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Table of the Two SLIDES, or INFLECTIONS of Voice:* The acute accent ('s) denotes the rising, and the grave accent (') the falling

inflection. Did they act properly, or im'properly? They acted prop'erly, not im'properly Did he speak'distinctly, or in distinctly? He spoke distinctly, not in'distinctly. Must we act accord'ing to the law, or con - We must act accord'ing to the law, and not trary to it?

con'trary to it.
Did he go willingly, or un'willingly? He went willingly, not un'willingly.
Was it done correct'ly, or in correctly? It was done correct'ly, not in'correctly.
Did he say cau'tion, or cau'tion?

He said cau'tion, not cau'tion.
Did he say wise'ly, or wisely?

He said wise'ly, not wise'ly. Did he say val'ue, or val'ue?

He said val'ue, not value. Did he say wis'dom, or wis'dom?

He said wisdom, not wis'dom. Did he say fame', or fame'?

He said fame', not fame'. You must not say fa'tal, but fa'tal.

You must say fa tal, not fastal. You must not say e'qual, but e qual.

You must say e'qual, not e'qual. You must not say i'dol, but i'dol.

You must say idol, not idol. You must not say o'pen, but o‘pen.

You must say open, not o'pen. You must not say du'bious, but du'bious. You must say dū bious, not du'bious, &c.


The figures over the letters refer to the vowels in the words, as follow : Fåte får fåll fåt me mét pine pin no móve når nốt tube tůb bill oil påånce.

th sharp, as in thin, thought.
Ta flat as in this, though,
g always hard (eg) as in go, give, gone.
s always sharp (ess) as in so, such, son.
x always sharp (eks) as in ox, fox, box.
ng always sounded as in ring, bring, thing.


dj equivalent to French

sh ch

tch ial w and y sound as in we, ye.--ou and oy sound as in now, cloy, &c.

INITIAL SOUNDS. These orthographical exercises should be scrupulously attended to: not a word should be passed over unless it be correctly spelled, accented, and pronounced: they should even be read by the pupil till he is fully master of them before he commences the read

ing lessons.

1. au, at the beginning of words, sounds å, in au'burn, auc'tion, auc'. tionary, au'dible, au'dibly, au'dience, au'dit, au'ditor, au'ditory, au'ditress, au'ger, aught, augʻment (noun), au'gur,f au'gury, au'gust (12), au'spice, aus'tral, au'thor, au'thorize, au'tograph, au'tumn, auctionéer, audácious, auda''city, augment' (verb) augmentation, august (adj.), aurélia, auric'ula, auric'ular, aurif'erous, aurora, aurora-boreális, auspi" cial, auspi" cious, austére, auster’ity, authen'tic, authen'ti

* For a full and philosophic view of this subject, see Walker's Elocution, Rhetorical Grammar, &c.

† These words may serve as useful exercises, not only in orthoepy, but also in orthography. For this purpose a portion of them may be pronounced and spelled by the pupil each day, or as often as the Teacher may think proper The Teacher will secure the attention and improvement of his pupils by accustoming them to turn to those words in some good dictionary, say Picket's Walker, and learn their meaning as an evening's exercise. See Juvenile Expositor, p. 24, 25, 26, &c.

I Participles have the accent on the same syllable as the verbs from which they are de. rived; thus the verb to in'terest, has the accent on the first syllable; the participles in'terating, in'terested, derived from it, have the accent on the same syllable.


cate, authenticity, author'itative, author'ity, autom'aton, autom'atous, autop'. tical autum'nal, auxil'iar auxiliary.--aunt s. ånt.

2. rircum, s. sér-kům, in circumam'bient, circumam'bulate, circumcise, circu nci''sion, circumduct', circum'ference, circumferen'tor, cir'cumflex, circumfluent, circum'fluous, circ imfúse, çircumfusion, circumjácent, circumlocution, circumloc'utory, circumnavigation, circumrotátion, circumscribe, cir'cumspect, cir'cumstance, circumvent', circumvolution, &c.

