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Of usance for my monies, and you'll not hear His wife, who wins me by that means I told This is kind I offer.
you, Ant. This were kindness.
Yourself, renowned prince, then stood as fair, Shy. This kindness will I show:
As any comer I have look'd on yet,
For my affection.
Therefore, I pray you, lead me to the caskets,
That won three fields of Sultan Solyman, Of your fair flesh, to be cut off and taken I would out-stare the sternest eyes that look, In what part of your body pleaseth me. Out-brave the heart most daring on the earth, Ant. Content, in faith ; l'll seal to such a Pluck the young suckling cubs from the she bond,
bear, And say, there is much kindness in the Jew. Yea, mock the lion when he roars for prey,
Base. You shall not seal to such a bond for To win thee, lady: But, alas the while ! I'll rather dwell* in my necessity. [me, If Hercules, and Lichas, play at dice.
Ant. Why, fear not, man; I will not forfeit it;Which is the better man, the greater throw Within these two months, that's a month before May turn by fortune from the weaker hand : This bond expires. I do expect return
So is Alcides beaten by his page ; Of thrice three times the value of this bond. And so may I, blind fortune leading me, Shy. O father Abraham, what these Chris- Miss that which one unworthier may attain, tians are ;
And die with grieving. . . Whose own hard dealings teaches them suspect Por. You must take your chance; The thoughts of others : Pray you, tell me this; And either not attempt to choose at all, If he should break his day, what should I gain Or swear, before you choose,- if you choose By the exaction of the forfeiture?
Never to speak to lady afterward (wrong, A pound of man's flesh taken from a man, In way of marriage; therefore be advis'd.* Is not so estimable, profitable neither,
Mor. Nor will not; come, bring me unto my As flesh of muttons, beefs, or goats. I say,
chance. To buy his favour, I extend this friendship : Por. First, forward to the temple; after dinIf he will take it, so; if not, adieu ;
| Your hazard shall be made.
[ner And, for my love, I pray you, wrong me not. I Mor. Good fortune then!
[Cornets. Ant. Yes, Shylock, I will seal unto this bond. To make me bless'd, or cursed'st among men. Shy. Then meet me forthwith at the notary's; I
[Exeunt. - Give him direction for this merry bond,
SCENE 11.-Venice.--A Street.
Enter LAUNCELOT Gobbo.
Laun. Certainly my conscience will serve me I will be with you.
Erit. Ito run from this Jew, my master : The fiend is Ant. Hie thee. gentle Jew.
I kind. at mine elbow; and tempts me, saying to me, This Hebrew will turn Christian: he grows Gobbo, Launcelot Gobbo, good Launcelot,or good Bass. I like not fair terms, and a villain's
ain's Gobbo, or good Launcelot Gobbo, use your legs, mind.
take the start, run away: My conscience says, Ant. Come on: in this there can be no dismay,
no; take heed, honest Launcelot ; take heed, honest My ships come home a month before the day. Gobbo; or, as aforesaid, honest Launcelot Gob
intbo; do not run; scorn running with thy heels : ACT II.
Well, the most courageous fiend bids me pack;
Tria! says the fiend ; away! says the fiend, for SCENE I.--Belmont.--A Room in Portia's the heavens ; rouse up a brave mind, says the House.
fiend, and run. Well, my conscience, hanging Flourish of Cornets. Enter the PRINCE OF about the
| about the neck of my heart, says very wisely Morocco, and his Train; Portia, NERISSA, to me,iny honest friend Launcelot, being an and other of her Attendants.
honest man's son, or rather an honest woman's Mor. Mislike me not for my complexion,
son ;--for, indeed, my father did something The shadow'd livery of the burnish'd sun,
smack, something grow to, he had a kind of To whom I am a neighbour, and near bred.
taste; well, my conscience says, Launcelot, Bring me the fairest creature northward born,
budge not; budge, says the fiend ; budge not, Where Phæbus' fire scarce thaws the icicles,
says my conscience : Conscience, says I, you And let us make incisiont for your love,
counsel weil ; fend, says I, you counsel well:
I to be ruled by my conscience, I should stay To prove whose blood is reddest, his, or mine. I tell thee, lady, this aspect of mine
with the Jew my master, who, (God bless the
mark!) is a kind of devil; and, to run away from Hath fear'df the valiant ; by my love, I swear,
the Jew, I should be ruled by the fiend, who, The best-regarded virgins of our clime Have lov'd it too: I would not change this hue,
saving your reverence, is the devil himself:
Certainly, the Jew is the very devil incarnaExcept to steal your thoughts, my gentle queen.
