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R-says in a letter, “that one half of the soldiers that died last, year, the present medical establishment. A shocking black picture indeed doctor Rush painted—but by all accounts it is a just one. It is a very melancholy reflection, that buildings erected for the relief and comfort of the sick and wounded, should. become tombs to them. A bad system and a bad administration bave produced great mischiefs in the hospital. Peculation and embezzlement of stores, prevailas much in this department as in 9thers...I do not alledge these things without authority or proof. They are facts too well authenticated.” Another, in his cors *espondence, expressed himsel; thus upon mattels—“The wealth 4f worlds could not support the expence of the medical depart#ment alone, above two or three years. There is but one right system for a military hospital, and that is the one made use of by the British army. That would save half a million a year to the continent, and, what is more, would produce perfect satisfaction and happiness.” On the 30th Dr. Rush requested leave to resign, which was accepted. Congress, on the 6th of February, came to various resolutions upon the report of the first commit. tee, for the better regulating the hospitals of the United States. {2n the 25th Dr. Rush sent a letter from Princeton, to general 2Washington, containing a well attested certificate from Bethle= ham, setting forth, that the wine allowed the hospital was so aduliterated as to have none of the qualities of Madeira—that none of the patients under the care of the signers, eat of venison, poul£ry and wildfowl (unless purchased by themselves) and that large 3uantities were purchased by the director-general—that the di‘pector entered the hospital but once during six weeks residence in +3ethlehem, though the utmost distress and mortality prevailed— that the sick were too much crowded, and wanted blankets, shirts, straw and other necessaries—that there died in the place two hundred soldiers (eight tenths of them by a putrid fever caught in the hospital) within three months. Dr. Rush mentioned that Dr. ..Shippen, in the height of the mortality, wrote to congress—“No fatal disease prevails in the hospitals, very few die, and the hos-pitals are in very good order.” He said-‘‘Our director-general swas employed in selling large quantities of Madeira wine, browa and loaf sugar, &c. (which had been transported through the £ountry in hospital waggons, and secured as hospital stores) under —the name of private property.” This and another letter from the adoctor, were read in congress the third of April, when a coin:mittee was appointed and directed to enquire into the charges con<tained in the letters, against Dr. Shippen, and into his conduct was director-general, and to report specially to congress. The di‘iminution of the army by sickness, has been very great; and yo; will easily conceive whence it was that no more of the o - CU) . C. C J,

covered. The sickness of the soldiers, before going to the hospitals, was brought upon them not altogether through the want, of clothes or provisión, but of cleanliness in their huts and in the camp. Notwithstanding repeated positive orders enjoining cleanliness, in some places of the camp the stench was intolerable, through the neglect or the want of necessaries. ---It has been resolved that count Pulaski shall raise and have: the command of an independent corps, to consist of 68 horse. and 200 foot; the horse to be armed with lances, and the foot equipped in the manner of light-infantry. * * * * * *'No mention has been yet made of one captain Lee, of the light-dragoons, a bold, enterprising young officer, who, if spared, is like to make a considerable figure; but a resolve of congress. leads us to notice him. By the 22d of November, he and his little troop had taken a hundred and two of the encomy prisoners. The whole tenor of his conduct during that campaign, proved him to be brave and prudent. He rendered essential service to his country, and acquired to himself and the corps he commanded, distinguished honor. The congress, to reward. his merit, have resolved, “That capt. H. Lee be promoted to. the rank of major commandant; that he be empowered to augment his present corps, by enlistments, to two troops of horse, to act as a separate corps. These enlistments are not to be made. from among the prisoners. The commander in chief opposes. every thing of that kind, and has written—“We have always. complained against Howe, and still do, for obliging or permitting the prisoners in his hands to enlist, as an unwarrantable procedure. The practice on our part, would justify it in him. I beHieve no prisoners have ever been enlisted by us. I am sure none have through compulsion.” But in the Massachusetts, a number of the convention troops, upon offering themselves, were enlisted; which occasioned the general's writing, “Burgoyne could hardly suggest a more effectual pian for plundering us of so much money, reinforcing Mr. Howe with so many men, and preventing us from recruiting a certain number of regiments.” . All the British deserters sent on from this state as recruits for one regiment, went off to the enemy by the end of March; and of a detachment of sixty of them, which marched to join col. Henley, only twelve or thirteen reached the camp. Part of the others made their escape, and the rest formed a plan for the same pur. pose, mutinied, and were thrown into prison. The conduct of enlisting the convention troops, was sufficiently mortifying; but it was far more provoking to observe the backwardness of the states in furnishing the recruits that were wanted. Instead of the army's being reinforced with eight or ten thousand troops, it was scarcely joined by so many hundreds by the twelfth of April. Let

-fcut us change the subject, and confine ourselves, for a time* more particularly to the proceedings of congress.' :- ■

