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BENJAMIN FRANKLIN.

WRITTEN BY HIMSELF,

AND CONTINUED BY HIS GRANDSON AND OTHERS

WITH

HIS SOCIAL EPISTOLARY CORRESPONDENCE, PHILOSOPHICAL, POLITICAL,

AND MORAL LETTERS AND ESSAYS,

AND HIS

DIPLOMATIC TRANSACTIONS AS AGENT AT LONDON AND MINISTER

PLENIPOTENTIARY AT VERSAILLES.

AUGMENTED BY MUCH MATTER NOT CONTAINED IN ANY FORMER EDITION.

WITH A

POSTLIMINIO US PREFACE.
BY WILLIAM DUANE.

N TWO VOLUME S.

VOL. I.

NEW YORK:
DERBY & JACKSON, 119 NASSAU STREET.

1959.

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ENTERED according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1834, by Mc Carty & Davis, in the

Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania

I. Islead iCo, i rimlars.

INDEX TO VOLUME I.

A

ACT of ihe British Parliament to prohibit and restrain
American trade, 137.

Adams, Rut ledge, and Franklin meet lord Howe, 137.

Albany, Franklin appointed commissioner to the In-
dians there, in 1754, 52—Plan of union of the colo-
nics prepared and presented there, 53.

Alexander, William, esq., Franklin's letter to, on the
origin of the stamp act, 78.

America asserts her right of exclusively taxing her-
self, 85—Gratitude of, 301.

American discontents, cause of, 197.

Americans abused in the bouse of lords, their courage,
religion, and understanding depreciated and treated
with contempt, 133.

Anecdotes of Bradford, 9, 10—of Ralph, 15—of governor
Clinton, 45—of Beatty, GO—of governor Denny, 63.

Arnold, general, his treacherous conduct, 157—How re-
warded by the British government, 157, 158.

Arrest, the ministry design to arrest Franklin, 105.

Articles of belief and acts of religion, 33.

B

Barclay, David, interview betwixt Franklin and, 107—
Conference with. 124—Further conference, 138.

Bernard, governor, dispute with lieutenant-governor
Hutchinson, 86.

Bond, Dr. Thomas, proposes an hospital in Philadel-
phia, 49.

Beaton, resolutions of the town of, 84—Tumult with the

people and the soldiers, 86.
Braddock, general, arrives in America, 54—Service ren-

'Wed to nis army, 55—His character, 50— His defeat,

57.

Brown, doctor, turns the Bible into doggrel verse, 9.
Bnrgoyne, general, surrenders with his whole army to

the Americans, 146.
Burnet, son of Dr. Burnet, notices Franklin, 13.

C

Calumnious speeches in the house of lords, against
America, 133.

Camden, lord, has interviews with him, 118—Supports
America, 131—Speaks admirably on American af-
fairs, 133.

Canada, Franklin decides the policy of Chatham con-
cerning. 74—His pamphlet thereon, 75.
Caricature occasioned by the stamp act, 80.
Carlisle, Eden, and Johnstone, 146.
Cause> of the American discontents, a pamphlet, 84.
Chancery, Franklin sued in, 93.

Charter, the first royal, granted to Pennsylvania, in
1681. 73.

Chatham, lord, consults Franklin, 74—Desires to see
him, 106— His motion relative to America, 131—Vi-
sits Franklin, 122— His plan for settling the disputes
with the colonies, 123—Rejection of the same, 125.

Clapham, colonel. 60

Clarkson's life of Penn, refutation of censurers on

Franklin in, 73.
Clifton, John, first proposes the lighting of the streets

of Philadelphia, 50.
Coleman. William, character of, 35—Liberality to

Franklin, 36.
Collins. John, some account of, 9. 11. 13.
Collinson, publishes Franklin's "Jv>k» Experiments in

Electricity," 62.
Commissioners in Europe, grant letters of marque, 145.
Common Sense, a political publication, 137.
Conductors, blunt opposed to pointed, 151—Epigram on,

151.

Congress, assembly of, 103—Their declaration of rights:
their petition to the king, 103. 113—Send their pro-
ceding* to lord Chatham, and present a second peti-
tion, 134—Declare the independence of the colonies,
137—Appoint a deputation to meet lord Howe and
hear his propositions of peace, 137—Resolution re-

specting general Sullivan, 140— Report of the com-
mittee appointed to confer with lord Howe, 140— As-
semble at Philadelphia, 141.
Cool Thoughts, a pamphlet by Franklin, 78-
Copely, sir Godfrey, his gold medal presented to Frank-
lin, 63.

