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in the states of Maryland and Delaware, upon his going up tire Chesapeak and landing in Maryland. Be that as it may, through unfavourable winds he did not enter the Chesapeak till the 16th of August; and the difficulty of the navigation inade it the 25th, hefore the army landed at Elk ferry. One part advanced to the Head of Elk, the other continued at the landing place to protect and forward the artillery, stores and necessary provisions. The day Sir William entered the Chesapeak, he received from lord George Germain, a letter of May the 18th, wherein was given him the first intimation, that airy support whatcver would be exa pected from him in favor of the northern expedition under gen. Burgoyne, in words to this purpose--" I trust that whiatever. you may meditate, it will be executed in time to co-operate with: the army ordered to proceed froni Canada." Gen. Washington upon advice of the British army's having landed, marched toward the Brandywine river, with his troops, amounting in the whole to 11,000 present and fit for duty, including 1800 of the Pennsylvania militia. Gen. Greene attended with gen. Weedoni, wis sent to reconnoitre and find out an eligible spot for their encampnient. He pitched upon one at the Cross Road's, ncar six miles distant from the royal ariny, which lie judged suitable, as the "Americans would there have an open country behind them, front whence they could draw assistance, and would have opportuni. ties of skirmishing with the enemy before they were organized and provided with teams and horses, &c. for marching, and as Howe's troops would be a long while cramped before they could get what was wanting in order to tircir 'proceeding. He wrotu to the commander in chief, acquainting him with the spot he had chosen. But the information was reccived too late : a couficil of war had determined the same day it was transmitted, to take a position upon Red-Clay Neck, about half way between Wilmington and Christianna, alias Christeen, with their left upon Christeen-neck, and their right extending toward, Chad's Ford. When the reason for it, that it would prevent the enemy's pas. sing on for Philadelphia, was assigned to gen. Greene, le mairin tained, that they would not think of Philadelphia, till they had beaten the American army, and upon his observing the position which had been taken, he condemned it as being greatly hazardous, and such as must be abandoned, should the enemy when organized advance toward them. The Americans however, spent much time and labour in strengthening the post.

Let us break off here to mention some of the congressional proceedings. In the beginning of June, they approved genera Washington's conduct as to the cartel for exchange of prisoners, and his reasoning upon the'subject. The general had acoluimd

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Şir William Howe, that he did " not hold himself bound either by the spirit of the agreement, or by the principles of justice, to ac, count for those prisoners, who, from the rigor and severity of : their treatment, were in so emaciated and languishing a state at the time they came out, as to render their death almost certain ! and inevitable, and which, in many instances, happened while they were returning to their homes, and in many others after their arrival.” He said to him “ You must be sensible that our engagement, as well as all others of the kind, though in let. ter it expresses only an equality of rank and number, as the rule of exchange, yet it necessarily implies a regard to the general principles of mutual compensation and advantage. This is inhe. rent in its nature, is the voice of reason, and no stipulation as to the condition in which prisoners should be returned, was requisite. Humanity dictated, that their treatment should be such as their health and comfort demanded. Nor is this ihe language of humanity alone--justice declares the same. The object of every cartel, or similar agreement, is the benefit of the prisoners themselves, and that of the contending powers--on this footing it equally exacts, that they should be well treated, as that tbey should be exchanged: the reverse is therefore an evident infraction, and ought to subject the party, on whom it is chargeable, to all the damages and ill consequences resulting from it."

[June 14.]. Congress “ resolved, That the flag of the Tbirteen United States be thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new constellation." (June 20.] “ Resolved, That a corps of invalids be formed, consisting of eight companies, each com. pany to have one captain, two lieutenants, two ensigns, five ser, geants, six corporals, two drummers, two fifers and a hundred inen. . This corps to be employed in garrison and for guards, in cities and other places, as also to serve as a military school for young gentlemen, previous to their being appointed to marchisig regiments.” Lewis Nicola, esq. was immediately after elected colonel of the said corps. ". The inhabitants of the New Hampshire grants having set up an independent government, presented a petition to congress, praying that they might be considered as a free and independent state, and that delegates from them might be admitted to seats in congress. (June 30.] Their petition was dismissed. But though it was dismissed, the petitioners have not dissolved their govern ment, but are resolutely determined to continue a free and inden pendent state.