tion; and, in my conscience, my conscience is Por. In terms of choice I am not solely led
but a kind of hard conscience, to offer to counBy nice direction of a maiden's eyes : Besides the lottery of my destiny
sel me to stay with the Jew: The fiend gives Bars me the right of voluntary choosing :
the more friendly counsel : I will run, fiend; my But, if my father had not scanted me,
heels are at your commandment, I will run. And hedg'd me by his wit, to yield myself
Enler old GOBBO, with a Baskel. Abide.
Gob. Master, young man, you, I pray you; 1 Allusion to the eastern chatom for lovers to testify which is the way to master Jews. passion by cutting themselves in their mistresses which is the way to master Jew's ? 1 Territied.
* Not precipitate.
Laun. (Aside.] O heavens, this is my true | hair on his tail, than I have on my face, when begotten father! who, being more than sand- I last saw him. blind, high-gravel blind, knows me not:-1! Gob. Lord, how art thou changed! How will try conclusions* with him.
dost thou and thy master agree: I have brought Gob. Master young gentleman, I pray you, him a present; How 'gree you now? which is the way to master Jew's?
Laun. Well, well; but, for mine own part. Laun. Turn up on your right hand, at the as I have set up my rest to run away, so I will next turning, but, at the next turning of all, not rest till I have run some ground : my mason your left; marry, at the very next turning, ter's a very Jew: Give him a present ! gire turn of no hand, but turn down indirectly to him a halter: I am famish'd in his service: the Jew's house.
you may tell every finger I have with my ribs. Gob. By God's sonties, 'twill be a hard way Father, I am glad you are come; give me to hit. Can you tell me whether one Launce- your present to one master Bassanio, who, inlot, that dwells with him, dwell with him, or deed, gives rare new liveries; if I serve not no?
him, I will run as far as God has any ground. Laun. Talk you of young master Launce- -0 rare fortune! here comes the man ;-to lot?-Mark me now;[Aside. now will I raise him, father ; for I am a Jew, if I serve the Jew the waters :—Talk you of young master Laun- any longer. celot?
Enter Bassano, with LEONARDO, and other Gob. No master, Sir, but a poor man's son;
Followers. his father, though I say it, is an honest exceeding poor man, and, God be thanked, well to
Bass. You may do so ;-but let it be so hastlive.
ed, that supper be really at the farthest by five Laun. Well, let his father be what he will,
of the clock : See these letters deliver'd; put we talk of young master Launcelot.
the liveries to making; and desire Gratiano to Gob. Your worship's friend, and Launcelot,
ncelot, come anon to my lodging. Erit a Serrani. Sir.
Laun. To him, father. Laun. But I pray you ergo, old man, ergo,
Gob. God bless your worship! I beseech you; Talk you of young master
Bass. Gramercy; Would'st thou aught with Launcelot? Gob. Of Launcelot, an't please your master
Gob. Here's my son, Sir, a poor boy, ship.
Laun. Not a poor boy, Sir, but the rich Laun. Ergo, master Launcelot; talk not of Jew's man; that would, Sir, as my father shall master Launcelot, father; for the young gen- specily,tleman (according to fates and destinies, and l Gob. He hath a great infection, Sir, as one such odd sayings, the sisters three, and such / would say, to servebranches of learning) is, indeed, deceased ;! Laun. Indeed, the short and the long is, 1 or, as you would say, in plain terms, gone to serve the Jew, and I have a desire, as my faheaven.
ther shall specify, Gob. Marry, God forbid! the boy was the Gob. His master and he, (saving your worvery staff of my age, my very prop.
ship's reverence,) are scarce cater-cousins : Laun. Do I look like a cudgel, or a hovel
Laun. To be brief, the very truth is, that the post, a staff, or a prop ?-Do you know me, Jew, having done me wrong, doth cause me, father?
as my father, being I hope an old man, shall Gob. Alack the day, I know you not young
frutify unto you, gentleman: but, I pray you, tell me, is my boy,
Gob. I have here a dish of doves, that I (God rest his soul!) alive, or dead?
