering ex. temper. He delighted also in teasing and frightening his the slightest injury, beyond what arises from numbness cruciating pains from the tooth-ache, no less than sixteen pour upcouth farm.boys; and it is, perhaps, to his indulg. and cold. On finding his way to the nearest inn, Mr. teeth!