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Observations of the Archdukes of Austria

[Feb. 1,

over

Bessed by a large ship at sca

town. As it was low water we were sınall vessels will readily conceive what obliged to have recourse to the boar to would have been the issue of the conflict. enter the harbour. The quays and the Calm days are moreover but rare, and whole shore were covered with a great such a one must have been chosen to cuncourse of people. It is impossible deprive the English fleet of part of its to describe the first impression which a advantages. Lastly it would have been stranger receives on arriving in this very difficult to cross with vessels without country. He fancies himself transported decks in stormy weather.

into another world: nothing there From all these considerations it is resembles wbat he has seen elsewhere. obvious that a landing could not have Buildings, carriages, horses, mnen, dress, been effected in England but by a kind physiognomy-are

all different from of iniracle--and then what immense what he has been accustomed to. lie difficulties would there have been to perceives in the lowest classes a kind of encounter in the country itself! Of elegance both' in person and costume; this all who have ever seen England must and their features retain an expression of be thoroughly convinced.

calmness and serenity even in numerous If the motive of Napoleon in this assemblages. enterprize was to ruin England, he The carriages that were in waiting completely failed, since the extraordinary conveyed us to our inn : it commands a armaments which he occasioned ber to view of the barbour, which was full of set on foot, proved fatal to him in Spain shipping. It is dry at ebb-tide. The and Portugal. He seems himself to entrance is narrow and obstructed by a have been aware of the difficulties which sand-bank, so that it cannot be passed opposed the execution of bis plan, since except at high water. he eagerly seized the opportunity of We went to see the new citadel. directing his forces against a quarter The town is situated on the sea-shore at where he discovered, as he thought, a the entrance of a valley. The old castle probability of success.

of Dover lies to the east and the citadel There were several packets in the to the west. We remarked the beauty harbour; two sailed at noon with a of the bricks of the citadel. The favourable wind. We saw them depart captain of engineers, who accompanied with regret, while etiquette obliged us to us and was very attentive, informed us wait for the yaclit. At length about four that coal-ashes are mixed with the clay o'clock she appeared in the roads; but of which the bricks are made-a fact the captain determined not to sail till which was afterwards confirmed to us in the next morning, because the wind was London. The chalk found here serves stormy, and be had orders, as he said, for making the lime employed in buildto land us at Dorer in the day-time. ing.-The view from the height is mag

Oct. 22. A fine morning proinised us nificent; the coasts of Boulogne and a "favourable passage. The white chalk Calais are distinctly seen. cliffs of the English coast soon appeared Oct. 23. We started at nine o'clock. in sight. At 10 in the morning ne The post-horses are excellent, the roads went on board the yacht, which is a very magnificent, the drivers safe, and pretty little vessel. As it belongs to the travelling extremely expeditious. The Admiralty it is fitted up with elegance. country is better cultivated than in It contains a sitting-room, a spacious France, which gives it an agreeable apeating-room, and a kitchen. The two

pearance though not beautiful in itself, former are wainscoted with mahogany, The soil is chalky, mixed with silex. and adorned with gilding; and the In front of almost all the houses is a furniture of the sitting room is of blue small patch filled with flowers and satin. At onc end of this apartment is southern plants that pass the winter in a beautiful stove of polished steel, and at the open air and afford a favourable idea the other a lamp the light of which falls of the mildness of the climate. The upon the steersman's compass.

Two wind-mills are numerous because there adjoining closets contain every con- is but little water in these parts. A venience for persons afflicted with sea- great number of villas of a peculiar and sickness. A plentiful breakfast was pleasing architecture, surrounded with provided in the eating-rooin, but nobody small parks, meadows clothed with the ventured to touch it for fear of sickness. most brilliant verdure, superb flocks,

At three o'clock we reached Dover and fields encompassed with quick road. The horses, which are almost all bedges and crocs render the country black give a dull appearance to the truly charming,

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1818.] during their Tour in England, in 1815 and 1816.