would bestow upon your worship; and my Laun. Do you not know me, father?
suit is, Gob. Alack, Sir, I am sand-blind, I know Laun. In very brief, the suit is impertinent you not.
to myself, as your worship shall know by this Laun. Nay, indeed, if you had your eyes, honest old man; and, though I say it, though you might fail of the knowing me : it is a wise old man, yet, poor man, my father. father, that knows his own child. Well, old Bass. One speak for both ;- What would man, I will tell you news of your son: Give you? me your blessing : truth will come to light; | Laun. Serve you, Sir. murder cannot be hid long, a man's son may;
Gob. This is the very defect of the matter, Sir. but, in the end, truth will out.
Bass. I know thee well, thou hast obtain'd Gob. Pray you, Sir, stand up; I am sure,
thy suit; you are not Launcelot, my boy.
Shylock, thy master, spoke with me this day, Laun. Pray you, let's have no more fooling And hath preferr'd thee, if it be preferment, about it, but give me your blessing; I am To leave a rich Jew's service, to become Latincelot, your boy that was, your son that is, | The follower of so poor a gentleman. your child that shall be.
Laun. The old proverb is very well parted Gob. I cannot think, you are my son.
between my master Shylock and you, Sir; you Laun. I know not what I shall think of that: have the grace of God, Sir, and he hath enough. but I am Launcelot, the Jew's man; and, I am Bass. Thou speak'st it well : Go, father with sure, Margery, your wife, is my mother.
thy son :Gob. Her name is Margery, indeed: I'll be Take leave of thy old master, and inquire sworn, if thou be Launcelot, thou art mine own My lodging out:-Give him a livery flesh and blood. Lord worshipp'd might hel
To his Followers. be! what a beard hast thou got ! thou hast got More guarded* than his fellows': See it done. more hair on thy chin, than Dobbin my thill. Laun. Father, in :-) cannot get a service, horset has on his tail.
no;-I have ne'er a tongue in my head.-Well; Laun. It should seem then, that Dobbin's (Looking on his palm.) if any man in Italy bare tail grows backward; I am sure he had more a fairer table,t which doth offer to swear upon * Experiments.
* Ornamented. The palm of the band extended
a book.--I shall have good fortune; Go to, i And so farewell ; I would not have my father here's a simple line of life! here's a small trifle See me talk with thee. of wives: Alas, fifteen wives is nothing ; Laun. Adieu !-tears exhibit my tongue.eleven widows, and nine maids, is a simple Most beautiful pagan,-most sweet Jew! If a coming-in for one man: and then, to 'scape Christian do not play the knave, and get thee, drowning thrice; and to be in peril of my life I am much deceived: But, adieu! these foolwith the edge of a feather-bed-here are sim- ish drops do somewhat drown my manly spirit ; ple 'scapes! Well, if fortune be a'woman, she's adieu !
[Exit. a good wench for this gear.–Father, come; Jes. Farewell, good Launcelot.-I'll take my leave of the Jew in the twinkling Alack, what heinous sin it is in me, of an eye.
To be asham'd to be my father's child! [Exeunt LAUNCELOT and old GOBBO. But though I am a daughter to his blood, Bass. I pray thee, good Leonardo, think on I am not to his manners: O Lorenzo, this :
| If thou keep promise, I shall end this strife; These things being bought, and orderly be- Become a Christian, and thy loving wife. Return in haste, for I do feast to-night (stow'd,
[Erit. My best-esteem'd acquaintance ; hie thee, go. SCENE IV.-The same.- A Street. Leon. My best endeavours shall be done Enter GRATIANO, LORENZO, SALARINO, and herein.
Lor. Nay, we will slink away in supper-time; Gra. Where is your master ?
Disguise us at my lodging, and return Leon. Yonder, Sir, he walks.
All in an hour.
Gra. We have not made good preparation. Gra. Signior Bassanio,
Salar. We have not spoke us yet of torchBass. Gratiano!
bearers. Gra. I have a suit to you.
Salan. 'Tis vile, unless it may be quaintly Bass. You have obtain'd it.
order'd; Gra. You must not deny me; I must go with And better, in my mind, not undertook. you to Belmont.
Lor. 'Tis now but four o'clock; we have two Bass. Why, then you must ;-But hear thee, To furnish us :
Enter LAUNCELOT, with a letter.