Correspondence, social and familiar, of Dr. Franklin,
in a series of letters, 233— Private and political, be-
fore the declaration of independence, in a series of
letters, 303. 510.

Croghan, George, Indian interpreter, 57.

Cnsking, Thomas, letters to, 103.

D

Dartmouth, lord, made secretary of state for America,
85—Friendly to Franklin, 86— His good wishes to-
wards the colonies, 95.

Dasckkoff's, the princess, letter to Franklin, 189.

Delor introduces Franklin's electrical ex peri men ts into
France, 83.

Denham, Mr. an early friend of Franklin, 16—His death:
trait in his character, 30.

Denny, governor, succeeds Morris, 62—Presents a me-
dal to Franklin, 63—Refuses assent to an appropri-
ation, 68.

De Romas, invention of the electrical kite, falsely at-
tributed to, 83.

D" Estaing arrives in America with six sail of frigates,
151.

Dickenson, John, engaged in public affairs, 77.
Dissensions between England and America, concern
ing the, 223

Dubonrg, moiis., translates Franklin's philosophical
papers into French, 80.

E

Eeton, in Northamptonshire, birth-place of the ances-
tor of Franklin, L

Education of females, how important, 39—Publishes a
pamphlet on, 47.

Electrical discoveries, general account of Franklin's, 63.

Electricity, Franklin's experiments in, 48—Renewed,
62— Applied to various purposes by Franklin, 63.

Experiments on canals, and water, by Franklin, 80.

on the Gulf Stream, 133.

F

Fayette, a letter to, 157.

Fire Companies, first established by Franklin, 43.

Fireplace invented, an iron one, 47.

Folgers, ancestors of Franklin, 3.

Fothergitl, doctor, character of. 51—Letters to Dr.
Franklin, 108—Meeting with him and Barclay, 128—
Another meeting, 131.

Franklin, the family of. 1—Benjamin Franklin born, 3
—Erects a monument to his father and mother, 4—
Is apprenticed to his brother, a printer, 5—Method
of teaching himself English composition, 0— Proposal
made him for establishing a new religious sect, 14—
Pays his addresses to Miss Read. 15—Embarks for
London, 16—Writes a dissertation on Liberty and
Necessity, ate, 17—Becomes acquainted with Dr.
Pemberton, sir Hans Sloane, Ate , 17—His moral and
religious principles, 23—Writes under the signature
of Busy-body, 25—Writes on the necessity of paper
money, 36—His marriage to Miss Read. 38—Projects
the first subscription library in Philadelphia, 33—
PublisheR Poor Richard's Almanac, 3H—Begins the
study of languages, 40—Appointed clerk of general
assembly, 41—Made post-master at Philadelphia, 41—
Founds the Union Fire Company, 42—Proposes esta-
blishing an academy and Philosophical Society at
Philadelphia, 44—Publishes Plain Truth, 44—Its ef-
fect, 45—Invents an open stove, 47—Renews hia
attempts to establish an academy at Philadelphia, 47
—Devotes his time to philosophical experiments, 48—
Is elected a member of assembly and justice of peace
48—Is appointed a commissioner to treat with the
Indian;*, 40—Plan for cleaning the streets of Phila-
delphia am] paving the same, 50—His improvement
in street lamps, 51—Appointed post-master general,
52—Made M. A- of Cambridge and Vale Colleges, 52
—Plan for the union of the colonies, 52—liin address
to the counties of Lancaster, dec, 55—Chosen colonel
of a volunteer regiment, til—Philosophical reputation,
02—Chosen a member of the Royal Society of Lon-
don, and presented with the gold medal of sir Godfrey
Copely, lilt—Embarks for England, ti5— His connex-
ion with the London newspapers, 70—Dedication of
his " Historical Review," &c, 73—Is consulted by Mr.
Pitt, 75—Writes " England's Interest with respect to
the Colonies,1' 75—Visits Scotland, is made L. L. D.
tit St. Andrews. 75~Receives the same honour from
Oxford, 75—Returns to Philadelphia. 70—Loses his
seat in the Pennsylvania assembly, 78—Reinstated,
and revisits Great Britain, 78,—Visits Holland, Ger-
many, and Paris, 80—Introduced to Louis XV.: re-
peats his electrical experiments in his presence, and
by count de Button, Sec, 80—Is dismissed from the
o trice of deputy post-master, 99—Correspondence with
dean Tucker, 100—Invents an emblematical sign, 103
—His acquaintance with Mrs. Howe, 107—Hints for
terms of union with Great Britain, 108—Letter to
lord Dartmouth, 127—Experiments on the ocean, 133
—Arrival in America, 134—Proposes the adoption of
paper money, 130—Sent on a mission to Canada, 130—
Writes to Holland for assistance, 130—Correspond-
ence with lord Howe, 137—Is appointed minister ple-
nipotentiary to the court of France, 142— Experi-
ment* during the voyage, 143—Receives a present of
Cook's Voyajres from the British government, 153—
Private Journal. 153—Requests leave to retire on ac-
count of age. 153—1 he congress refuse his resigna-
tion, 155—Account of Arnold's treachery in a letter
to general la Fayette, 157—Political information with
sir William Jones, 100—Negotiates for a peace at Pa-
ris. 104—Opens negotiation with the Swedish court,
107—Extracts from his private Journal, 169—Is nomi-
nated by the king of France to examine the proper-
ties of animal magnetism. 173—Signs the treaty of
peace with Great Britain, 171—Leaves Passy on his
return home, 175—Arrives at Philadelphia, 177—Con-
gratulatory address on his arrival, 178—Chosen a
member of the council. 179—Queries and Remarks on
Constitution of government, 180—Speech on Sala-
ries, 181—Speech on Representation and Votes, 182—
Retires from public affairs, 185—Sketch of his ser-
vices, 186— Writes against the slave trade. 187—Last
illness, death, and funeral, 190—Oration occasioned
by his death, 191—His character, 192—Extracts from
his will and codicil. 193— Epitaph written by himself,
190—Examined before the house of commons respect-
ing the Stamp Act, 203—Before the privy council. 217.

