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covering, they had a long tract of country to traverse, and many, without doubt, perished in the woods. But whatever distresses and cruelties have been experienced by the Wyoming settlers, the British cause, so far from being served by them, is much injured, through the bitter and lasting resentment they for in the minds of the Americans. -
Some expeditions were undertaken on the other side by the Americans. Colonel Clarke's expedition through the Indians country, which commenced last summer, is worthy of particular observation, from the successful spirit of enterprise, courage and prudence, with which it was conducted. :
The col. left Virginia with a small party of between two and three hundred men. The object in view was the reduction of the French settlements planted by the Canadians on the Upper Missisippi, in the Illinois country, and at so vast a distance that they were obliged to traverse no less than about 1200 miles of an uncultivated and uninhabited wilderness. Much of the mischief which had fallen upon the southern and middle states, from the incursions of the Indians, had been attributed to the governor of those settlements, who beside acting as an agent for the British government and paying large rewards for scalps, had been indefatigable in attempting to excite the Ohio and Missisippi indians to undertake expeditions against the frontiers. This conduct was the motive to the present enterprise. The party, aftor a long course down the Monongahela, and a voyage on the O'iie, arrived at the great fails of the latter, within about 60 miles of its mouth, where they hid their boats, and bent their course by land to the northward. In this stage of the expedition, after consuming all the provision they had been able to carty on their backs, they endured a hard march of two days without any sustenance. They therefore, when arrived in this hungry state, about midnight, at the town of Kaskaskias, were unanimously determined to take it or perish in the attempt.
The town contained about 250 houses, and was sufficiently fortified to have withstood a much stronger enemy; but distanee having forbidden all idea of danger among the inhabitants, of course superseded all pracaution against surprise. Both town and fort were taken without noise or opposition before the people were well awake, and the inhabitants were so effectually secured that not a person escaped to alarm the neighboring settlements. The governor, Philip Rochebiave, was sent to Virginia, with as the written instructions he had received from Quebec, Detroit, and Michillimackinack, for setting on the Indians, and paying them great rewards for the scalps of the Americans.— Tae inhabitants were required to take an oath of allegiance to
the United States, and thefortbecame the head-quarters of the victors.
A small detachment pushed forward from this place on horseback, and surprised, and took with as little difficulty three etherFrench towns, lying from "fifteen to about seventy miles further up the Missisippi. The inhabitants in them and the neighbouring country made no difficulty of transferring their aiiegience, which .they would reasonably conclude could not be refined witri safety, as they might naturally imagine the enemy was in force, being in the heart of the country : the dangerous situation of this small corps in the inner part of the Indian territory, at the back Of some of the most cruel and hostile tribes, in the tir.ck of many others, and more or less in. the way ©f all, was converted to peculiar ad vantage, by the extraordinary activity and unwearied spirit of the cammander. He directed and timed his attacks with such judgment, and executed them with such silence and dispatch, that the Indians found their own mode of war effectually turned upon them. Surprised in their inmost retreats, and Blast sequestered recesses, at those times and seasons, when they were scarcely less disposed for action, than unprepared fbr'defence, they experienced in their own wigwams and families, that unexpected slaughter and destruction which they had-So-frequently carried home to others. Upon this they grew cautiousand ti^ mid; and the continual danger; to which their families were exposed, damped the ardor of their warriors for hostile expeditions.
. Sir Henry Clinton, on the return of the troops from the Bedford expedition, determined upon another to Egg-harbor, on the Jersey coast, where the Americans had a number of privateers and prizes, and some considerable salt works. To draw away the attention of the Americans, and to procure at the same time forage and fresh provisions far the army, lord Cornwaiiis advanced into Jersey with a strong body of troops, while gen. Knypliausen advancing with another division of the army, took a position on the east side of the North-River, by which only the two divisions were separated ; so that by means of their boats they could unite their whole force on either-side of it, within twenty-four hours. Lieut, col. Baylor's regiment of hight-h'orse; with some militia, were detached to watch and interrupt the foragers- The colonel, it is to be feared, in order to avoid being; under gen. Wayne's command, went with his men into the mouth of the British, and there lay in a state of unsoldifirly security, which induced lord Cornwallis to form a plan for surprising the whole. Gen. Gray, with the light-infantry and sonltj Other troops, advanced by night on the left: to surprise'tire enertiy1 , . ua
on that side, and a detachment was made from Knyphausen's corps on the right, which having passed the North-River, intends ed so to have enclosed the whole American force employed in witching them, as that few or none of them should have escaped. Some deserters from the column on their right prevented the completion of the scheme. These having at the most critical moment roused the militia, who lay at ftew-Taapan under gem Wayne, afforded them the opportunity of escaping. But Grey conducted his division with such silence and order, that they not only cut off a Serjeant's patrol of twelve men without noise', but completely surrounded Old-Taapan without any discovery"-, [September 27.] and surprised Baylor's horse asleep and naked in the h,aras where they lay. A severe execution took place, and numbers were dispatched with the bayonet. The men being so completely surprised and incapabje of resistance, the refusal'of quarters when implored, has led congress to deem, the execution a massacre, after receiving the best information upon oath, that they could obtain concerning it. Of. about a dozen wounded soldiers who appeared to give evidence, three liad received from" nine to eleven stabs each, of bayonets, in the breast, back and trunk of the body, beside several wounds in other parts. Two others had received, the one five, and the other aix: stabs in the body. However the admiration of some, who reason fiwri the nature of the weapon and the manner in which it is used, may be excited at these men being able in about three weeks time to give their testimony, as also being seemingly in a fair way of recovery-, yet the positive evidence, given upfm oath before gov. Livingston, whose penetration would have detected, and whose integrity would have discarded a false witness, will be credited by impartial persons. Baylor himself was wounded, but not dangerously : he lost in killed, wounded and taken, 67 priraves out of 104, beside 7t0 horses. It it said, that Grey ordered no quarter to be give A, and that the charges were dawn, and the flints tukejp out; but that one of the light-infantry captains ventured to disobey the order ; and gave quarters to the whole fourth troop, which serves to account for the number of prisoners taken and carried to New-York, viz. 39 privates, beside a captain, two subalterns, a volunteer,, and the sergeon's mate.