3. co-op, s. ko-op, in co-op'erate, co-operation, co-op'erative, co-op'erator, co-optation, (co-or s. k6-8r in) co-or'dinate, co-or'dinately, co-or'dinateness, co-ordination.

4. dis, s. dis, in disabil'ity, disadvan'tage, disaffec'tion, disagrée, disallow', disappear, disapprove', disavow', discard', disclose, discontent', discourse, discreet', disembark', disincline, disobedient, disquietude, dissem'ble, dissent', dissolution, distrib'utive, distrust', disunity, &c.

5. dis, s. diz, in disable, disarm', disas'ter, disas'trous, disband', disbark', disbur'den, disburse', disburse'ment, discern', discern'ible, discern'ing, discern' ment, disdain, disdainful, disease, disgorge', disgráce, disgraceful, disgracefully, disgrácious, disguise, disguisement, disgust', disgust'ful, dishon'est, dishon'esty, dishon'our, dishon'ourable, disin'terested, disjoin', disjoint', disjunct', disjunc'tion, disjunc'tive, dislike, disliken, dislimb', dislodge', disloy'al, disloy'alty, dis’mal, disman'tle, dismask', dismast', dismáy, dismem'ber, dismiss', dismiss'ion, dismort': gage, dismount', disor'der, disor'derly, disor'dinate, disown, disrel'ish, disrep'utable, disróbe, disrup'tion, dissolv'able, dissolve', dissolv'ent, dissolv'able, disvaluá. tion, disval’ue, disuse, (n.), disvouch', (di befores, sdè in) dishev'elled, dispread', (disme s. dime.)

6. ea si è in each, éager, eagerly, eagerness, eagle-eyed, éarless, ear-ring, éarwax, easily, éаsiness, easterly, éastern, eastward, easy, eatable, eaves-dropper, (earl s. érl in) earl'dom, ear'liness, ear'ly earn, ear'nest, ear'nestly, earth, earth'en, earth'ling, earth'ly, earth'-quake, earth'y. (ead &c. s. ed in) dead, lead, head, deaf, deafʼness, deafʼly.

7. ex, s. égz, in exact', exact'ly, exac'tion, exact'ness, exa"ggerate, exa"ggerátion, exa"gitate, exalt', exaltátion, exámen, examination, exam'ine, exam'ple exan'imate, exas'perate, exasperátion, exec'utive, exec'utor, exec'utrix, exem'plar, exem'plary, exemplification, exem'plify, exempt'; exemp'tion, exert', exer'tion, exhále, exhálement, exhaust', exhaust'less, exhib'it

, exhil'erate, exhort', exile (v.); exist', exis'tence, exis'tency, exis'tent, exon'erate, exoneration, exor'bitance, exor'bitant, exor'dium, exot'ic, exuberance, exuberant, exult', exult'ance, exultation, exúviæ. (ex, in the beginning of almost all other words, sounds, éks) ex'cellence, excep'tion, excláim, excommunicate, excur'sion, exhalátion, expect'ant, explore, expulsion, extinc'tion, extrav'agant, ex'tricáte, &c.

8. h is silent in heir, heir'éss, heir'less, heir'ship, herb, herb'age, herb'y, hon'est, hon'estly, hon'esty, hon'orary, hon'our, hon'ourable, hon'ourably, hos'pital, host'ler, hour, hourglass, hourly, hum'ble, húmorist, húmorous, húmorously, húmour.

9. or, s. 8r, in orb, orb'ed, or'chard, or'chestre, or'deal, or'der, or'derless, or'derly, or'dinal, ordinance, ordinary, or'dinäte, ord'nance, or'donnance, or dure, or'gan, organism, or'ganist, organize, or'gies, or'nament, or'namental, or'nate, or'phan, or'thodox, orthoepist, or'thoepy, orbic'ular, orches'ıra, ordáin, ordination, organic, organ'ical, organization, orgil'lous, ornament'al, ornithology, orthog'rapher, orthographically, orthog'raphy. (ori s. o in) orien'tal, ori'ginal, ori"ginally, ori"ginary, ori''ginate, orac'ular, orac'ulous, oration, oral, orient (or s. ör in) oracle, or'ange, or'ator, oratorial, orator'ical, or'atory or'rery, or'ris, or'ifice, or'igin, or'ison.