Franklin, William, (Dr. Franklin's son,) appointed go-
vernor of New Jersey, 75.

Franklin, W. Temple, baron de StaeTs letter relative
to him, 107-

French, colonel, attention to Franklin, 11.

French government first take interest in the dispute
betwixt Great Britain and America, 84.

Galloway, Joseph, engaged in politics, 77—His speech
published with a preface by Franklin, 77.

Oaten, general, defeats the British troops, 140.

Georgia, Massachusetts, and New Jersey appoint Frank-
lin a?ent in Kngland, 80.

Gerard, monsieur, goes as envoy to America, 140.

Germany and Holland, Franklin travels into, 80.

Gnadenhutten, Franklin sent in military command to.
58—Indians burn that place, 58—Constructs military
works there 59—His military police, 00—Apopihegm
scour the anchor,—Grog before prayers, incentive to
piety, GO.

Godfrey, Thomas, inventor of Hartley's quadrant, 24.

Mrs., projects a marriage for Franklin, 27.

Government. Franklin's system of, eulogized by the
duke de la Rochefoucault, 184.

Grace**. Robert, liberality to Franklin, 26.

Gur.rehy, the French ambassador, attentive to Frank-
lin, 84

Gunpowder, as grain, comprehended with wheat,&.C., 46.
H

Hall, Mr. David, a partner in business with Franklin,
48.

Hamilton, Mr. Andrew, account of, 16.27.
Harry, David, history of, 27.

Hartley, David, esq., employed to negotiate w Hh'Frank-
lin, 107.

Hemphill, parson, first settles in Philadelphia. 39.
Henly and Nairne, verify Franklin's electric system,

150.

Hereditary legislators and mathematicians. 123.
Hillsborough, lord, made secretary of state for America,

84 —His resignation, 85.
Hints for negotiation, lll^— Arguments on, 109.

on further propositions 127.

Historical Reziew, opinion of various writers on the, 53.
History, observations on reading, 37.
Holmes. Mr., brother-in-law to Franklin, 11.
Hostilities commence betwixt Great Britain and France,

147.

House of Commons, Franklin's examination before the,

79.

Howe, Mrs., conference with Franklin, 107—Letters to
Franklin, 119. 128. 131.

Howe, lord, courts an acquaintance with Franklin, 116
—Meets him by appointment. 128—Letter to Frank-
lin, 129—Another meeting, 131—Appointed to com-
mand the British fleet in North America, 137—Cor-
respondence with Franklin, 138

Hutchinson, lieutenant-governor, disputes with, 86—
His letters, Franklin's account of, 88.

HuUon, Mr., the Moravian, account of, 152—Letter to,
159.

Hyde, lord, his interview with Franklin, 128.

Indian method of concealing fires. 00.

Tngenhausz's, Dr , detection of Wilson's deceptive ex
periments relative to Franklin's lightning conduct-
ors, and pretended improvements of his own, 150.

Tunis, the messenger, some account of him, 65.

Intelligence from Pennsylvania, political papers, effect
of, 70.

James, Abel, letter to Franklin, requesting him to con-
tinue his memoirs, 29.

