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65

Little knowes this Loue in me :
And by him seale vp thy minde,
Whether that thy youth and kinde
Will the faithfull offer take
Of me, and all that I can make,
Or else by him my loue denie,
And then Ile studie how to die.

Sil. Call you this chiding?
Cel Alas poore Shepheard.

Rof. Doe you pitty him? No, he deserues no pitty : wilt thou loue such a woman? what to make thee an instrument, and play false straines vpon thee? not to be endur'd. Well, goe your way to her; (for I see Loue hath made thee a tame snake) and say this to her; That if she loue me, I charge her to loue thee : if she will not, I will neuer haue her, vnlesse thou intreat for her : if

you true louer hence, and not a word; for here comes more company.

Exit. Sil.

70

bee a

75

Enter Oliuer.

know) Oliu. Good morrow, faire ones : pray you, (if you

79

60. this] that Rowe ii.
71. sraines] strings Ff, Rowe.
76. louer hence,] lover, hence, Rowe.

78. Scene VI. Pope, Han. Warb. Johns.

of these fourteen lines.' If repetition is in itself suspicious, and it often is, I cannot think that this is the 'love' on which suspicion should light; it is connected indissolubly with the preceding · love,' that flourished even under chiding. It is this very love which is now sent by Silvius, so it seems to me.-ED.

62. kinde] JOHNSON: The old word for nature. CALDECOTT: Natural and kindly affections.

64. make] STEEVENS: That is, raise as profit from anything. So in Meas. for Meas. IV, iii, 5: •He's in for a commodity of brown paper, .... of which he made five marks.' CALDECOTT: That is, make up, all that shall be my utmost amount. HALLIWELL: Probably used in its ordinary acceptation, make by my labour or skill.

70. instrument] That is, use thee as a messenger while deceiving thee; as WRIGHT says, it is here used in two senses, as a tool and as a musical instrument.

73. snake] MALONE: This term was frequently used to express a poor, contempt. ible fellow. So in Sir John Oldcastle, 1600 : Priest. -and you, poor snakes, come seldom to a booty.'-[p. 253, a, F.]. Again, in Lord Cromwell, 1602: Hales. —and the poorest Snake, that feeds on Lemmons, Pilchers.'—[p. 234, 6, F. Cotgrave (always a good authority) gives: 'Haire. m. A leane, or ill-fauoured curtall; a carrion iade ; (hence) also, a wretched or miserable fellow; a poore snake.'—Ed.]

79. faire ones] WRIGHT: Shakespeare seems to have forgotten that Celia was

80

Where in the Purlews of this Forrest, stands
A sheep-coat, fenc'd about with Oliue-trees.

Cel. West of this place, down in the neighbor bottom
The ranke of Oziers, by the murmuring streame
Left on your right hand, brings you to the place:
But at this howre, the house doth keepe it selfe,
There's none within.

Oli. If that an eye may profit by a tongue,
Then should I know you by description,
Such garments, and such yeeres : the boy is faire,
Of femall fauour, and bestowes himselfe

85

90

80. Where in] Wherein FF! 84. brings] bring Ff, Rowe i. 85. howre] F,

89-92. the boy...brother] As a quotation, Theob, et seq.

90. femall] F, female F F

apparently the only woman present. Perhaps we should read. fair one.' [Decidedly. It is the very last oversight which Shakespeare would be likely to commit. It is Celia who replies, which increases the likelihood that it is she alone who is addressed.—ED.]

79. (if you know)] RowE exchanged these parentheses of the Folios for commas. JOHNSO

NSON was the first to drop the second comma and read : • Pray you, if you know Where in the,' &c., and was followed, except by Capell, in all editions down to and including Knight. Collier restored the second comma, which has been since retained. It is a trifling matter, but it involves a shade of meaning which an editor cannot disregard.—ED.

80. Purlews] MALONE: Bullokar, Expositor, has : *Purlue. A place neere ioining to a Forrest, where it is lawfall for the owner to the ground to hunt, if hee can dispend fortie shillings by the yeere of free land.' REED: Purlieu, says Manwood's Treatise on the Forest Laws, c. xx, “is a certaine territorie of ground adjoyning unto the forest, meared and bounded with unmoveable marks, meeres, and boundaries : which territories of ground was also forest, and afterwards disaforested againe by the perambulations made for the severing of the new forest from the old.'

82. bottom] CAPELL: This word should have a fuller stop after it, a semicolon; for the meaning of these lines, whose construction is a little perplex’d, is as follows: It stands to the west of this place, and down in the neighbour bottom; if you leave the rank of osiers, that grows by the brook-side, on your right hand, it will bring you to the place. [For many examples of noun compounds, see Abbott, S 430.]

83. ranke] See III, ii, 97.
84. Left] See Capell's foregoing note.