Canterbury, 16 miles from Dover is passes over this tunnel by means of a the first stage. It is situated in a valley, bridge 60 or 70 feet high. and its beautiful cathedral rises ma. The country is every where well culo jestically above the houses. As we tivated. Silex and chalk abound in it. wished not to stop we deferred inspecting The latter is spread upon the fields to it till our return. The post-house is at render the soil inore friable. the same time an inn-a circumstance Chipping Barnet is the first stage and very common in England as well as in St. Alban's the second. At the latter Germany.

place we stopped at the White Hart, a Pursuing our route, we were surprized very good inn, where the traveller finds, at the great number of turnpikes where as indeed he does all over England, very toll must be paid. They consist of two clean apartments, excellent fare, and a sınall houses the road between which is polite reception. obstructed by a moveable bar; on either The abbey of St. Albans is an edifice side is a narrow passage for pedestrians, remarkable for its antiquity. The and in the middle of the road is a church, built of chalk, is situated on an machine for indicating the weight of eminence; its construction dates from carriages: the maintenance of these three different periods, and is conseroads is undertaken by private indi- quently very irregular. It is said to viduals, who pay an advance to the have been begun by the Anglo-Saxons. state, and possess by act of parliament The architecture of the second period is the privilege of levying the tolls, which Gothic, and the third was about the time are regulated according to the expense of the Reformation. Henry VIH. and attending the repair of the road. These Elizabeth, when obliged to quit London, turnpike roads adınit only two carriages on account of the plague, held their abreast; on each side they have a path courts of justice in this church. Here raised two or three feet for foot pas- too is shown the tomb of the patron of sengers. The roads are kept in good England. order with broken silex.

On a slight eminence to the south of Night overtook us at Dartford, and it the town is the site of the ancient Roman was eight o'clock when we reached city of Verulamium : some vestiges of its London. The house of the Duke of St. walls still exist. Albans, which was provided for our In a neighbouring ralley, near a small reception with every thing that can stream, is seen the silk-naill of Mr. render life agreeable and comfortable is Woolam. The machines employed here pleasantly situated in one of the best are on the same plan as those for spinquarters in Westminster, near the ning cotton. The silk goes through promenades. On the following days till twelve preparations. All the machinery the 3d of November, we were engaged is set in motion by water, We disin visits of etiquette and others; in covered notbing very new in the manitaking notes for the journey which we pulation, except two contrivances. By intended to make in the country, and means of the one, if a thread of the for which we not sufficiently spindle breaks, the machine stops of prepared; and lastly in equipping our- itself. By the other, the silk is wound selves in the English fashion, that we more equally upon the bobbins than by might rụn about the town with greater the usual process. The proprietor of freedom.

this manufactory, who employs 120 At eight in the morning of the 3rd persons, bas annexed to it a school for of November, we quitted London. The the children of the work-people. suburbs of this capital are daily ex- We arrived late in the evening at teoding. Houses and whole streets are Beachwood, a fine mansion belonging built upon speculation and almost im- to Sir John SEBRIGHT. He is a great mediately occupied. The country soon farmer, and explained to us in detail the begins to rise, and the hills covered with agricultural system of the English and villas and gardens are very picturesque. particularly the methods introduced by It is on the north side that you have the him on his own estate. The turnips finest view of London when the weather grow to a great size at Beachwood. is clear. The road which about a year Sir John told us that be had once sent ago passed over a steep hill, now scarcely to his sister nineteen partridges inclosed ascends at all, a cut having been made in the hollow of one of those roots. in the bill, which shortens the way three [Here the illustrious travellers dequuters of a mile, and is much less scribe several agricultural unachines, fatiguing for the horses. Another road which, though new to them, must

were

4 Observations on England by the Archdukes of Austria. [Feb. 1, be well known to the majority of our present possessor of the title. Within readers.]

