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55

our whetstone. for alwaies the dulnesse of the foole, is
the whetstone of the wits. How now Witte, whether
wander you?

Clow. Mistresse, you must come away to your farher. .
Cel. Were you made the messenger ?
Clo. No by mine honor, but I was bid to come for you
Rof. Where learned you that oath foole ?

Clo. Of a certaine Knight, that swore by his Honour they were good Pan-cakes, and swore by his Honor the Mustard was naught : Now Ile stand to it, the Pancakes were naught, and the Mustard was good, and yet was not the Knight forsworne.

6

65

55. the wits] his wits Var. '03, Var.'13, Var.'21.

Witte] Om. Rowe, Pope, Han.

55. whether) whither F,
62. Pan-cakes] Pancakes Ff.

WRIGHT appo

53. Naturall] DOUCE (i, 293): Touchstone is here called a natural' [i. e. an idiot] merely for the sake of alliteration and a punning jingle of words; for he is undoubtedly an artificial fool. [Cf. Touchstone's own use of the word in his conversation with Corin, III, ii, 31, whom he calls “a natural philosopher.'-ED.]

55. whetstone] WHALLEY (p. 36): This is a proverbial term, denoting an excitement to lying, or a subject that gave a man the opportunity of breaking a jest upon another. And Jonson, alluding to the same when he draws the character of Amorphus, says: "He will lie cheaper than any Beggar, and louder than most clocks; for which he is right properly accommodated to the Whetstone, his page' [Cynthia's Revels, II, i, p. 265, ed. Gifford. I think Whalley is far afield when he traces any connection between the present passage and the whetstone which was given at Fairs as a prize to that clown who told the most impossible and enormous lies. Why a whetstone should have been selected as this prize has never yet been discovered. It is clear that Celia refers to the ordinary uses of the ordinary stone. sitely cites the title of Robert Recorde's Arithmetic, 1557: • The Whetstone of Witte.' -ED.).

55. the wits] In the Variorum of 1803 this was changed to his wits.' As no reason was given for the change, nor even a reference to it, I am inclined to think that it is a mere typographical oversight, precisely such a substitution of words as WALKER (Crit. i, 309) conceived to have taken place in the second word wits,' which he suggested should be wise, an emendation also proposed by SPEDDING; DYCE (ed. iii), however, thinks the emendation doubtful, “because it scems to be at variance with what Celia says just before, “who, perceiving our natural wits too dull," &c.'; wherein, I think, all will agree.-ED.

55, 56. How ... you ?] STAUNTON: The beginning, probably, of some ancient ballad. Wright: “Wit, whither wilt,' was a proverbial expression. See IV, i, 160.

65. forsworn] BOSWELL: The same joke [' such as it is '-Wright] is found in the old play of Damon and Pithias : 'I have taken a wise oath on him, have I not, trow ye? To trust such a false knave upon his honesty? As he is an honest man (quoth you ?) he may bewray all to the king, And break his oath for this never a whit.' [ed. 66

70

Cel. How proue you that in the great heape of your knowledge ?

Rus. I marry, now vnmuzzle your wisedome.

Clo. Stand you both forth now: stroke your chinnes, and sweare by your beards that I am a knaue.

Cel. By our beards(if we had them)thou art.

Clo. By my knauerie (if I had it) then I were: but if you sweare by that that is not, you are not forsworn : no more was this knight swearing by his Honor, for he neuer had anie; or if he had, he had sworne it away,

before euer he saw those Pancakes, or that Mustard.

Cel. Prethee, who is't that thou means't?
Clo. One that old Fredericke your Father loues.

75

78

68. your] you F

78. Fredericke] Ferdinand Cap. conj. 77. is't ] is F., Rowe +.

Coll. ii. Dodsley, vol. iv, p. 60). CALDECOTT: Richard, swearing by his .George, his garter, and his crown,' is answered in much the same way by Queen Elizabeth, who says he swears. By nothing; for this is no oath,' Rich. III: IV, iv, 374.

70. sweare by your beards] GREY (i, 163) refers to the oath of the porter by goddes berde' in the Tale of Gamelyn, 295.

78. old Fredericke] In the last Scene of the last Act we are told that the name of Celia's father is Frederick, and there would be no difficulty here in Touchstone's reply were it not that Rosalind speaks as though the name of her father also were Frederick. As it is impossible that the two brothers should both have the same name, one of two changes must be made. Either the name Frederick must be changed, or the answer given to Rosalind in line 79, must be given to Celia. This latter emendation THEOBALD was the first to propose and to adopt, and it is the simpler solution of the two. The instances are numerous, filling more than ten pages in Walker (Crit. ii, 177–189), wherein speeches in the Folio are assigned to the wrong characters; the present is in Walker's list. It is to be noted that it is Celia's question that Touchstone is answering, and when he says ‘your father,' must he not mean Celia's father? CAPELL did not approve of Theobald's emendation, and preferred to change the name, but Capell should be always allowed to speak for himself-he stands solitary in style: 'Two of the Poet's editors [Theob. and Han.) have given this speech [1. 79] to Celia; assigning for reasons, first—that she is the questionist; that the answer therefore ought naturally to be address’d to her and reply'd to by her; and in the next place—that “ Frederick” is the name of her father. To the first of these reasons,