10. pre, s. prè, in préacher, précept, prédal, prédial, présect, préfix, (n.) prémiers prémium, préscience, préscient, préscript, prétor,, prévious, previously, precárious, precéde, precep'tive, precip'itate, precise, clúde, preconceit, predestinarian, predict', predispose, predom'inant, pre-estab'lish, prefer', prejudicate, premature, prepar'ative, prerog'alive, prescription, presúme, presump'tion, presump'tive, presump'tuous, preternat'ural, prevail, preven'tion,

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&c.--prey s. pra.--(pre is shut, in) preb'end, preb'endary, precedáneous, pre'cedent, precious, precipice, pred'atory, pred'ecessor, pred’icable, predicant, pred'icate, predication, pref'ace, pref'atory, pref'ecture, pref'erable, pref'erence, prej'udice, prejudi"cial, prel'acy, prel'ate, prelude (n.), prem'isés, preparátion, preposi'tion, pres'byter, presbyterian, pres'bytery, pres'ence, pres’ent (adj.), presentation, presentée, pres'ently, preservation, pres'idency, pres'ident, press'gang, press'man, press'money, press'ure, pres'to, pret'tily, pret'tiness, pret'ty, prev'alence, prev'alent, (presage s. prés-áje (n.), or pre-såje' (v.)

11. se, s. sė, in sea, séaboat, séaborn, séaboy, séachart, (sea s. sé in all its compounds) seal, séalingwax, seam, seamless, searcloth, season, séasonable, seasonably, seasoning, seaward, sécant, sécrecy, sécret, sécretly, (see and sei s. sė,) seed, seedcake, seedpearl', seedtime, seedling, séedsman, séedy, seeing séesaw, séignior, séignory, seine, seize, séizin, seizure, sénior, séquel, séquence, séquent, séries, sérious, sériously, sérous, sérum, séton, şecede, secess'ion, seclude, seclusion, secréte, secrétion, secrétory, secúre, securely, security, sedan', sedáte, sedátely, sedáteness, sedi'tion, sedi'tious, seduce, seducement, sedúcible, seducLive, seduc'tion, sedulity, select', selec'tion, senior'ity, sepulchral, sepul'chre (v.), sequacious, sequa" city, seques'ter, seques'trable, seragl'io, seraph'ic, seréne, se. rénely, seréneness, seren'ity, setáceous, sevére, severely, sever'ity. (ser. s sảr in ser'geant.--sew s. so.)


sewer, s. so'år, one who uses a needle.
sewer, s. sůlur, an officer who serves up a feast.

sewer, s. shore, a passage for water.
in most other words the e in se is shut or joined to the next letter, thus-sec'ona,
sec'retary, sed'ulous, seldom, sem'blance, sensation, ser'mon, ser'vitude, set'.
tlement, &c.

12. sky, s. skyl, sky, sky'ey, sky'colour, sky'coloured, sky'dyed, sky'ed, sky' ish, sky'lark, sky'light, sky'rocket, (kind s. kyind in) kind, kindly, kindness, unkind, unkindly, unkindness, gav'elkind, mankind, wom'ankind, húmankind.

13. su, s. så, in supine (adj.), supinely, supineness, supremacy, supréme, suprémely, supine (n.)

14. super, s. såper, in superabun'dance, superadd', superan'nuate, superb', supercar'go,, superceles'tial, supercil'ious, superem'inent, superex'cellent, superfi'cies, superfine, super'fluous, superintend', superior'ity, supérior, super'lative, supernat'ural, supernúmerary, superscrip'tion, supersti''tious, superven'tion, supervisor, súperable, superfice, superflux, &c.