Friend Launcelot, what's the news ?
Laun. An it shall please you to break up And in such eyes as ours appear not faults ; But where thou art not known, why, there they
this, it shall seem to signify.
Lor. I know the hand: in faith, 'tis a fair show
And whiter than the paper it writ on, [hand , Something too liberal :*—pray thee, take pain To allay with some cold drops of modesty
Is the fair hand that writ. Thy skipping spirit; lest, through thy wild be
Gra. Love-news, in faith.
Laun. By your leave, Sir. I be misconstrued in the place I go to, [haviour,
Lor. Whither goest thou? And lose my hopes.
Laun. Marry, Sir, to bid my old master the Gra. Signior Bassanio, hear me:
Jew to sup to-night with my new master the II do not put on a sober habit,
Christian. Talk with respect, and swear but now and then,
Lor. Hold here, take this :-tell gentle JesWear prayer-books in my pocket, look de
I will not fail her ;-speak it privately ; go.-Nay more, while grace is saying, hood mine
(Exit LAUNCELOT. Thus with my hat, and sigh, and say, amen; Use all the observance of civility,
Will you prepare you for this masque to-night?
I am provided of a torch-bearer.
| Salar, Ay, marry, I'll be gone about it Bass. Well, we shall see your bearing. I
Salan. And so will I. Gra. Nay, but I bar to-night; you shall not
Lor. Meet me, and Gratiano, gage me By what we do to-night.
At Gratiano's lodging some hour hence. Bass. No, that were pity;
Salar. ,'Tis good we do so. I would entreat you rather to put on
(Exeunt SALAR. and SALAT Your boldest suit of mirth, for we have friends
Gra. Was not that letter from fair Jessica ? That purpose merriment: But fare you well,
Lor. I must needs tell thee all: She hath I have some business.
directed, Gra. And I must to Lorenzo, and the rest ;
How I shall take her from her father's house ; But we will visit you at supper-time. (Exeunt.
What gold, and jewels, she is furnish'd with ;
What page's suit she hath in readiness. SCENE III.-The same.-A Room in SAY If e'er the Jew her father come to heaven, LOCK's House.
It will be for his gentle daughter's sake :: Enter JESSICA and LAUNCELOT. And never dare misfortune cross her foot, Jes. I am sorry, thou wilt leave my father so;
Unless she do it under this excuse, Our house is hell, and thou, a merry devil,
That she is issue to a faithless Jew. Didst rob it of some taste of tediousness :
Come, go with me; peruse this, as thou goest : But fare thee well; there is a ducat for thee.
Fair Jessica shall be my torch-bearer. [Exeunt. And, Launcelot, soon at supper shalt thou see SCENE V.-The same. Before SAYLOCK'S Lorenzo, who is thy new master's guest: Give him this letter ; do it secretly,
Enter SHYLOCK and LAUNCELOT. • Grom, licentious. 1 Show of staid anul serious demeanour.
Shy. Well, thou shalt gee, thy eyes shall be Carnoge, doporument.
The difference of old Shylock and Bassanio: Salar. His hour is almost past.
To seal love's bonds new made, than they are Laun. Why, Jessica !
| To keep obliged taith unforfeited! Shy. Who bids thee call? I do not bid thee Gra. That ever holds: Who rises from a call.
feast, Laun. Your worship was wont to tell me, I With that keen appetite that he sits down: could do nothing without bidding.
Where is the horse that doth untread again
His tedious measures with the unbated fire Enter JESSICA.
That he did pace them first? All things that are Jes. Call you? What is your will?
Are with more spirit chased than enjoy'd. Shy. I am bid* forth to supper, Jessica ; How like a younker, or a prodigal, There are my keys:-But wherefore should I The scarfed* bark puts from her native bay, I am not bid for love; they flatter me: [go? Hugg'd and embraced by the strumpet wind! But yet I'll go in hate, to feed upon
How like the prodigal doth she return; The prodigal Christian.- Jessica, my girl, With over-weather'd ribs, and ragged sails, Look to my house :-I am right loath to go; Lean, rent, and beggar'd by the strumpet wind! There is some ill a brewing towards my rest,
Enter LORENZO. For I did dream of money-bags to-night.