it contains a cabinet, the ceiling of which Sir John Sebright possesses a flock of is gilt, and in which are placed the busts a thousand sheep. 'They are of two of Fox and of his friends, Gen. Fitzpakinds-merinos, and the native breed.- TRICK, and Lords LAUDERDALE, ROBERT As he keeps them principally to fatten, SPENCER, Grey, HOLLAND, and Harho prefers the latter, which in this respect vey.* possesses many advantages over the me- There is a Chinese house fitted up rinos.

with Chinese and Japanese furniture and We passed the evening very agree- vases, and a menagerie which contains ably; the baronet's eldest daughter, who several very rare animals. devotes much of her time to the study of We had never seen a park so full of chemistry, showed us an experiment of deer as that of Woburn. Those handWollaston's, which is now known, but some creatures are so tame as to come was then new to us, and which consists close under the windows of the mansion. in transforming a thimble into a small The farm is half a mile from the pringalvanic battery capable of heating a cipal habitations, and exhibits with all platinum wire red-hot.

its buildiogs, the appearance of a small We saw so many things at Beach- village. Here are found several things wood that it was impossible to make me worthy of notice, among others a steammorandums of them all; but Sir John engine which sets in motion a threshing promised to call upon us on our return machine and two mills. The manner in to London, and to give us a supplement which the motion is communicated is of notices of the greatest value to us. highly ingenious, but a clear idea of it For the rest, he made such good use of cannot be given without a drawing. It the time we passed at his house, that we was the late Duke who was a celebrated gained more knowledge of him than we agriculturist, that erected all the buildcould have possibly collected elsewhere ings on this fine estate. in so short a space. He is the true model On leaving Woburn the country is of the English gentleman : possessing ex- rather uniform though well cultivated ; tensive information acquired in his but as soon as you enter Leicestershire travels, and speaking French and Ger- there is a change both in the aspect of man with equal fluency, he is capable of the country and in the cultivation. Its discussing a great variety of subjects, situation is more elevated, and it is eviand always in an interesting manner. dent, from its consisting chiefly of mea

The mansion of the Duke of BEDFORD dows and pasturage, that the keeping of at Woburn, where we stopped on the cattle is the principal occupation of the 5th of November, is with its gardens and inhabitants. park one of the most superb establish- We were at Leicester on the 6th. The ments in England. All those things that houses are built of brick of a very lively constitute in general the most pleasing red and the roofs slated, which produces ornaments of English country-houses are a very pleasing effect. Wilson's foundry here found in the highest perfection was the first manufactory that we saw The library is copious and selected with in this town. Here nothing is made but judgment. We received great pleasure very fine work and machines. The hofrom contemplating a great variety of rizontal wind-mills for which Wilson has fine paintings,especially by Vandyke, and obtained a patent are very beautifui. many portraits, among which we distin- Kelly's knitting manufactory is consiguished that of Anna Boleyn by Holbein derable. There are fourteen large frames In the entrance hall is a bust of Napo- set in motion by a steam-engine. By leon in Carrara marble.

this method the manufacturer is enabled In walking through the gardens we to furnish for 14 shillings what formerly were particularly struck with the beauty cost 40. The produce of this establishof a very spacious orangery. In the ment is very great : it sells from 7 to 800 centre rise eight columns of white marble dozen pair of braces every week. Great which surround an antique vase of very part of these goods is exported to Amelarge dimensions, and adorned with rica. figures in relievo, and several small vases On the 7th we arrived at Beaudesert, also of white marble. In a niche is seen a fine country-seat belonging to the Mara copy of the Apollo Belvidere. At the quis of Anglesea. During our stay here end of the orangery is the entrance to a we gained some insight into the way in temple, supported' by four columns of which the wealthy English proprietors live the Ionic order, erected in memory of the late Duke of Bediord, brother to the

May not this last be intended for HAR. VEY CHRISTIAN COOMBL?