15. th, s. th, in thane, thank, thank'ful, thank'less, thanks'giving, théatre, theoc'racy, theod'olite, theológian, théory, thermometer, thésis, thick'et, thief, think' ing, this'tle, thorax, thor'ough, &c. (th s. Th in) than, that, the, their, them, then, thence, thence'forth, thencefor'ward, there, there'about, thereby', there'fore, therefrom', therein', thereinó thereof', thereon', thereto, thereunto, thereupon', these, they, this, thith'er, thith'erto, thith'erward, those, thou, though, thus, thy, thyself'. (thyme s. time.)

16. thr, s. thr, in thrall, thral'dom, thrap'ple, thrash, thrash'er, thread'bare, threat'en, threefold, threescore, thresh'old, thrift'ily, thrift'less, thrift'y, thrill, thrive, throat, throb, throe, &c.

17. trans, s. trấns, in transact', transcend', transcribe, transfig'ure, transfuse, trans'it, trans''ition, translate, transmit', transpire, transverse, &c. (transi s. trảno-she in) tran'sient, tran'siently, transientness.

18. un, s. ún, in unalterable, unbound', uncer'tain, unconcern', undaunt'ed, undirect'ed, unequal, unexplored, unfor'tunate, ungen'erous, unhap'py, &c. (u s. å before n in) únicorn, úniform, uniformly, únion, únison, unit, únity, uni. verse, unanim'ity, unan'imous, uniformity, unite, unitedly, uni'tion, universal, universal'ity, universally, univer'sity, univ'ocal, (une sing in) un'cle, unc'. tion, unc'tuous.



An acquaintance with the terminational sounds is important to all who are desirous of acquiring an elegant pronunciation. Teachers will find on trial, that these exercises are well calculated to initiate their pupils into the correct principles of the orthoepy of our language.

1. ic, or ick, at the end of words, sounds ik, in cúbic, somnif'ic, sudorif'ic, mag'ic, log'ic, pub’lic, angel'ic, academ'ic, astronom'ic, pan'ic, tyran'nic, fab'ric, rhet'oric, emphat'ic, arc'tic, poet'ic, crit'ic, eclip'tic, elas'tic, domes'tic, &c.

2. d is pronounced like t when the ed is preceded byf, k, p, s, sh, ch, or any sharp consonant, thus, engraff'ed, quaff'ed, cuff'cd, puff'ed, ingulf'ed; créaked, cloaked, ran'sacked, attack'ed, deck'ed, frol'iced, shock'ed, rock'ed, creek'ed, thank'ed, frank'ed, link'ed, look'ed, embark'ed, remark'ed, help'ed, decamp'ed, cramp'ed, developed, clasp'ed, usurp'ed, crisp'ed, lisp'ed, grasp'ed, depress'ed, oppress’ed, confess'ed, profess'ed, bless'ed, wit'nessed, address'ed, transgress'ed, repress'ed, possess'ed, guess'ed, cross'ed, discuss'ed, abash'ed refresh'ed, established, published, fam'ished, dimin'ished, finish'ed, aston'ished, flour'ished, languished, extin'guished, blush'ed, rush'ed, crush'ed, impeached, encroached, deiach'ed, stretch'ed, enrich'ed, branch'ed, search'ed, march'ed, catch'ed, match'ed, despatch'ed, fetch'ed, touch'ed, avouch'ed, &c. (blessed, when an adjective, is, in grave subjects, pronounced in two syllables, thusa bless'-ed reward.) The ed is pronounced as a distinct syllable in learn'-ed, wing-ed, when adjectives:The ed in aged always makes a distinct syllable, as an a'-ged man; but when this word is compounded with another, the ed does not form a syllable, as a full ag'd horse. The ed is pronounced as a distinct syllable in the following adverbs, though it is contracted in the participial adjectives from which they are formed. --forcedly, enforcedly, unveil'edly, deform'edly, feign'edly, unfeign'edly, design'edly, re. sign'edly, restrainedly, refinedly unconcern'edly, undiscern'edly, assuredly, ad. ylsedly, composedly, diffúsedly, confusedly, unperceivedly, resolvedly, deser'ved ly, undeser' vedly, reser'vedly, unreser'vediy, avow'edly, perplex'edly, fix'edly, amazediy. The participiai termination must never be pronounced as a distinct syllable, unless preceded by d or t, except in the language of Scripture.

