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judged it expedient to lessen the soldiers' rations of provision, to which they submitted with cheerfulness. Things continued in this state with the royal army till the 7th, when no intelligence having been received of the expected co-operation, and four or five days for their limited stay in the camp only remaining, ic was thought advisable to make a movement to the left of the Americans, not only to discover whether there was ariy possible mean of forcing a passage, should it be necessary to advance, or
of dislodging them for the convenience of a retreat; but also to C's cover a forage of the army in the greatest distress by the present
scarcity. : :: BeforegeneralGates has gained any knowledge of this intend
ed movement he has ordered out a party of about 300 men in the morning; soon after he directs lieut. col. Brooks to repair to head-quarters when he gives him the command of them, and
desires him to call between one and two o'clock for particular - directions. The party is destined to go into the rear of Buri
goyne, to drive in his out-posts, and to occasion an alarm, which Gates means to take advantage of, if opportunity offers. But unknown to him, a royal detachment of 1500 regular troops with two twelve-pounders, two howitzers, and six sixpounders, are ordered to move, being commanded by Burgoyne in person, seconded by generals' Philips, Reidesel and Frazer. The guard of the camp upon the high grounds is committed to generals Hamilton and Specht; that of the redoubts
and plain near the river to brigadier Gall. The force of the : Americans in front is thought to be so much superior, that it is Do not judged safe to auginent the detachment beyond the number
stated. EWhile Brooks is waiting at the American head-quarters, a poi serjeant arrives with an account of the motion of the royal dejí tachiment; which is speedily confirmed. On this the party he pa was to have commanded is dismissed; and the officers and men
present are ordered to their posts. Burgoyne's scouting parties Ir are driven in by col. Morgan's riflemen and the corps of light
infantry : but his troops continue advancing, and are formed event within three quarters of a mile of Gates's left.' The artillery is B posted on a clear spot of ground, in a great measure surrounded tot by woods, the two medium twelve-pounders on a small emi. Bai nence, nearly in the centre of it. The irregulars are pushed on to through by-ways to gain the American rcar, and to keep them 2016 in check. Gen. Arnold, who had mounted his horse, receives pin a message from Gates, directing him to be cautious, for that he
apprehends that Burgoyne designs to make his main attack on the right. Arnold shows much displeasure at it, expresses himseif
improperly, and says, “I will be answerable for consequences.” He orders out Ciliy's New Hampshire regiment with others, and soon follows them. About four o'clock in the af. ternoon, the American column approaches the royal detachmeat and is immediately tired upon by the twelve-pounders and the four six-pounders ; notwithstanding which, the men draw úp along the skirts of the woods behind trees, about 200 yards distant from the artillery. They make a very sudden and rapid attack upon the British grenadiers, who are posted to support the left wing of the line. Major Ackland at the head of them sustains this fierce attack with great resolution. General Gates having ordered out more regiments, the number of the I. mericans enables them soon to extend the attack along the whole front of the Germans, who are posted immediately on the right of the grenadiers. It is therefore impracticable to remove any of the Germans, for the purpose of forening a second line to the flank where the stress of the fire lies. The right it still unengaged ; but it is observed that the Americans are marching a large corps round their flank in order to cut off their retreat. To oppose this bold and dangerous al tempt, the light-infantry, with a part of the 24th regiment, which are joined with them at the post, are directed to form a second line, in order to cover the retreat of the troops into camp. While this movement is in process, the Americans push forward a fresh and strong reinforcement to renew the action on Burgoyne's left which is totally overpowered and compelled to gire way; on this the light-infantry and 24th regiment are obliged, by quick movement, to attempt saving that wing from being totally ruined ; but in doing it gen. Frazer is mortally wounded. The situation of the detachment is now exceeding critical ; but the danger to which the lines are exposed, is still more alarming. Generals Philips and Reidesel are ordered to cover the retreat; and those troops which are nearest or most disengaged, return as fast as they can for the defence of the lines. A little after five, in the height of the action, lieut. col. Brooks, by Gates's order, quits the camp at the head of col. Michael Jackson's regiment, and directs his march to the warmest fire. On advancing into the field, he fruds the royal detachment has given way in all quarters, and Arnold pushing with Paterson's brigade for the works possessed by the British light-infantry assisted by some of the line, who have just thrown themselves into the same, with great precipitation, by means of a circuitous retreat. The brigade has a large abbatis to cross, and many other obstructions to surmount, in the face of a brave enemy, occupying works advantageously constructed and completed, it is therefore at length compelled to
J'etire. But during the contest, Jackson's regiment passing the rear of the brigade, falls into the fire on its left, having in front two stockade redoubts occupied by some Canadians, and the left of the works, in which are the German grenadiers, under colonel Breyinan. At some considerable distance on the left of Brooks, are Wesson's regiinent, Morgan's corps, and the York troops. Paterson's brigade failing, Arnold leaves it, and comes to Jackson's regiment, which he orders instantly to advance, and attack the lines and redoubts in front. Brooks commands two platoons from the right to attack the stockades'; they move with great rapidity, carry the point with charged bayonets, and suffer little more than the loss of two lieutenants killed. : The regiment instantly makes an assault on the main lines, though manned with double its number. Arnold having given Brooks his orders, passes on to the left; and having ordered the Americans there to maké a general assault; returns to Jackson's regiment, the left of which has arrived at the works; and a small sally-port presenting, Arnold and a part of the left platoon pass tiirough together. The enemy retire firing, and gain their tents about thirty or forty yards from the works, but finding the assault is general, they give one fire, and either retreat to the British camp or throw down their arms. By this last fire Arnold is wounded, and a sergeant of Jackson's regiment, standing near the general, killed. Orders are given by Burgoyne for the recovery of the entrenchments of the German reserve; but they are not executed, and the Americans remain in possession of an opening on the right and rear of the royal army. The night puts an end to the action.