5 1818.] New Applications of Mr. Lester's Converior. in the country. Nobody appears before you add to this the perfect liberty of 9 o'clock in ihe morving: at 10 the fa- living as you please, it will be evident mily assembles in the drawing-room to a how agreeable a residence in the coun. copious breakfast of tea, coffee, bread try must be; and it will be thought perand butter, coast, boiled eggs, cutlets, fectly natural that the English nobility &c. Breakfast lasts an hour, after which and gentry should inbabit London only the company separate, and each employs during the time that Parliament is asor amuses himself as he pleases till sembled. dinner, which is fixed for six or seven in

(To be continued.) the evening. Half an hour earlier they again meet in the library or drawings

HAVING promised in one of your room. In the morning gentlemen inay former numbers to give you what inforappear in boots, but in the evening they mation I could collect relative to the are expected to be dressed as in town.---

adaptation of Mr. Lesi Er's new meThe ladies also are full dressed. Dinner presents the best of every thing leave to inform you that it is applied to

chanic power the Convertor, I now beg that a good kitchen is capable of afford

a crane at the West India Docks with ing. The plate is very handsome, fre, the greatest advantage both as to secuquently silver gilt. After the soup, cold rity and dispatch. Six men sitting upon punch is served. It is customary next to

benches about 20 inches high, with their drink a glass of wine at the choice of the feet set against stretchers similar to what mistress of the house, and to her health : the watermen use in their wherries, after which, every time you chuse to

three men on each side with their feet drink, it is usual to invite those whom opposite to each other, pulling alternately you know or who happen to sit near you at a wooden bar like an auger handle, to drink with you. Each helps the rest raise with facility a bogshead of sugar from the dish íhat stands before him.- from 16 to 20 cwt. 40 feet high in 30 After the dessert the ladies rise, the ser- seconds, and this without any risk of vants retire, and the claret begins to cir- danger from a retrograde motion of the culate from right to left. The company weight. Thus all accidents then rejoin the ladies in the library or the moved from the pale of probability by drawing-room. They enter into conver

the

very sation, and each withdraws just when he paratus, producing a sure guard not in

nature and formation of the appleases.

the least dependant upon the uncertain Riding, shooting, and hunting, are the attention of inan, by which much human principal amusements. The ladies fre- life will be saved. It is clearly ascerquently take part in the former. Fox- tained that many hundred persons in a hunting is a very dangerous sport, be.'

year in the British Empire only lose their cause it is necessary to follow on horse- lives or limbs with cranes, handspikes, back, leaping hedges and ditches. The and capstan bars, the whole of which achare is hunted in the same manner. The cidents may be prevented by the general dogs are admirably trained, and the guns, adoption of this wonderful invention.excellent.

Although the weight is raised with this As all the opulent land-holders pass velocity, no more than the power of great part of the winter in the country, three men is applied at once, as the relations and neighbours assemble and other three at the return of the stroke form parties numerous enough to supply have a cessation of exertion. This alterthe place of those in town. The tone which pervades them is highly agreeable, relief to the labourer, and enables him to

nate application of their force gives great free and easy, but decent; and there is continue much longer at this work with a kind of simple and hearty hospitality less fatigue than by any other motion, and politeness which cannot fail to charm and will in consequence when applied to all who are capable of appreciating ships' pumps render the most essential them. The private apartments are furnished ultimately save from destruction many

service to his Majesty's navy, as it will and arranged with the utinost conve- valuable ships' crews and cargoes. It apnience. In these mansions you

find every thing that can contribute to physie useful not only to cranes of all kinds, but

pears to be most happily and equally cal comfort, and the cultivation of the for working the capstan, windlasses, mind. The society of the females, who are in general very well informed, often and working a ship into and out of har

pumps, raising masts, yards, sails, &c. indeed better than the gentlemen, affords bour, and all other purposes which have all the resources that can be desired. If hitherto been accomplished by the haul