3. in ed, a verhal termination, the e is not sounded, and the d is joined to the preceding syllable, in mov'ed, prov'ed, approv'ed, disapprov'ed, improv'ed, believed, disbelieved, imbibed, inscribed, transcribed, obliged, disobliged, engaged, convey'ed, survey'ed, delay'ed, plann'ed, mann'ed, crown'ed, frown'ed, mourn'ed, calm'ed, framed, blámed, tamed, skilled, toil'ed, referr'ed, deferr'ed, preferr'ed, raised, práised, procured, secured, inúred, received, &c.

4. ed forms a separate syllable when preceded by d ori, in commend'ed, recommend'ed, moulded, folded, disband'ed commanded, expand'ed, brand'ed, avoid'ed, befriend'ed, offend'ed, defend'ed, blend'ed, extend'ed, suspend'ed, blinded, despond'ed, rebound'ed, surround'ed; háted, an'imated, abstracted, affected, limited, depos’ited, revolt'ed, anoint'ed, devoted, accepted, part'ed, tásted, act'ed, com. pact'ed, detract'ed, extract'ed, affected, subjected, select'ed, collected, directed, protect'ed, convicted, deduct'ed, construct'ed, &c.

5. old, s. old, bold, blindfold, infold, unfold, behold, withhold, inhold, up. hold, retold, untold, mistóld. (old s. old) threefold, man'ifold, pin'fold, marigold, freehold, house'hold, thresh'hold, cop'yhold. (old s. åld in scaf 'fold.)

6. ind, s. lnd, in bind, behind, gav'elkind, mankind, wom'ankind, humankind, unkind, pur'blind, remind, wind (v.) unwind. (ind s. Ind in) abscind', rescind', prescind', disgind', interscind', tamarind, whirl'wind, wind, or wind, (n.)

7. e final, s. è, in ac'me, epitome, extem'pore, sim'ile, apos'trophe, hyper'. bole, syn'cope, syndrome, synec'doche, tem'pore, sys'tole.

8. ibe, s. ibe, in imbibe, ascribe, misascribe, subscribe, describe, rescribe, prescribe, circumscribe, transcsibe, inscribe, proscribe, superscribe, interscribe.

9. ice, s. is, in jaun'dice, cow'ardice, prej'udice, ben'efice, ven'efice, of'fice, ed'ifice, or'ifice, pont'ifice, ar'tifice, superfice, chal'ice, malice, com'plice, accom'

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plice, sur'plice, pum'ice, cor'nice, pre' cipice, au'spico, av'arice, dent'ifrice, lic. arice, cicatrice, ma’trice, prac'tice, maleprac'tice, poultice, pren'tice, appren'tice, notice, ar'mistice, solístice, in'terstice, jus'uice, injus'tice, crevice, nov'ice, service. (ice s. Ise in) ice, dice, bespice, entice, advíce, device. (ice s. Ize in) suffice', sac'rifice. (ice s. éės in) police' caprice'. (oice s. oys in) choice, rejoice', voice, in'voice, outvoice'.-juice s. juse--ver'juice s. ver'jús—sluice s. slúse.

10. ance,* s. åns, in disturb'ance, guidance, attendance, abundance, ballanee, appearance, remem'brance, fragrance, en'trance (n.) obei'sance, úsance, expect'ance, reluctance, exorbitance, inher'itance, repent'ance, accept'ance, import'ance, contrivance, allow'ance, &c. (ance accented, or in monosyllables, s. àns in) bechance', perchance', mischance', enhance', askance', romance', finance', entrance', disentrance', complaisance', advance; ; dance, chance, lance, glance, prance, trance.