On the 19th of January, they resolved to grant a brevet of lieut. c ol. to the chevalier de Maduit du Plussis, as-a reward for his services. Gen. WashingtoA' recommended him in a letter adding, "that the gallant conduct of this young gentleman at Brandy wine, Germantown,: and at Port Mercer, (on the Delaware) entitles him to the particular notice of congress:" that he made several judicious alteration in the works at Red-bank, and showed great good conduct during the action in which the Hessions were repulsed;" and that-" after the evacution was determined on he became the means of saving same valuable artillery and stores, and cheerfully undertook as volunteer the liazardous operation of blowing up the magazine, &c. without apparatus usually provided upon such occasions and concluding with—" he possesses a degree of modesty not always found is men who have performed brilliant actions." , •■"'Two days after, congress, on the report from the board of war,~ respecting the treatment of the American prisoners in New-York and Philadelphia, resolved among other things, "That the allowance of two dollars a week to officers, who are prisoners of wart»ttase United States do cease, unless to those officers who may be,, entitled thereto by any contract made on or before their captivity or surrender. That in return for permission given to purchase provisions of the American commissaries for the use of the enemy's prisoners, gen. Washington be directed to demand of geiw Howe liberty to purchase clothing in Such places as may beunder his power for the use of the American prisoners : That1 the commissary-general of prisoners and his respective-deputies, be fourthwith directed to call in all the officers and privates belonging to the enemy,' and to. confine them in such places, and order them to be subsisted and treated in such manner as shaJlrendertheir situation similar, in all respects, to that of the officers and privates who arc prisoners with the enemy; and that they continue this mode of treatment, till such time as a change of eonduct on the part of the enemy shall induce congress, or the commander in chief of the armies of these states, to give directions for a different line of conduct on their part." . 'This threat of retaliation will have little effect upon the British commander; and if no other consideration should prevent, the general humanity of the people would be a bar to its execution. That some different measures ought to be adopted as to the British officers,' than what are at present given into, must be admitted upon another account; for thev have done much mischief to the Amen* can cause. During their captivity, they have formed-connec* , !i i • - i lion* tions in the country; have confirmed the disaffected ; converted many ignorant people; and frightened the lukewarm and ti, mid by their stories of the power of Great-Britain. - - - - On the 27th of Feb. congress resolved, “That whateverinhabitant of these states shall kill; or seize, or take any loyal citizen or citizens thereof, and convey him, her or them, to any place within the power of the enemy, or shall enter into any combination for such purpose, or attempt to carry the same-into execution, or hath assisted or shall assist therein ; or shall by giving intelligence, acting as a guide, or in any other manner whatever, aid the enemy in the perpetration thereof, he shall suffer death by the judgment of a court-martial, as a traitor, assassin and spy, if the offence be committed within seventy miles of the head-quarters of the grand or other armies of these states, where a general officer commands.” This resolution has been introduced to show you what a stretch of power congress have been guilty of. They have hereby suspended in particular cases the judicial authority of the Massachusetts state, which is not the seat of war; and subjected certain critiminals to a trial by a court-martial, instead of leaving them to the laws of the state. At Providence a general officer commands a small army, at the distance of only forty-five miles from Boston. All bodies of fallis ble men possessed-of or claiming power, ought to be narrowly watched, or from good or bad intentions, they will transgress the limits of their constitution, without a real necessity. -i. Major gen, Greene was appointed on the second of March, quarter-ihaster-generał, but allowed to retain his rank in the ara my. The next day, congress upon the report of a committee, resolved, “that lieut.-gen. Burgoyne, on account of his ill state of health, have leave to embark for England by Rhode-Island; or any other expeditious route, with the officers of his family and servants.” He is engaged by parole, in case the embarkation of the convention troops is prolonged beyond the time apa prehended, to return to America upon demand and due notice given, and to re-deliver himself into the power of congress unless regularly exchanged. . . -- or Congress have not lost sight of the importance of having the North-River and the passes in the Highlands well secured, so aste render any sudden attempt upon-Albany by the same impracticable. Had Sir W. Howe, instead of going by sea to Philadelphia, bent his whole force for the mastering of these, as gen. Washing: ton strongly suspected he would do, the independency of the United States must have tottered to the very foundation, if the have been completely subverted. Whether the plan of making the grand diversion scurthward, originated with the ministry; himself,

himself, or a Pennsylvania refugee—by his leaving the troops under Burgoyne to shift for themselves, in case the reinforcement from Europe did not arrive in time, the subjugation of the eountry may be entirely prevented. Gen. Gates was directed, on the 15th of April, to repair forthwith to Fish-kill, and to take the command of all the troops on the North-River and in the whole northern department. He was also to take effectual measures, to secure the communication between the eastern and southern states, by maintaining the possession of the river; and for that purpose was empowered to provide gallies, gun-boats, fire-rafts, chains, cassoons and chevaux-de-Frise, and to erect all necessary fortifications. West-Point has for some time been pitched upon as a proper spot; and the troops have begun, and are going on to fortify it. When the works are completed, it will be a much stronger post than Fort Montgomery, and is laigher up the river, and projects into it. The soldiers, whether militia or continentals, will according to custom, be employed upon them till finished without putting the states to any particular charge for labor in erecting them. - * - * * Congress were expecting that something would turn up in Europe favorable to America; and were confirmed in their expectation, upon the receipt of draught of a bill for declaring the intention of the British parliament as to the exercise of their right of imposing taxes on the Americans as also the draught of a bill to enable the king to appoint commissioners with powers to treat, consult and agree upon the means of quieting certain disorders with the colonies, These draughts were sent from Philadel: phia togen. Washington who forwarded them to York-Town. [April 22.] congress took them into consideration, and, observing that they had been industriously circulated in a partial and secret manner, ordered that they should beforthwith printed for the publicinrmation; but at the same time took care to counteract their influence by the remarks they published respecting them. They declared their belief, that the parliament would confer on them, the usual solemnities of their laws and then observed, that upon as supposition the matters contained in them should really go into the British statute book, they would serve to show, in a clear point of view, the weakness and wickedness of the enemy: on these they expatiated. This done they said—“. It appears evident that the said bills are intended to operate upon the hopes and fears of the good people of these states, so as to create divisions. among them, and a defection from the common cause; and that they are the sequel of that insidious plan, which from the days ofthe stamp-act down to the prescuttime, hath involved this country in contention and bloodshed.” Congress went on to pronounce, #: *

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