The lreat of it, with small arms, lasted about forty minutes; but the cannonading continued after the royal detachment had given way. In the course of it, a shot passed through gen. Burgoyne's hat, and another tore his waistcoat. A battalion of Bruns* wickers ran, though not one of them was killed, and would never come on again.* To this misbehavior some may be ready to ascribe the want of success on the side of the British, and as a consequence of it, the loss of the whole army. Whatever such behaviour might contribute toward the event, the bravery of the Americans had certainly a very considerable share in it. The royal detachment was driven by them near upon two miles, and had scarce entered the camp when it was stormed by thein with great fury; for they rushed on to the lines under one of the heaviest cannonades of artillery, grape-shot and riflc fire ever beheld, and never gave way till they met the British grenadiers. Some of
* Captain Money's declaration in the house of commons, VOL. II,
the British officers were astonished at hearing the fire of the American musketry kept up with such vigor and constancy, after undergoing so heavy a fire of artillery.* One of the bravest of them+ is ready to declare, that whenever he has been opposed to the Americans, they have fought with courage and obstinacy. He found it so in the above action. General Arnold was next to military mad. He appeared, in the heat of the en: gagement, so beside himself as scarce to know what he did. He struck several of the officers with his sword, without any ap, parent reason; and when they told him of it the next day, mean: ing to remonstrate and require satisfaction, he declared he recollected nothing at all of it, and was sorry if it was so. Some of his orders were exceedingly rash and injudicious, and argued thoughtlessness rather than courage. His attack upon the British varied so from established military maxims, that the royal of ficers inferred from it, that gen. Gates did not personally command in the action. Gates remained for the most part in the camp, as on the 19th of September, that he migiit the better guide the general operations, and give the necessary directions as they were wanted. Arnold's left-handed variation might however contribute greatly toward obtaining the victory. The Bri tish have been at length taught by experience, that neither Anies rican attacks nor resistance, are to be despised. · Nothing could easily exceed the distress and calamity of the royal army when the day was closed. The Americans balted half a mile in the rear of them; and between twelve and one o'clock at night, gen. Lincoln (who during the action, was in the centre of the encampment, commanding within the works) marched with his division to relieve the troops that had been engaged, and to pessess the ground they had gained. The situation of the British made a total change of position necessary to secure them from certain destruction. It was executed during the night with a great degree of coolness, silence, order and intrepidity. It was a general remove of the whole army, of the caipp and artillery, from its late ground to the heights above the hospitali with the design, by an entire change of the front, of reducing the Americans, if possible, to the necessity of forming a new disposition. This remove was accomplished without any loss whate. ver. The day of action proved fatal to numbers. The officers suffered exceedingly. Several who had been grievously wounded in the former action, and disdained absence from danger, were again wo unded. Beside, general Frazer, Sir James Clark, Bor.
* Idem. + Earl of Balcarras. Lieut. Col. Brooks was may informer.
quipage. Buencampmenthan 200
gòýne's aid-de-camp, was mortally wounded and taken prisoner. Major Williams of the artillery, and major 'Ackland were also taken, the latter being wounded. Lieut. col. Breyrnan was killed when the intrenchment where he commanded was forced. The lists of killed and wounded, though avowedly imperfect, and not including the Gernians are very considerable. The loss of the Americans was trifling both in men and officers. They took officers and privatés, to the amount of rather more than 200: beside 9 pieces of brass artillery, and the encampment of a Grex man brigade with all their equipage. But what was of the ut: niost-consequence, they obtained a large supply of ammunition from among the spoils of the field, under an excessive scarcity of which they had long laboured. The same troops were engaged as on the 19th of September, with detached regiments, from generals Glover and Paterson's brigades, together with a strong brigade of New-Hampshire militia, and Green Mountain boys, alias Verriont militia.
The royal troops were under arms the whole day of the sth of October, in continual expectation of an action, and were connonaded during the greatest part of it; but all that happened was a succession of skirmishes, which occasioned loss on both sides. Gen. Lincoln was wounded in his leg by a random shot of the enemy, as riding in company with gen. Gates. About sun set, the corpse of gen. Frazer was brought up the hill, attended only by the officers who had lived in liis family, for he 'desired it. might be carried, without parade, by the soldiers of his corps to the great redoubt, and there buried. It necessarily passed within view of both armies'; generals Philips, Reidesel and Burgoyne, standing together, were struck with the hunility of the procession. Their conforming to that privacy which had been requested, might be construed into neglect. They could neither endure that reflection, nor restrain their patural propensity to pay theii Jast attention to his remains. They followed the corpse to the grave. The incessent cannonade during the solemnity :--the stea. dy attitude, and unaltered voice with which the chaplain officia. ted, though frequently covered with dust, thrown up on all sides of him by the shot: the mute but expressive mixture of sensibi. lity and indignation upon every countenance together with the growing duskiness of the evining, may be hereafter described by The pen of the British commander, as marking a character of that juncture, which makes one of the finest objects for the percil ot a master, that the field ever exhibited.* But had gen. Burgoyne acquainted the American commander with the intended proces.