it

may be reply'd, that Celia is effectually answer'd; but the matter of his answer concerning Rosalind most, the Clown turns himself in speaking to her; to the second, that “ Frederick" is a mistake, either of the Poet's through haste, or of his compositor's, as we shall endeavour to shew by and by; first observing that the speech cannot be Celia's, for two very good reasons: we have no cause to think that she would have been so alert in taking up the Clown for reflecting upon her father; who (besides) is not the person reflected upon, that person being callid “old Frederick.” Throughout all this play Shakespeare calls his two dukes “Duke senior,and Duke [old Fredericke your Father] junior" (see II, i, 1], giving no proper name to either of them, except in this place, and in [line 228 of this scene, and in V, iv, 158] : his original makes them both kings, and kings of France; calling the elder, Gerismond; the younger, and the usurping king, Torismond : these names the Poet chose to discard (perhaps, for that he thought them too antiquated), putting “ Frederick" instead of the latter; but not instantly hitting upon another that pleas'd him, when he had occasion to mention the former, he put down “Frederick" there too, with intention to alter it afterwards. There is a name in the Novel, which might (possibly) be that intended for Gerismond; and this the reason why it was taken away from it's owner, Orlando's second brother; and “ Jaques" bestow'd upon him for “ Fernandine,” his name in the novelist; however that may be, it can be no very great licence to put “ Fernandine" [into the present line] or Ferdinand rather; and get rid of a name by that means, which will be for ever a stumbling-block to all those who read with attention.' MALONE was evidently impressed with Capell's emendation, but he did not venture to adopt it (Collier was the only editor temerarious enough to do that). •I suppose,' says Malone, some abbreviation was used in the MS for the name of the rightful, or old duke, as he is called (perhaps Fer. for Ferdinand), which the transcriber or printer converted into Frederick.' He disapproves of giving the next speech to Celia instead of Rosalind, because there is too much filial warmth in it for Celia : besides, why should her father be called old Frederick ? It appears from the last scene of the play that this was the name of the younger brother.' Whereunto STEEVENS replies : Mr Malone's remark may be just; and yet I think the speech which I have still left in the mouth of Celia exhibits as much tenderness for the fool as respect for her own father. She stops Touchstone, who might otherwise have proceeded to say what she could not hear without inflicting punishment on the speaker. “Old” is an unmeaning term of familiarity. It is still in use, and has no reference to age.' This last observation in regard to 'old' Dyce (Remarks, p. 61) pronounced just.' CALDECOTT will neither renege Frederick, nor affirm Celia, nor turn his halcyon beak for one instant away from the First Folio. •The Clown,' he urges, might turn towards Rosalind, though addressed by Celia; or might speak inaccurately; neither would it be out of character to make him do so. The answer of Rosalind, at the same time, seems to shew that it was her truly respectable father that was meant.' COLLIER (ed. i) made a bold suggestion that perhaps the name of the knight was Frederick, and the clown's answer ought to run "One old Frederick, that your father loves,” which only changes the place of “ that."! This suggestion was not repeated in his next edition, where he upholds and adopts Capell's Ferdinand on the score that it “makes the whole dialogue natural and consistent, and it does no violence to the poet's language merely to introduce a change of name'-a reason which applies with equal force to the change of 'Ros.' to 'Cel. In Collier's third and last edition Theobald's change is adopted in the text with the following note: 'In the old copies this speech is by mistake given to Rosalind. Theobald was the first to detect the error, which has not been repeated' -an oversight for which Collier's venerable age is an ample excuse.

Dyce quotes Caldecott's remark that the clown'might speak inaccurately,' and affixes two exclamation-marks. Neil follows the Folio, and, supposing that Touchstone gives 'a jocular answer addressed first to Celia and then explanatorily to Rosalind,' thus prints line 78: '[To Celia] One that old Frederick [to Rosalind), your father, loves.' [The many examples collected by Walker of speeches wrongly assigned in the Folio seem to me amply sufficient to justify Theobald's change here. The error may be due, how.

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Rof. My Fathers loue is enough to honor him enough; speake no more of him, you'l be whipt for taxation one of these daies.

Clo. The more pittie that fooles may not speak wisely, what Wisemen do foolishly.

Cel. By my troth thou saiest true : For, since the little wit that fooles haue was silenced, the little foolerie that wise men haue makes a great shew ; Heere comes Monsieur the Beu.

85

Enter le Beau.

Rof. With his mouth full of newes.

