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gress." The explanation of this business wiil be best conveyed sn--the language of one of the committee—" Mr. Deane not being recalled upon a motion made at the time of our disavowal of E>u Coudray's treaty, anew motion was made by one ofthecommittee on September the 8th.—On that day, "The congress took into consideration the report of the committee on foreign ■applications, wherein they set fourth, That besides a number of officers who are come from Europe and the West-Indies of their «wn accord to solicit for rank .and employment in the American .army there are others who have proceeded upon the ehcoufg'etneat of conventions made and signed at Paris by Silas Deane, «sq, as agent for the United States of North-America:—Thar •Mr. Deane had no authority to make such conventions ;—and .That congress therefore are not bjund to ratify or fulfil them." This referred to a new list of major generals, brigadiers, colonels, &c. who were ready to relinquish all the parts of their agreement except rank.; but said the committee, "The American army having been arranged before the arrival of these gent'e:mea ia America there expectations cannot be complied with, ■without, deranging it, and thereby injuring at so critical a -juncture the American cawse." The report was agreed to, and •the. mation made—" Whereas Silas Deane, esq. when agent tender the committee of secret correspondence, entered into conven.-tions with several foreign officers, which congress have declared themselves not bound to ratify, and which in the present situation of affairs they could not comply with, without deranging thearmy, and thereby injuring at this critical juncture the American acause: And whereas the credit, reputation and usefulness of Silas Deane, esq. now one of the American commissioners in France, will be greatly impaired by the consequences of his in •discretion in having entered into such conventions, his recal becomes necessary for the intcrest.of these United States—therefore '•resolved, That Silas Deane, esq. now one of the American commissioners in France be forthwith recalled, and that from the day of has receiving this resolve, all and every power with -Which he hath been vested by congress, do case and deter'Mvine, and that he take the earliest opportunity to embark for -North-America, and repair to congress." The person who sread this in his place was, upon being seconded, entreated to -"withdraw it, in which he acquiesced, upon a general avowal ■ jrfVthe necessity of recalling Mr. Deane in some milder way.— - -On Nov. 21, partiality and .tenderness struck away all preamble, and a naked resovc passed, "That Silas Deane, esq. be recalled from the court of France, and that the committee for foreign -'Hfcirs be directed, to take proper measures for speedily communicating

nicating the pleasure of congress herein to Deane and the other commissioners of the United States at the court of France ;That Monday nextbc assigned for the choosing a commissioner to the court of France, in place of Silas Deane, esq.” On the 28th, Mr. John Adams was chosen. No time being limited for Mr. Deane's return, the larded resolve of December the 8th was made. Had a proper dignity been maintained on the 8-h of September, the recal would not have been a scensing mystery, or rather a compliment. Though the chairman of the coininittee for foreign applications was the mover of the proper resolves, et he finaliy gave into the over-tenderness of the house, when }. acted for foreign affairs in his letter of December the 3:h, and in his private letter to Dr. Franklin. o Congress resolved, “That the commissioners at the courts of France and Spain be directed to exert their utmost endeavours to obtain a loan of two missions sterling, on the faith of the Thirteen United States.” They also received accounts from gen. Gates relative to the retreat of the British from Tyconderoga and Mount Independence. By letters of gen. Conway's writing to particular members, they were led into a resolution, “That an appointment be made of inspectors general agreeable to the practice of the best disciplined European armies:” and from thence to elect him an inspector general, and a major general. This pomotion, which took place the thirteenth of December, occasioned much uneasiness among the officers ; and they requested gen. Washington not to publish it till they had met, and made a proper representation of their grievances. Conway thought himself entitled to a superiority over them, from his having served more than thirty years; and before some of the brigadiers were born, and from the number of men he had conimanded for many years in an old army. But these reasons did not reconcile them to his being put over their heads. They might be the more disgusted from his declaring that no two regiments manoeuvred alike, and that there were hardly two offcers in each regiment able to command the manoeuvres. On the 3d of January, the brigadiers sent a remonstrance against his appointment. The objections against him were that he was, intriguing at congress in concert with generals Gates and Mifflin, in order to remove gen. Washington—that he gave himself at congress the merit of the German-town affair—that his powers of inspector general tended to diminish the power of gen. Washington–and that, in a paragraph of a letter, he reflected severely upon the commander in chief and his councellors. Such is the prevailing dislike to him, that he will be of little service in féture. The uncasiness which his promotion produced, did not. - - escape

escape his notice, but has led him to renew a former proposal of ^returning to France.