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Insufficiency of the Safety Lamp to prevent [Feb. 1, ing at a rope, as six men will evidently draw up the coal, &c.; by which means with this apparatus do the work of twelve the erection of a number of whiinseys wilt who employ their force by pulling with be saved. It is also capable of another their hands, and with perfect security. great advantage ; iwo iron rods may be

On the first introduction of this in- worked up the side of the shaft, giving vention, I have been informed that some motion to a Convertor in the mine, that mechanists publicly asserted that the would draw the coal, &c. to the botwinch was the best motion with which tom of the shaft, and entirely do away man's force could be employed to work the necessity of using horses in the mine. rotatory machinery. This assertion is now This alone will give a vast saving to the proved to be rashly made, either from workers of coal-mines, by wbich coal envious motives, or for the want of true may be raised at much less expence, and mechanical knowledge; as a given num- consequently come cheaper io market. ber of men can raise a much greater Many more important and new purposes weight with the convertor than they can will be accomplished by this interesting even move with the winches, not with- discovery 100 numerous for me even to standing only half of thein exert their surmise; but as they come into use I power at once, with this most important will transmit an account of them to be difference, that the weight is always recorded in your truly valuable work locked; but if it overcomes them at the which is so laudably adapted to the winches they are liable to be killed or se- promotion of science. Yours, &c. verely wounded by the handles.

A PHILOSOPHER. It bas now become self.evident that this invention will produce a complete revolution in the mechanical world, par.

“An explosion of fire-damp took place on ticularly with regard to hydraulic ma

Friday last, ir the Plain Pit, at Rainton chines for raising water; for united to

Colliery in the county of Durham, by which two fluted rollers it will supersede the

six men, and twenty-one boys lost their use of pumps of every kind, of the very

lives," - Morning Chronicle, Tuesday, Dec. first importance to all mining concerns,as

23, 1817. it works by two pulling lines at any indefinite distance; and it has already been

I feel it a duty on this melancholy ocdemonstrated by Captain Brown's ma

casion to endeavour to call the attention chine for proving iron cables, that a rod of your readers to the present imperfect of iron one inch and a half in diameter, system of ventilating coal mines; and it will support the enormous weight of is the more necessary, on account of the eighty ions before it will break. Thus

unwarrantable and improper degree of two rods of that diameter will support confidence that is placed in the safety and raise a column of water froin seventy lanp, which appears to be considered i eighty tons weight, without the aid of rather as a substitute for ventilation, than piston rods, buckets, and valves of any

as the means of improving it. kind. I need not describe to your phi

The importance of the discovery of losophical readers the importance this this instrument is certainly great: it is will be of to the Cornish inine-owners, simple in its construction, and easy of apby doing away the great expense of plication, and is highly creditable to the power they now exhaust by friction with talents and industry of the inventor. But iheir ponderous engines," besides the its value has been very much over-rated weor and tear of buckets, valves, &c.

-it has been ranked as one of “the The Convertor is also as applicable to

most valuable presents which philosophy raise coals and minerals of all descrip- bas conferred upon the arts," and contions, as no rope or chain is necessary

sidered as a perfect security from acfrom the top of the shaft to the whimsey

cident." from the wear of which many fatal acci- Its security in an explosive mixture of dents occur; two lines of iron rods gas, however, I do not pretend to quespulling to and from are all that is required, tion; as it is this very security that and will last many years. The Convertor renders its use, or rather abuse, pregnant and barrel placed immediately over the with danger. It is this security that inshaft will always render the ascent from creases the risk by tempting the proprietor and the descent into the pit perfectly to neglect ventilation, and the workman secure, with this further great saving to

to pursue his labours in the midst of an the owner, that one powerful steam-en- explosive unixture of gas, where many ungine upon one square mile of mine will foreseen occurrences may happen to te quite sufficient to raise the water, and cause an explosion, the consequences of

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