11. encé, s. ens, in in nocence,t acquies'cence, cadence, con'fidence, de. pend'ence, prúdence, defi'cience, effi'cience, insuffi'cience science, pre'science, omnis'cience, conscience, obédience, expe'rience, si'lence, ex'cellence, in'dolence; op'ulence, commence', preference, occurrence, omnipres'ence, pen'ilence, consist'ence, exist'ence, af'Auence, in'fluence, con'sequence, eloquence.

12. scence, s. sēns, in quies'cence, coales'cence, invates'cence, convales'cence, adoles'cence, concres'cence, excres'cence, putres'cence, efferves'cence, &c.

13. duce, s. duse, in tradúce, abdúce, obdúce, subdúce, edúce, dedúce, redúce, sedúce, indáce, superinduce, conduce, reprodúce, introdúce, prodúce (v.) prod'uee.

14. ide, s. Ide, in bide, decide, incide, coincide, conf{de, backskide, deride, astride, bestride, aside, subside, beside, reside, preside, weakside, withinside, beside, springtide, noontide, misguide, divide, subdivide, provide, de'icide, re"gicide, hom'icide, par'ricide, mat'ricide, frat'ricide, infan'ticide, suicide, broad'side, blind'side, in side, out'side, twelf'tide, e'vontide, whit'suntide, coun'tertide.

15. lude, s. lude, in acclúde, reclúde, preclude, seclude, inclúde, conclude, jnterclúde, exclude, elúde, prelúde, (v.) allúde, illúde, collúde, prel'ude, in'terlude.

16. ee, s. e. in bee, fee, refugee appellée, assignée, epopée, decrée, agrée, disagree, degrée, fricasée, foresée, oversée lessée, fusée, legatée, guarantée, grantée, absentée, presentée, patentée, devotée, repartée, trustée, settée, advowée, coffee, feoffee, ap'ogee, tro'chee, spon’dee, prith'ee, ju'bilee, ped'igree, commit'tee, lev'ee.

17. age, s. idje, in cab'bage, herb'age, bondage, cord'age, vas'salage, pillage, assem'blage, dam'age, im'age, man'age, spin'nage, pat'ronage, stop'page, av'erage, cour'age, hermitage, advan'tage, port'age, cottage, lan'guage, voy'age, pres'age (n), car’riage, miscar’riage, mar’riage, intermar'riage, &c. Cage s. Xjé in) age, cage, incage', gage, engage', pre-engage', disengage', page, ti'tlepage, rage, sage, presage (v.), stage,

assuage', wage, ad'age. 18. dge, s. j, in trudge,grudge, judge, lodge, partridge, abridge', ridge, wedge, knowledge, sledge, pledge, fledge, hedge, edge, badge, &c.

19. arge, s. årj, in barge, charge, recharge', overcharge', surcharge', discharge', onlarge', overlarge'.

20. able, s å-bl, in ap'plicable, for'midable, com'mendable, peace'able, agréeable, per'ishable, sociable, mag'nifiable, ámiable, pit'iable, es'timable, resúmable, defin'able, suf'ferable, númerable, ven'erable, an'swerable, advis'able, cred'itable, hab'itable, im'itable, suit'able, notable, com'fortable, &c. (ahle s. ābi in) a'ble, fáble, gáble, enable, unable, sáble, disable, táble, stable, instáble, unstable.

21. ible, s. é-bl, in evin'cible, invin'cible, do" cible, forcible, iras'cible, de. dúcible, cred'ible, au'dible, le'gible, intel'ligible, fran'gible, discern'ible, ter'rible, vis'ible, defen'sible, comprehen'sible, pas'sible, impos'sible, plau'sible, com

* The learner should be required to give the meaning of the prefixes in, un, en, &c.—and terminations ance, ence, &c. See Exp. p. 24, 25, 26, &c.

+ The pupil should be made to comprehend the difference between a compound and derivative word.

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