[Dec. 20. J In order to obtain a supply of clothing for the army, the congress resolved to recommend to the respective legislatures the enacting of laws, appointing persons to seize, for the use of ihe continental army, all necessary articles of clothing, which jhaybe in the possession of any persons inhabitants of or residents within their respective states, for the purpose, of sale ; and that '£he value of such guodsbe ascertained at the rate which the said articles shall be stated at by the convention of the committees agreeable to the late recommendation.. A memorial from lie-tit, cel. Barton, who took gen. Prescot prisoner, was read in congress, on which they resolved, [Dec. 24.] "That on account of his enterprising* spirit, and merit in talcing the general, he be .promoted to the rank, and pay of a colonel in the service of the rjnited States, and that he be recommended to gen. Washington, to be employed in such services as he may deem most adapted 'to his genius."" In testimony of their approbation of the patience, fidelity and zeal of the officers and soldiers under the immediate command of gen. Washington, they directed, six days after, that one month's extraordinary pay should be given *o each ; which was no more than justice, considering what they nad suffered! The next, being the last day of the year, they had under consideration, the information sent them from Boston by Mr. Samuel Otis, their deputy-clothier-general in the Massachusetts acquainting them, that he had contracted with sundry persons for a large quantity of clothing at the rate of ten to eighteen hundred percent, and that some of the holders of the said goods refuse to deliver them untill they should receive the cash. Upon this they resolved, " That Mr. Otis be directed to pay only for such of the said clothing as he ruay have actually received, at the jate for which he may have contracted for such clothing: and That it be most earnestly recommended to the legislative authority of the state of Massachusetts-Bay immediately to take and seize the residue of the clothing, which the holders thereof have refused to deliver to the said Samuel Otis, agreeable to the resoKitions of the congress of the 20th inst. which clothing shall be paid for in manner, and at the rate mentioned therein, and not Otherwise." A letter was written to the president of the council upon the occasion, in which they failed not to attempt exciting resentment against the proprietors of the goods for the crime of extortion, and the greater one of refusing to deliver the goods jupon the credit of the Thirteen United States. " This irrefraT gable evidence of the depravity of morals in so many of the citi~ zeris of these states, is a most alarming circumstance," say the/A ;.Vo.i. lt. •' P. p and

- - - - - - r - " * *“ and if the several governments do not speedily exert their au: thority cffectually to suppress such unheard of extortion; it wiłł unquéstionably issue, and at no very distant period, in the destruction of the liberties of this continent. Shall we then tamely. see ourselve compelled by the wicked conduct of some of the citizens of these states, to the cruel necessity of submitting to the mercy of an enraged tyrant " The president was desired to lay the résolutions before the general assembly, who were requested to keep them and their proceedings thereon secret, till carried into execution. The general court instead of interfering, has prudently left the business to take its own course. Those traders, who want to go to market again and make fresh purchases, cannot sell upon the credit of even the Thirteen United States. The cncreasing depreciation of the currency is another reason against it. The paper emission is now more than three hundred per cent. for hard money, and by the end of April will probably be four for one ; so that when this, the risks of the sea, the scarcity of the commodity, the few returns that can be made, the advance of expences through the rise of provision, labor, &c. and other circumstances are taken into consideration, the rate of from ten to eighteen hundred per cent,' has far more the appearance than the reality of extortion. The convention and convention troops demand our next attention. While upon their march to the neighborhood of Boston, the British behaved with such insolence as confirmed the country in their determination never to submit; for the people said, “If they are thus insolent now they are prisoners, what would they be were they our masters ? The Germans stole and robbed the houses, as they came along of clothing and every thing on which they could lay their hands, to a large amount. When at Worcester, indeed they themsei, Cs were robbed, though in another way. One Dawes, the issuing commissary, upon the first company’s coming to draw their rations, balanced the scales by putting into that which contained the weight, a large stone; when that company was gone (unobserved by the Germans, but not by all present) the stone was taken away before the next came, and all the other companies except the first had short allowance. The troops having finished their march were quartered in the barracks near Cambridge. . It was with difficulty gen. Glover could procure quarters for the generals Burgoyne, Reidesel, and Philips, in the town itself. The inhabitants were totally averse to accommodating them. They could not forget the burning of Charlestown. A remonstrance was soon presented to Burgoyne ly the officers, complaining, that instead of being conveniently

* - - - ‘. . 19dged,

|odged, according to their different ranks, agreeable to the convention, they were put into barracks made of single boards, rive, six and seven in a room, without any distinction of rank. Unfortunately for them, there was upon the committee appointed by the general court to the business of quartering them, one John Taylor,, who, though of the council, was of a base spirit, and had raised himself by it to the possession of considerable property and influence. ^ He disgraced religion by making a great profession. The last however, gave him much weight with wellmeaning men who had.only a superficial acquaintance with him. This personcould put up with any lodging; and thought that what would do for him, might do for British prisoners, though officers. Thus it happened that they were no better accommodated. They had reason to complain; but the treatment which gen. Burgoyne personally met with, was pleasing. He went to Boston and dined at gen. Heath's, who commands in-this department. He observed with great satisfaction, the good behavior of the town's people. There was no rabble collected to insult him, either going 'ur returning. He remarked, when re-crossing the ferry to where Charlestown stood (when his eyes surveyed with admiration its awful majestic conflagration) that he should have met with very different treatment even in London,. t

Suspicions began>to be entertained lest the general had some sinister design of conveying the troops to New-York or elsewhere when they could be embarked, instead of sailing with them to Great-Britain; and the public wished to have some pretence for detaining therm. It was hinted to congress, that should Sir W. Howe continue obstinately to refuse settling an equitable cartel for the exchange of prisoners, they would be justified in ordering the fulfilling of the convention of Saratoga to be delayed, until the United States received justice in that,particular. Congress soon ordered a committee to consider a re turn of ordnance and stores taken from the enemy, which was enclosed in a letter wf the 10th of November, accompanying that hint. Upon the report of the committee, on the 22d, the president was directed immediately to send an express to gen. Gates,, desiring answers of several questions. On December the third, the general wrote, ffroro Albany to the president—"I had the honor to receive vow ^excellency's letter of the twenty-third gjt. by Mr. tierce, arid im/nediately proceeded to dispatch to the congress the required ai^iwers. Respecting die standards, gen. Burgoyne declared uport liis honor, that die colours of the regiments were "left in Canada. As to the military chest, its contents might be so easily disposed «j£ that tohave sought for it would have been ineffectual. The British army, all last war, left the paymaster-general and the military


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