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Sri the states of Maryland and Delaware, upon his going up the ti^iesapeak and landing in Maryland. Be that as it may, through unfavourable winds he did not enter the Chesapeak till the 16th of August; and the difficulty of the navigation made it the <25th, before the army landed at Elk ferry. One part advanced to the Head of Elk, the other continued at the landing place to protect aihd forward the artillery, stores and necessary provisions. The day Sir William entered the Chesapeak, he received from lord Oeorge Germain, a letter of May the IStli, wherein was given turn the firstintimation, that any support whatever would be expected from him in favor of the northern expedition under gen. i3urgoyrie, in Words to this purpose-—" I trust that whatever you may meditate, it will be executed in time to co-operate with "the army ordered to proceed from Canada." Gen.. \Vashington upon advice of the British army^s having landed, marched toward" the Brandywine river, with his troops, amounting in the whole? to 11,000 present and fit for duty, including 1800 of the Pennr sylvariia militia. Gen. Greene attended with gen. Weedon, wis se'fit to reconnoitre and find out an eligible spot for their encampr Jiient. 'He pitched upon one at the Gross Woads, near six miles distant from the royal army, which he judged suitable, as the "Americans would there have ;»n open country behind them, front whence they could draw assistance, and would have opportunities of skirmishing with the enemy before they were organized and provided with teams and horses, 8cc. for marching ; and as Howe's troops would be a long while cramped before they could get what was wanting in order to their proceeding. He wrote "to the commander in chief, acquainting him with the spot he had chosen. But the information was received too late : a council of war had determined the same day it was transmitted, to take a position upon Red-Clay Neck, about half way between Wilmington and Christianna, alias Christeen, with their left upon Christeen-neck, and their right extending toward, Chad's ford. When the reason for it, that it would prevent the enemy's passing on for Philadelphia, was assigned to" gen. Greece, he maintained, that they would not think of Philadelphia, till they barf beaten the American army -r and upon his observing the position which had been taken, he condemned it as being greatly hazardous, and such as must be abandoned, should the enemy when organized advance toward them. The Americans however, "spent much time and labour in strengthening the post. "J-et us break off here to mention some of the congressional 'proceedings. In the beginning of June, they approved generai Washington's conduct as to the cartel for exchange of prisoners, ■and his reasonilfg,upon the'subject. The general had acqi'taihRri,


Sir William Howe, that he did " not hold himself bound either by the spirit of the agreement, or by the principles of justice, to account for those prisoners, who, from the rigor and severity id their treatment, were in so emaciated and languishing a state at the time they came out, as to render their death almost certain and inevitable, and which, in many instances, happened while they were returning to their homes, and in many others after their arrival." He said to him " You must be sensible that our engagement, as well as all others of the kind, though in Jester it expresses only an equality of rank and number, as the rule of exchange, yet it necessarily implies a regard to the generai principles of mutual compensation and advantage. This is inherent in its nature, is the voice of reason, and no stipulation as to the condition in which prisoners should be returned, was requisite. Humanity dictated, that their treatment should be such as their health and comfort demanded. Nor is this the language of humanity alone—justice declares the same. The object of eVery cartel, or similar agreement, is the benefit of the prisoners themselves, and that of the contending powers—on this footing it equally exacts, that they should be well treated, as that.they Should be exchanged : the reverse is therefore an evidentinfraction, and ought to subject the party, on whom it is chargeable, to all the damages and ill consequences resulting from it."*'

[June 14-] Congress " resolved, That the flag of the Thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation." [June 20.] " Resolved. That a corps of invalids be formed, consisting of eight companies, each company to have one captain, two lieutenants, two ensigns, fiyesei; geants, six corporals, two drummers, two fifers and a hundred men. This corps to be employed in garrison and for guards, ip cities and other places, as also to serve as a military school for young, gentlemen, previous to their being appointed to marching regiments." Lewis Nicola, esq. was immediately after elected colonel of the said corps. ''

The inhabitants of the New-Hampshire giants having set up an independent government, presented a petition to congress praying.that they might be considered as a free and independent state, and that delegates from them might be admitted to seatsin congress. [June 30.] Their petition was dismissed. But thougfa it was dismissed, the petitioners have not dissolved their goveriy ,ment,but are resolutely detei mined to continue a free and inde

pendent state.


^ {July 1.] Congress resumed the consideration of certain letters from generals Sullivan, Greene and Knox, all dated the first of July ; whereupon congress came to the following unanimous resolution: " That the president transmit to gen. Washington copies of the letters from generals Sullivan, Greene and. Knox to congress, with directions to him to let those officers know that congress consider the said letters as an attempt to influence their decisions, an invasion of the liberties of the people, and indicating a want of confidence in the justice of congress; .-that it is expected by congress, the said officers will make proper - acknowledgments for an interference of so dangerous a tendency; but if any of those officers are unwilling to serve their country under the authority of congress, they shall be at liberty to resign their commissions and retire." Their letters are supposed . to have related to the affair of Monsieur du CoudTay and otlier French officers, which will be immediately rrrention-ed; and to have contained an intimation, that placing any of these over 'iireir heads would be preventive of their serving their country vlonger. If they have made any acknowledgments to congress, the same have been printed in the journals, or have hitherto -^escaped my search.'