Cel. Which he vvill put on vs, as Pigeons feed their young

90

79. Ror.] Celia. Theob. Han. Johns. Steev. Knt, Sing. Hal. Wh. Dyce, Sta. Ktly, Cam. Rlfe, Coll. iii.

him enough ;] him enough! Han. Johns. Steev. Sta. Cam. Wr. Wb. ii. him. Enough : Mal.

him enough] him Gould.

83. Wisemen] Wise men F F. Rowe.
86, 87. Monsieur] Mounsieur Ff.
87. the Beu.] Le Beu. Ff.
88. Scene V. Pope +.

le Beau.] Le Beu. Ff. After line 93, Dyce, Sta. Cam. Wh. ii.

ever, to Shakespeare himself, and be but another proof of that haste in composition which Wright finds in the play.—ED.]

79. honor him enough;] This punctuation, which has been followed by a majority of the Editors, COLLIER asserts to be in Shakespeare's characteristic manner,' and adds, I think with truth, that Hanmer's punctuation, as well as Malone's, 'sacrifices the point of the reply.'

80. whipt] Douce: This was the discipline usually inflicted on Fools. (See Lear, I, iv, 105, where Lear says to the Fool: * Take heed, sirrah; the whip.']

80. taxation] MALONE: That is, censure or satire. See II, vii, 74 and 89.

83, 86. Wisemen ... wise men] These two forms should be, I think, retained in a modern text. See V, i, 34.—ED.

84. since ... was silenced] For other instances of the simple past for the complete present with 'since,' see ABBOTT, S 347.

85. silenced] JOHNSON: Shakespeare probably alludes to the use of Fools or Jesters, who for some ages had been allowed in all courts an unbridled liberty of censure and mockery, and about this time began to be less tolerated. WRIGHT: Perhaps referring to some recent inhibition of the players. See Ham. II, ii, 346. FLEAY (Life and Work of Sh., p. 208) thinks that this alludes probably to the burning of satirical books by public authority Ist June, 1599,' and holds this allusion to be an important indication of the date of the play.

90. put on vs] I doubt the need of analysing here the exact meaning of put,' or of citing other passages where it is to be found. Its special meaning is plainly, almost too plainly, conveyed by Celia's simile, which is distended to its fullest extent by the 92

95

Rof. Then shal we be newes-cram'd.

Cel. All the better : we shalbe the more Marketable. Boon-iour, Monsieur le Beu, what's the newes ?

Le Beu. Faire Princesse, you haue loft much good sport.

Cel. Sport : of what colour?

Le Beu. What colour Madame? How shall I aunswer you?

Rof. As wit and fortune will.
Clo, Or as the destinies decrees.
Cel. Well said, that was laid on with a trowell.

100

102

94. Boon-iour, Monsieur] Boon-jour Mounsieur Ff.

what's the] what the F, what FF., Rowe+.

96. much good] much FgF, Rowe, Pope, Han.

98. Madame] Madam Ff.

101. decrees] Ff, Rowe, Cam. decree Pope et cet.

suggestion that they shall be more marketable,' because the heavier by the operation. -ED.

96. good sport] COLLIER (ed. ii): From what follows this observation we learn that Le Beau pronounced 'sport' affectedly spot, and Celia retorts it upon him in his own way, 'Spot? of what colour ?' The old corrector of F, made this change in order to render a point clear which has hitherto been missed by all Editors. [This emendation is so specious that apparently it staggered Collier's opponents. Of course they do not adopt it, but they do not exclaim against it. MOBERLY and Neil are, I think, the only avowed converts; nay, Moberly amplifies it, and suggests that with a finicking pronunciation, the next line would end with "answer ye,” rhyming to “decree."! The best answer to Collier is given indirectly by WRIGHT, who shows that colour' is used for kind, nature, in Lear, II, ii, 145: “ This is a fellow of the self-same colour Our sister speaks of:” where the Quartos actually read “nature.” Apposite as this citation seems and satisfactory as it may appear to us, I am afraid that Celia's use of the word was neither so satisfactory nor so clear to Le Beau. He is evidently gravelled by it, and at a loss for a reply. His answer would have been prompt enough had he at once thus understood the word “colour.'—ED.]

101. destinies decrees] Another of the many instances where a final s is interpolated; see I, iii, 60. Wright: It is by no means to be regarded as an example of the old Northern plural in 's,' which, so far as Shakespeare is concerned, is a figment of the grammarians.

102. trowell] Grey (i, 163): A proverbial expression for a great lie. See Ray's Projerbs [p. 49, ed. 1817. The first ed. of Ray is dated 1670; it is useless therefore as an unsupported authority for any phrase of Shakespeare's like this.-Ed.]. JOHNSON: I suppose the meaning is, that there is too heavy a mass of big words laid upon a light subject. Ritson: It means a good round hit, thrown in without judgment or design. M. MASON: To do anything strongly and without delicacy. MOBERLY: Well rounded off into a jingle; the lines being pronounced ‘As wit and fortune will. Or as | The destinies decree.' [I doubt if this last interpretation will gain many converts

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