Jay, John, esq., sent minister to the court of Spain, 148
—Arrives at Paris to negotiate for peace. 104.

Jones, John Paul, pretended letter from him, 159.

sir William, account of an attempt to negotiate

for a peace with Franklin, 160—His supposed trans-
lation of " Ji Fragment of Polybius" ItiO—His senti-
ments respecting America, 162.

Judges made independent in Massachusetts, 86.

Junto, account of a literary one formed by Franklin.
24—Its sphere enlarged, 40. •

Keimer first employs Franklin as a printer, 11—Pro-
poses to Franklin to establish a new religious sect, 14
—Quarrels with him and parts, 22.

Keith, sir William, proposes to establish Franklin as a
printer, 12—Practises the grossest fraud on Frank-
lin, 14.

Kippis, Dr., a calumny of his respecting Franklin cor-
rected, 151.

Lamps, improvement thereof, 51.
Languages, began to study, 40.
Ialw of Nations, proposed improvement t hereof, 170.
Lee, Arthur, petition of, with llollan and Franklin, 196.
tegal tender of paper money, he opposes, 69.
Library, the first established in Philadelphia, 32.
Lighting and Pacing of Philadelphia set on foot by
Franklin, 51

Lightning drawn from the clouds, 03—Theory of con-
ductors, 63.
Logan. Mr., account of, 46.

Loudon, lord, arrives in Philadelphia, 64—His mode of

despatching business. 04—His ideas of public Bervice,

(Ml—Cause of his removal, 66.
Loughborough, lord, his abuse of Franklin before the

privy council. 87.
Lutwith. captain, account of his fast-sailing packet, 66.
Lyons, Dr., encourages Franklin to write on religious

subjects, 18.

M

Magnetism, animal, 169.

Mandevillc's, Dr.. friendship for Franklin, 18.

Marbois, Barb', his secret letter on American affairs,

Note, 165

Massachusetts appoints Franklin agent in England, 80
—The colony of a sketch of the importance of. 86—
Their judges made independent, 80—Dispute with
governors Bernard and Hutchinson, 86—Report of
their house of representatives on Hutchinson's let-
tern, 87.

M-el in g house, huw to obtain a subscription for, 50.
Meredith, enters into partnership with Franklin, 23.
Method, importance of,

Meyrtek, au army agent, his letters to general Arnold
154—an account of the 5000/. paid him for his trea-
chery, 155.

Mickie, anecdote of Mr. Samuel. 34.

Military spirit excited by Franklin. 44.

Militia, writes in favour of. 511—His magnanimity on
the occasion, 45.

Militia Bills, governor refuses to ratify, 77.

Mirabeau, proposes to the national assembly of France
a public mourning for Franklin, 191.

Moravians, account of the, 59—61.

MorrU, James, anecdote of, 54—Returns from Eng

N

Mtats, Mr. W., letter to Franklin, 115.

A" '<- England Courant begun by the Franklins, 8.

JWv Jersey, William Franklin, the doctor's son, ap-
pointed governor of, 75—Appoints Franklin agent in
England. 80.

Newspaper, mode of conducting, 39—Newspapers, Eng-
lish, he write* in, 71—EhTecls of, 71.

A'oailtes, marquis, quits London, 140.

Mollet, the abbe, opposes Franklin's system of electri-
city, 02—Claims the discovery of the theory of light-
ning, 63.

Worth's, lord, motion in the house of commons re-
specting America, 129.
Notes, for discourse wiOHord Chatham. 122

O

Office, public. Franklin's maxim concerning, 45.
Onslow, Arthur. es4|., Franklin's Historical Review de-
dicated to him, 71.
Orme, captain, anecdote of, 57.

Oswald, Mr., is succeeded by David Hartley, esq., as

minister from Great Britain, 163.
Oxford University confers the degree of L. L. D. on

Franklin. 75,

Fame's pamphlet, "Common Sense," effects of, in
America, 137.

Paper currency proposed by, 27—Legal tender opposed,

68.

Parliament, British, arguments against ita right to tax

the American colonies 85.
Partnership, advice in, 44.
Parton murders, account of, 76.

Peace with Great Britain. Journal of negotiation for,
in a scries of letters, 476.

Pemberton, Dr., an early friend of Franklin, 17.

Penn, William, anecdote of, 46—Exacts quit rents, 46
—Character of, 74—Attaches himself to James the
Second, 74— Deprived of bis authority in Pennsylva-
nia, 74—Is reinstated, 74.

Pennsylvania, state of the province of, in 1757,68—First
royal charter granted to the colony, 72—First cause
of dispute with the colony of, 76—Petition from, to
the king, 77.