Abeut the latter end of April, the Amphitrite arrived ''at Portsmouth from France, with military stores, intrenching tools, &c-—By the same or a similar opportunity, Mous. du Coudray, and several more officers, came over with a view of serving in the American army, upon terms agreed between them and Mr. Deane. Mr. Deane contracted with du Coudray fer half a hundred officers. Coudray was to be commander in chief of the sortihery and engineers; to have the rank of major-general; to precede some others by express stipulation and all by the pre■eminence usual to artillery. He was to be under no order fcut of congress and general Washington ; to have the pay of a jnajor-general in a separate department; and to be pensioned far Jife. Congress was embarrassed. There was no establishing of such an agreement without offering an insult to their own American officers of the first rank, and obliging them (in honor) t»> '4juit the service, unless they would ever after be esteemed the spiritless tools of congress. On the llth of July, a committee «f the whole resolved, <l That Mr. Silas Deane had. not any powers or authority from congress to make the treaty with Mr. iu Coudray, and the other French gentlemen therein mentioned, and therefore that congress are not by any means bound to fulfil the. terms thereof." Mr. Deane1 s instructions was to engage engineers not exceeding four The next day it was resolved, " That

it isthe opinion of this committee, that the said agveementis inVol. II. E e consistent

consistent with the interest, honor and safety of these United States. This report being made, was smothered out of tender, ness, and laid on the table, that a trial might be made to quiet the military ambition of du Coudray. They therefore on the 15th, “ resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to confer with Mons. du Coudray : that they inform him, congress cannot comply with the agreement he has entered into with Mr. Deane ; but sensible of the services he has rendered these states, and having a favourable opinion of his merits and abilities, they will cheerfully give him such rank and appointments as shall not be inconsistent with the honor and safety of these states, or interfere with the great dutics they owe to their constituents.” They afterward ordered money to be advanced to him, for the support of himself and the gentlemen who came with him from France; and on the 11th of August appointed him inspectorgeneral of ordnance and military manufactories, with the rank of major-general. July 31.] “Whereas the marquis de la Fayette, out of his great zeal to the cause of liberty, in which the United States are engaged, has left his family and connections, and at his own expence come over to offer his service to the United States without pension or particular allowance, and is anxious to risk his life in our cause:—Resolved, That his service be accepted, and that in consideration of his zeal, illustrious family and connections, he have the rank and commision of major-general in the army of the United States.” - ---The proceedings of congress must be snspended, till some account has been given of this noble phaenomenon. In 1776, the marquis at the age of nineteen, espoused the cause of the Americans, and determined upon joining them in person. He communicated his intention to the American commissioners at Paris, who failed not to encourage it, justly concluding that the eclat of his departure would be serviceable to

their cause. Events however immediately occurred, which

would have deterred from this undertaking a person less determined than the marquis. News arrived in France, that the remnant of the American army, reduced to 2000 insurgents as they were called, had fled toward Philadelphia through the Jerseys,

before an army of 30,000 regulars. This news so effectually ex-.

tinguished the little credit, which America had in Europe, that their commissioners could not procure a vessel to forward this nobleman's project. Under these circumstances they thought it but honest to discourage his prosecuting the enterprize, till a change in affairs should render it less hazardous or more pro

mising. It was in vain however that they acted so candid a part.


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TThe Hame which the American sons of liberty had kindied in, his breast, could not be interrupted by their misfortunes. "Hitherto (said he, in the true spirit of heroism) I have only cherished your cause; now I am going to serve it. The lower it is in the opinion of the people, the greater effect my departure, will have 5,- and since you cannot get a vessel, I shall purchase and fit out one to-carry your dispatches to congress, and me to Ame*iea.?'" He accordingly fitted out a vessel, and in the mean while roadea visit to Great-Britain,, that the part he was going to act might be rendered the more conspicuous*

- Af step so extraordinary, a patron, of so much importance, did %otfail to engage universal attention. The French court, whatever, were their good wishes toward America, could not at that ♦irne overlook, his elopement. He was overtaken by an order forbidding his proceeding to America, and vessels were dispatched Jto the Westlndlesj-tohave him confined in case he was round in that quarter. He acknowledged the receipt of the order, but did Hot. obey it; and keeping clear of the West-Indies, arrived in Charleston, Congress could not hesitate a moment about'pay-fcig.-a-due attention, to so remarkable a character, when intelligence of the same was communicated. The marquis had left * pregnant consort and the most endearing connections. Independent of the risks he has now subjected himself to, in common with the leaders of the American revolution, he has exposed himself to the loss of every thing at home, in consequence <sf the laws of France, after hazarding a long confinement without the chance of being acknowledged by any nation, had he fallen into British hands on his passage to America. •■ He received tire congress's mark ot approbation with great condescension ; and: yet not without exacting two conditions, which displayed the dignity of his spirit—the one, that he should be permitted to serve at his own expence—the other,. that-he should begin his services as a volunteer. After joining the army,- he lived with the commander in chief, and was happy in his friendship and affection

'Now to resume the narration of what was done in the great! •council of *he United States.

. " ■ Congress directed general Washington to order such general efficer as he should think proper, to repair immediately to the northern department, to relieve general Sc jyler in his command

•there; but upon his wishing to be excused, they resolved, [August 4.] to proceed to the election of one; when the ballots being taken, it appeared that general Gates was elected by the vote of eleven states,

....... fc . . Congress

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