90. fauour] MOBERLY: To favour is to resemble in Yorkshire even now (and here in this country also.-Ed.]. Hence it might be argued that favour' means resem. blance, and therefore countenance. It would, however, be more accurate to derive the verb from the substantive, as in the parallel phrase of the same dialect, you breed o’ me,' for you are like me. In that case 'favour' may perhaps be a corruption (by proximity) of 'feature' (saiture), which is similarly used as a verb (“ a glass that featur'd them'). Compare, for the vanishing of the t, 'vetulus' with vieil,' and 'em.

Like a ripe sister : the woman low

91 91. ripe fifter] right forester Lettsom, Steev. Mal. Sing. Clke, Ktly, Dyce iii, Huds.

Coll. iii. the] But the Ff, Rowe+, Cap. phyteusis’ with • (en)fief.' Wright: “Favour' is aspect, look; used generally of the face. Compare Macb. I, v, 73: “To alter favour ever is to fear.' And Hamlet, V, i, 214: · Let her paint an inch thick, to this favour she must come.'

90. bestowes] STEEVENS : Compare 2 Hen. IV: II, ii, 186: How might we see Falstaff bestow himself to-night in his true colours, and not ourselves be seen ?' Rev. JOHN HUNTER : I apprehend the meaning here to be, that by stuffing out his bosom, he gives himself the appearance of a girl of ripe age. [Schmidt supplies many examples where “bestow,' used reflectively, means to deport one's self.]

91. ripe sister] WALKER (Vers. 209): 'A ripe sister' seems an odd expression. LETTSOM [in a foot-note to Walker]: Odd, no doubt, and it is not less odd that nobody, as far as I know, made this remark before. "Ripe sister' seems corrupted from right forester. This last word was often written forster and foster. Perhaps, too, the first and' has usurped the place of but. The F, reads: ‘Like a ripe sister: But the woman low,' &c. So in Macb. I, vii, the same edition has: 'And dasht the Branes out, had I but so sworne,' &c. But, in both these passages, is a crutch furnished by the compassionate editor to assist the lameness of the metre. In Macbeth the idiom of our language, as well as the harmony of the verse, seems to require us to read : ‘And dash'd the brains on't out, had I so sworn,' &c. DYCE (ed. iii) pronounces this emendation of Lettsom's 'most ingenious,' a commendation by no means too strong. "A ripe sister,' not only as a phrase by itself, but as applied to a young man or even to a 'boy,' seems to be not merely odd, but almost unintelligible, and until something better is proposed Lettsom's right forester holds, for me, pre-eminent rank. But, on the other hand, WRIGHT, our highest Shakespearian authority now living, accepts the present text, and says: “The meaning must be that Rosalind, though in male attire and acting the part of a brother, was in her behaviour to Celia more like an elder sister.' See also Hunter's explanation in the preceding note.-Ed.

91. sister] Of course it is manifest that the scansion of this line halts if we read it in the right butterwomán's rank to market. To smooth it out Walker (Vers. 209) suggested that “sister' be pronounced as he says daughter is sometimes pronounced; that is, as a trisyllable. Oxen and wainropes will never draw me to the belief that either word was ever so pronounced, or at least ever should be so pronounced. Almost invariably where the rhythm balts over these two words there is a pause in the sense; and this pause it is which takes the place of the extra syllable. How Walker missed seeing this, it is difficult to comprehend. He himself even calls attention to this pause, and notes that in at least half of the instances of his trisyllabic daughter there is not only a pause, but a full stop after the word. And yet he speculated on the original form of the word as a source of its prolonged pronunciation, and Lettsom suggested that it might lie in the original guttural sound. Abbott, too, is scarcely better; for he suggests (8 478) that the .er final may have been sometimes pronounced with a kind of “ burr,” which produced the effect of an additional syllable,' and thus scans the present line: Lske a | ripe sfs | ter : | the wom | an lów. Trisyllables and • burrs' may make lines rhythmical on paper, but let them remain on the paper, and never leave it. Or let them be set to the music which is asked for in Othello, that may not be heard.' --Ed.

92

95

And browner then her brother : are not you
The owner of the house I did enquire for?

Cel. It is no boast, being ask'd, to say we are.

Oli. Orlando doth commend him to you both,
And to that youth hee calls his Rosalind,
He sends this bloudy napkin; are you he?
Ros.

I am : what must we vnderstand by this ?
Oli. Some of my shame, if you will know of me
What man I am, and how, and why, and where
This handkercher was stain'd.

Cel. I pray you tell it.

Oli. When last the yong Orlando parted from you,
He left a promise to returne againe
Within an houre, and pacing through the Forrest,
Chewing the food of sweet and bitter fancie,

100

105

93. owner) owners Cap. conj. Hal. Dyce iii, Huds.

97. this] his Warb. (misprint ?).
101. handkercher] Ff, Dyce, Cam.

Huds. Rife. handkerchief Rowe et cet.

105. an houre] two hours Han.

106. food ] cud Sta. Dyce ii, iii, Coll. iii, Huds.