Laun. I beseech you, Sir, go; my young mas- Salar. Here comes Lorenzo ;--more of this ter doth expect your reproach.
hereafter, Shy. So do I his.
Lor. Sweet friends, your patience for my Laun. And they have conspired together, I
long abode; will not say, you shall see a masque; but if Not I, but my affairs, have made you wait; you do, then it was not for nothing that my When you shall please to play the thieves for nose fell a bleeding on Black-Monday last, at
wives, six o'clock i'the morning, falling out that year I'll watch as long for you then.-Approach; on Ash-Wednesday was four year in the after-Here dwells my father Jew :-Ho! who's noon.
within. Shy. What! are there masques? Hear you me, Jessica :
Enter JESSICA above, in boy's clothes. Lock up my doors; and when you hear the Jes. Who are you? Tell me, for more cerAnd the vile squeaking of the wry-neck'd fife,
tainty, Clamber not you up to the casements then, Albeit I'll swear that I do know your tongue. Nor thrust your head into the public street, | Lor. Lorenzo, and thy love. To gaze on Christian fools with varnish'd faces :) Jes. Lorenzo, certain; and my love, indeed: But stop my house's ears, I mean my case-For who love I so much? And now who knows, ments;
But you, Lorenzo, whether I am yours? Let not the sound of shallow foppery enter Lor. Heaven, and thy thoughts, are witness My sober house.—By Jacob's staff, I swear,
that thou art. I have no mind of feasting forth to-night: Jes. Here, catch this casket; it is worth the But I will go.-Go you before me, sirrah ;
pains. Say, I will come.
I am glad 'tis night, you do not look on me, Laun. I will go before, Sir.
For I am much asham'd of my exchange: Mistress, look out at window, for all this; But love is blind, and lovers cannot see There will come a Christian by,
The pretty follies that themselves comunit; Will be worth a Jewess' eye. [Erit Laun. For if they could, Cupid himself would blush Shy. What says that fool of Hagar's off. To see me thus transformed to a boy. spring, ha?
Lor. Descend, for you must be my torchJes. His words were, Farewell, mistress ; bearer. nothing else.
Jes. What, must I hold a candle to in Shy. The patch is kind enough; but a huge
They in themselves, good sooth, are too too Snail-slow in profit, and he sleeps by day Why, 'tis an office of discovery, love; More than the wild cat; drones hive not with And I should be obscur'd. me.
Lor. So are you, sweet, Therefore I part with him; and part with him | Even in the lovely garnish of a boy. To one that I would have him help to waste But come at once; His borrow'd purse.--Well, Jessica, go in; For the close night doth play the run-away. Perhaps, I will return immediately;
And we are staid for at Bassanio's feast. Do, as I bid you,
Jes. I will make fast the doors, and gild myShut doors after you: Fast bind, fast find;
self A proverb never stale in thrifty mind. [Eril. With some more ducats, and be with you Jes. Farewell: and if my fortune be not
[Erit, from above. crost,
Gra. Now, by my hood, a Gentile, and no I have a father, you a daughter, lost. [Exit. Jew.
Lor. Beshrew me, but I love her heartily : SCENE VI.—The same. For she is wise, if I can judge of her;
And fair she is, if that mine eyes be true: Enter GRATIANO and SALARINO, masked.
And true she is, as she hath proved herself; Gra. This is the pent-house, under which And therefore, like herself, wise, fair, and true, Desir'd us to make stand.
[Lorenzo Shall she be placed in my constant soul. * Invited
* Decorated with flasz.
Enter JESSICA, below.
| Is't like, that lead contains her? 'Twere dam. What, art thou come?-On, gentlemen, away;
nation, Our masking mates by this time for us stay. To think so base a thought; it were too gross
[Erit with JESSICA and SALARINO. To rib* her cerecloth in the obscure grave. Enter ANTONIO.
Or shall I think, in silver she's immur'd,
Being ten times undervalued to try'd gold? Ant. Who's there?
O sinful thought! Never so rich a gem
[rest? Gra. Signior Antonio?
Was set in worse than gold. They have in Ant. Fie, fie, Gratiano! where are all the
England 'Tis nine o'clock; our friends all stay for you:
A coin, that bears the figure of an angel No masque to-night; the wind is come about,
Stamped in gold ; but that's insculp'dt upon; Bassanio presently will go aboard :
But here an angel in a golden bed I have sent twenty out to seek for you.