Petition of W. Bollan, B. Franklin, and Arthur Lee,
126.

Petition to the king from congress, in 1774, 103. 112—

The last to the king, 134.
Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, proposed by

Franklin, 44.

Piquet, M. La Mot he, captures twenty-two Bail of Bri-
tish merchant vessels, 155.

Pitt, Win., earl ol Chatham, consults Franklin re-
specting Canada. 74.

Plain Truth published, 44.

Plan of Union at Albany, 1754, 53—Adopted by assem-
bly, rejected by the British government, 54.
Plan of permanent union, 125.

Polybtus, supposed translation of a Fragment of, by sir

William Jones, 157.
Poor Richard's Almanac first published, 38.
Postmaster, he is appointed in 1753, 52.
Pownall, governor, anecdote of, 54.
Prayers, Franklin's motion for, 179.
preaching, anecdotes of, 40.
Preface by W. T. Franklin, iv.

Priestly's. Dr., testimony of the merits of Franklin's
discoveries in electricity. 80—His account of Frank
lin't demeanour before the privy council, 87-

Pritr altering, proposes 10 put all end to, 170.

Privy council discuss the Massachusetts' petition. Mi
Wedderburn's abuse of Franklin. 87.

Project, an extensive one, 37.

Proposed vindication and oiler from congress in 1775,
88.

Proprietary, refuse to tax their estates for public de-
fence, 68—Remonstrance against, 69—The disjHite*
with, had great influence on forming the character
of Franklin, and cm the revolution, 70—disputes
with. 77.

Protest, an eloquent one by Franklin, 132.
Prussian edict. 225.

Purchase of Dr Franklin's writings, by British minis-
ter confuted, iv. vi.
Public affairs. Franklin first turns attention to, 41-

Quakers' meeting, the first house Franklin entered at
Philadelphia after his arrival, 10 — Anecdote of the,
45—Take an active part in opposing the rioters de-
nominated Paxtou Boys, 76

R

Ralph, the historian, curious anecdote of, 13— Becomes
a schoolmaster, l-—obtains a pension for pulitlcai
writing, 64.

Read, Mr., father of Franklin's wife, 11.

Religion, a new one proposed to he established, II.

Religious creed of Franklin, 29.

Remarks, on propositions for reconciliation, 127.

Remonstrance, drawn up against the selfishness of pro
prietary, 69.

Richard's, poor, almanac, 3H.

Rtchmann, professor, introduces Fiauklin's electrical
discoveries into Russia, 83.

Right of British parliament to tax America, £5-

Rights, privileges. &c, to America, equal communica-
tion of. by Great Britain. 202.

Roy, Moits. Le, refutes the amV Nollet, 62.

Royal Society of London, Franklin cboaeii a member
thereof, 63.

Rules for reducing a great empire to a small one, 227.
H>;Hi Indian orator's apology for drinking, 49.
Rutledge, Franklin, and Adams, meet lord Howe, 137-

Salaries, Franklin's speech thereon, 177.

Sandwich, lord, attributes lord Chatham's motion to

Franklin, 123.
Scotland, Franklin visits, 75.
Shelbum, American business taken from lord, 84.
Shirley, general, anecdote of, 66.
Stare Trade, 187.

Sloane's, sir Hans, visit to Franklin, 17.

Smith, Dr., pronounces a funeral oration for Franklin,

190.

Spangenberg, bishop, some account of, 59.

~tecies, the animosity of the English lords leads them
to say Americans are of different species from Eng.
lishmen, 132.

Spotswood, colonel, governor of Virginia, 41.

Stail. the Baron de letter on the pence with Sweden
and requesting Mr. Temple Franklin to be employed
at the Swedish court. 163.

Stamp Act, origin of, 78—Caricature occasioned there-
by, 80—Disturbance in America, occasioned by pass-
ing the. 60—First objects of, 102—Its repeal, 104.

Stanhope, lord, Franklin writes to, 121.

Strahan, king's printer, fac simile of a letter tc, 136.

Swimming, great fault in the art of, 20.

T

Tea tax, of the, 223.
Temperance, importance of, 36.
Temple, Mr. John, his duel with Mr. Whateljr 88.
Tennent, Rev. Gilbert, account of, 50.
Thomson, Charles, secretary to first congress, 1774, 104.
Treaty of alliance between France and America, 146.
Tucker, dean, controversy with Franklin, 101—Reflec-
tions thereon. 102.
Tumult at Boston. 86.
Tyron on vegetable diet. Influence of, 44.

Union of the colonies, plan of, proposed at Albany, 52.
■ ■ - ■" fire company founded, 42.

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