Captain Ferguson of the 70th regiment, with about 300 land forces, were detached on the expedition to Little Egg-harbour, under a proper convoy. They arrived off the bar on the evening of the 5th of October. The Americans had obtained -some intelligence of the design and had suddenly sent out to sea, such1 of their privateers as were in any degree of readiness, to escape the impending danger. The larger of the remaining vessels,
chiefly prizes, were hauled up the river to Chesnut-neck, about twenty miles from its mouth. The smaller privateers and craft of different sizes, were carried still further up into the country. The detachment proceeded to Chesnut-ncck, burnt the vessels found there, destroyed the settlements, store-houses, and works <jf every sort, to prevent all privateers being fitted out from tjience for the future. On their return, they made excursions into the neighboring country, destroyed some considerable saltworks, as well as the houses and settlements of several persons who.had taken a conspicuously active part on the side of America, or had been concerned in the fitting out of privateers.
When the troops had rejoined the squadron, a French captain, with some privates, who had deserted from count Pulaski's legion, gave such an account of the careless manner in which three troops of horse and as many companies of infantry were Cantoned, at only a few miles distant, that the commanding officers by sea and land, concluded on an expedition to beat- up their quarters. They had the advantage of conveying the troops by water to within a small distance of their destination; the deserters aiso informed them of an unguarded bridge, the possession of which would serve, in case of necessity, effectually to coverthcir retreat back to the vessels. Two hundred and fifty iaen wcie embarked [Oct. 15.] who after rowing ten miles, landed long before day-light within a mile of Ihe bridge, which they secured; and leaving a guard in possession of it, the remainder pushed on and completely surprised Pulaski's lightinfantry, and destroyed about iifty of them, among whom was the baron dc Bose and lieutenant de la Borderic. The attack being in the night, little quarter could be given; more would Jirobably have been granted, had not the deserters falsely reported, that Pulaski had issued public orders forbidding his corps to grant any quarter to the British troops. The slaughter would not have ended so soon, if Pulaski had not on the fust alarm, hastened with his cavalry to support the infantry, which then kept a good countenance. The British not long after aiud e a hasty retreat, and returned to their boats.
Let me pass from hence to relate a disagreeable disturbance that happened in Charleston, South-Carolina, on the night of September the 6th. By some means a quarrel commenced on shore between the American and French sailors, when the forfyermade use ofindecent, illiberal and national reflections against the latter, which provoked resentment. The parties soon proceeded to open hostilities, when the French were driven from e town, and betook themselves to thek shipping, whence they ed with cannon and small arms, which was returned by the AmeVol. 11. D 3 ricans
ricans from the adjoining wharfs and shore. Several lives were lost, and many were wounded. The inhabitants were much alarmed, and the militia were obliged to be under arms a great part of the night. Proper measures were afterwards taken to prevent a repetition of the like disorders; and both the President and assembly expressed their deep concern, that the slightest animosities should prevail between any citizen of America and the subjects of their illustrious and good ally. * In the evening of the 8th, there was a violent affray at Boston between certain unknown persons and a number of French. It is said, though not proved, to have been begun by seamen captured in British vessels, and some of Burgone's army, who had enlisted in privateers just ready to sail. A body of these fellows, we have been told, demanded bread of the French bakers employed for the supplying of the count d'Estaing's fieet; and being refused, fell upon and beat them in a most outrageous manrer. Two of the count’s officers, attempting to compose the fray, were wounded, the chevalier de Saint Sauveur so badly that he died on the 15th; and the next day the Massachusetts house of assembly resolved to erect a monumental stone to his memoryNone of the offending persons having been discovercd, notwithstanding the reward that was offered, it may be feared that Americans were concerned in the riot; while political prudence charged it upon others, that less umbrage might be taken at the event. The count was much grieved at what had happened; but had too much calmness and good sense to charge it upon the body of the inhabitants, who were no less concerned at it than himself; so that it created no dissentions between them. On the 22d, the general court received the compliments of the count and his officers; all of whom were invited to dine, three days. after, at a public dinner. The fleet had been so far repaired, and so well secured by formidable works on George's-Islānd, in which the count had mounted near a hundred heavy cannon, that they could with the utmost propriety be absent upon the occasion. For the greater security, the general court, under an apprehension that the British fleet and army might move to the northward, with a view of destroying the count’s fleet, and repossessing themselves of Boston, had resolved on the 19th to raise a third of the militia. Three days before this resolve, admiral Byron arrived at New-York from Halifax. His squadron. had suffered so in their voyage from Britain, that it was a full month before he could sail again, in order to observe d'Estaing'smotions. The count lay at ease and in safety; and on the 26th of October, entertained a large company of gentlemen and ladies whom he had invited to dine with him onboard the Languedoc