Lies all within.-Deliver me the key; Gra. I am glad on't; I desire no more de- | Here do I choose, and thrive I as I may! light,
Por. There, take it, prince, and if my form Than to be under sail, and gone to-night.
Then I am yours. (He unlocks the golden casket. SCENE VII.-Belmont. A Room in Por- Mor. O hell! what have we here? TIA'S House.
A carrion death, within whose empty eye Flourish of Cornets. Enter PORTIA with the | There is a written scroll? I'll read the writing. PRINCE OF Morocco, and both their Trains.
All that glisters is not gold, Por. Go, draw aside the curtains, and discover
Often have you heard that told : The several caskets to this noble prince :
Many a man his life hath sold,
But my outside to behold:
Gilded tombs do worms infold.
Had you been as wise as bold, Who chooseth me, shall gain what many men de
Young in limbs, in judgement old, The second, silver, which this promise car
Your answer had not been inscrold: ries;
Fare you well; your suit is cold. Who chooseth me, shall get as much as he deserves.
Cold, indeed; and labour lost; This third, dull lead, with warning all as
Then, farewell, heat; and, welcome, frost. blunt;
Portia, adieu ! I have too griev'd a heart Who chooseth me, must give and hazard all he | To take a tedious leave : thus losers part. How shall I know if I do choose the right?
Por. A gentle riddance :--Draw the cur. Por. The one of them contains my picture,
tains, go; prince; If you choose that, then I am yours withal.
Let all of his complexion choose me so. Mor. Some god direct my judgement! Let me see,
SCENE VIII.–Venice.- A Street. I will survey the inscriptions back again : What says this leaden casket?
[hath. Enter SALARINO and SALANIO. Who chooseth me, must give and hasard all he Salar. Why man, I saw Bassanio under sail ; Must give-For what? for lead: hazard for With him is Gratiano gone along; lead?
And in their ship, I am sure, Lorenzo is not. This casket threatens: Men, that hazard all,
Salan. The villain Jew with outcries rais'd Do it in hope of fair advantages :
the duke; A golden mind stoops not to shows of dross; Who went with him to search Bassanio's ship. 171 then nor give, nor hazard, aught for lead.
Salar. He came too late, the ship was under What says the silver, with her virgin hue?
sail : Who chooseth me, shall get as much as he deserves. Rut
res. But there the duke was given to understand, As much as he deserves? Pause there, Morocco, That in a
Occo, That in a gondola were seen together And weigh thy value with an even hand:
Lorenzo and his amorous Jessica : If thou best rated by thy estimation,
Besides, Antonio certified the duke, Thou dost deserve enough; and yet enough
They were not with Bassanio in his ship. May not extend so far as to the lady ;
Salan. I never heard a passion so confus'd, And yet to be afeard of my deserving,
So strange, outrageous, and so variable, Were but a weak disabling of myself.
As the dog Jew did utter in the streets : As much as I deserve !Why, that's the lady My daughter ! O my ducats !-O my daughter I do in birth deserve her, and in fortunes,
Fled with a Christian? O my Christian ducats! In graces, and in qualities of breeding;
Justice! the law ! my ducats and my daughter ! But more than these, in love I do deserve.
A sealed bag, two sealed bags of ducats, What if I stray'd no further, but chose here:- of double ducats, stoln from me by my daughter ! Let's see once more this saying grav'd in gold: Åndienele.
| And jewels ; two stones, two rich and precious Who chooseth me, shall gain what many men de
Stoln by my daughter!-Justice! find the girl! Why, that's the lady; all the world desires her: She hath the stones upon her, and the ducats! From the four corners of the earth they come,
Salar. Why, all the boys in Venice follow To kiss this shrine, this mortal breathing saint.
[ducats. The Hyrcanian deserts, and the vasty wilds
Crying,-his stones, his daughter, and his Of wide Arabia, are as through-fares now,
Salan. Let good Antonio look he keep his For princes to come view fair Portia :
Or he shall pay for this. . day, The watery kingdom, whose ambitious head
Salar. Marry, well remember'd: Spits in the face of heaven, is no bar
I reason'df with a Frenchman yesterday; To stop the foreign spirits ; but they come,
Who told me,-in the narrow seas, that part As o'er a brook, to see fair Portia. [ture.