92. browner] COWDEN-CLARKE: It must be remembered that when Celia proposed to disguise herself as a shepherdess, she says that she will with a kind of umber smirch' her face'; and this browner complexion, mentioned here, shows that she has fulfilled her idea.

93. owner] Capell's conjecture is harmless; but COWDEN-CLARKE thus vindicates the original text in a note on Celia's reply 'we are': 'In this little touch there is a manifestation of Shakespeare's subtlety and true taste. Oliver, wholly occupied with Celia, asks her if she be the “owner of the house" he inquires for; but she, with the usual delicacy, modesty, and generosity which characterise her, especially where sharing all things equally with her cousin is concerned, answers by a word that comprehends them both as joint-owners.'

97. napkin) STEEVENS: That is, handkerchief (as it is called within five lines.Ed.). Ray says that a pocket-handkerchief is so called about Sheffield in Yorkshire. BOSWELL: Napkin is still a handkerchief in Scotland, and probably in all the northern English counties. [‘Oft did she heave her napkin to her eyne.'--Lover's Complaint, 21. See Oth. III, iii, 335, where the fatal · handkerchief spotted with strawberries' is also called a “napkin.'—ED.]

101. handkercher] This is the uniform spelling in the First Quarto of Othello; and once the Third Folio (IV, i, 167) spells it • Hankerchiffe.' In the First Folio in Othello the spelling is uniformly handkerchiefe.'

105. an houre] ‘We must read,' says JOHNSON, ' within two hours,' and then did not so read in his text. As Tyrwhitt asks, may not " within an hour" signify within a certain time?' It does not mean one ; it is simply the indefinite article.-ED.

106. food] STAUNTON: Undoubtedly a misprint. “To chew the cud,' metaphorically, to ruminate, to resolve in the mind, is an expression of frequent occurrence in 107

Loe vvhat befell : he threw his eye aside,
And marke vvhat obiect did present it felfe
Vnder an old Oake, whose bows were moss'd with age
And high top, bald with drie antiquitie:
A wretched ragged man, ore-growne with haire
Lay sleeping on his back ; about his necke

IIO

II2

109. old) Om. Pope +, Cap. Steev. Wh. Cam. Dyce iii, Huds. Rlfe.

110. with] of Rowe ii, Pope, Han.

our old authors. DYCE (ed. ii): In the Introduction to Quentin Durward the image inary Marquis de Hautlieu is made to quote the present line thus : 'Shewing the code of sweet and bitter fancy'; which is followed by the remark : ‘Against this various reading of a well-known passage in Shakespeare I took care to offer no protest; for I suspect Shakespeare would have suffered in the opinion of so delicate a judge as the Marquis, had I proved his having written “ chewing the cud,according to all other authorities.'—p. xxxvi, ed. 1823. Sir Walter Scott, therefore, was not aware that all authorities' agreed in chewing the food of,' &c.; and to him, in fact, we owe the correction of the line. EREM (Notes & Qu. 5th ser. iv, 4): The cud is identically the chewed. There is, then, a chewing that is not the cud, but of fresh food, which, become so a cud, is laid by for re-chewing. Orlando chews no cud, but the food, ever springing afresh, of sweet and bitter love-thoughts, a crop in repute for quick and thick growth. .... How at home the metaphor is in the English mind is shown in the curious fact that the oral tradition of our educated society has usurped possession of the verse, turning food' into cud. Engage ten persons of literary cultivation with the elder brother's revelation of the younger's reverie, and, if the world is as it was, nine will, I expect, pledge their scholarship to that reading of this text which, on the page of Shakespeare, they have not read. With a step back into the world as it was you have wonderfully Sir Walter Scott in example, (who] deliberately alleges cud for the universal reading, more than a generation before [a single text] had it.

106. bitter fancy] CAPELL: The epithets given to 'Fancy'look'd so like a translation of the Greek yukúfrikpov, that the editor thought for some time, the Poet must, somehow or other, have been fishing in those waters; but turning again to his novelist, he found a passage he had not reflected on, and thus it runs: “Wherein I have noted the variable disposition of fancy, .... being as it should seeme a combat mixt with disquiet, and a bitter pleasure wrapt in a sweet prejudice'; the words are address'd to Rosalind by this identical speaker. (See Appendix.] MALONE: Love is always thus described by our old poets, as composed by contraries. See notes on Rom. & Jul. I, i, 169. FARMER : Watson begins one of his canzonets : ‘Love is a sowre delight, a sugred griefe, A living death, an ever-dying life,' &c.

109. old] STEEVENS : As this epithet hurts the measure without improvement of the sense (for we are told in the same line that its • boughs were moss'd with age,' and, afterwards, that its top was bald with dry antiquity), I have omitted it, as an unquestionable interpolation. White: I cannot believe that in an otherwise destly wrought and perfectly rhythmical passage, Shakespeare would load a line with a heavy monosyllable, entirely superfluous to any purpose other than that of marring the description and making the verse halt.

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