* See the letters on this subject between Howe and Wathington, and on thers, in the Remembrancer, Vol. V. p. 284.10 220, and p. 250. @ilova

July

[July 7.] Congress resumed the consideration of certain letters from generals Sullivan, Greene and Knox, all dated the

first of July; whereupon congress came to the following unaniR inous resolution : “ That the president transmit to gen. Washing

ton copies of the letters from generals Sullivan, Greene and 5 Knox to congress, with directions to him to let those officers s know that congress consider the said letters as an attempt to in

Huence their decisions, an invasion of the liberties of the people, and indicating a want of confidence in the justice of congress i

that it is expected by congress, the said officers will make proper si acknowledgments for an interference of so dangerous a tendency; 5 but if any of those officers are unwilling to serve their country

under the authority of congress, they shall be at liberty to rebesign their cominissions and retire.” Their letters are supposed

to have related to the affair of Monsieur du Coudray and other French officers, which will be immediately mentioned; and to have contained an intimation, that placing any of these over their heads would be preventive of their serving their country onger. . If they have made any acknowledgments to congress, the same have been printed in the journals, or have hitherto escaped my search.

About the latter end of April, the Amphitrite arrived at Portsmouth from France, with military stores, intrenching tools, &c.By the same or a similar opportunity, Mous. du Coudray, and several more officers, came over with a view of serving in the American army, upon terms agreed between them and Mr. Deane. Mr. Deane contracted with du Coudray for haif a

hundred officers. Coudray was to be commander in chief of the i artillery and engineers'; to have the rank of major-general; to

precede some others by express stipulation and all by the preéminence usual to artillery. He was to be under no order but of congress and generai Washington; to have the pay of a major-general in a separate department; and to be pensioned for Kife. Congress was embarrassed. There was no establishing of such an agreement without offering an insult to their own American officers of the first rank, and obliging them (in honor) to squit the service, unless they would ever after be esteemed the spiritless tools of congress. On the 11th of July, a committee of the whole resolved, “ That Mr. Silas Deane had not any powers or authority from congress to make the treaty with Mr. eu Coudray, and the other French gentleinen therein mentioned, and therefore that congress are not by any means bound to fulfil the terms thereof.” Mr. Deane's instructions was to engage engineers not exceeding four. The next day it was resolved, “ That it is the opinion of this committee, that the said agreentent is inVOL. II.

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consistent

consistent with the interest, honor and safety of these United States. This report being made, was smothered out of tender ness, and laid on the table, that a trial might be made to quiet the military ambition of du Coudray. They therefore on the 15th, “ resolved, That a committee of three be appointed te confer with Mons. du Coudray ; that they inform him, congrese cannot comply with the agreement he has entered into with Mr. Deane ; but sensible of the services he has rendered these states, and having a favourable opinion of his merits and abilities, they willcheerfully give him such rank and appointments as shall not be inconsistent with the honor and safety of these states, or interfere with the great duties they owe to their constituen s. They afterward ordered money to be advanced to him, for the support of himself and the gentlemen who came with him from France; and on the 11th of August appointed him inspector gens eral of ordnance and military manufactories, with the rank of major-general.

July 31.] “ Whereas the marquis de la Fayette, out of his great zeal to the cause of liberty, in which the United States are engaged, has left his family and connections, and at his own expence come over to offer his service to the United States without pension or particular allowance, and is anxious to risk his life in our cause :--Resolved, That his service be accepted, and that in consideration of his zeal, illustrious family and connections, he have the rank and conmision of major-general in the army of the United States." . The proceedings of congress must be snspended, till some account has been given of this noble phænomenon..

In 1776, the marquis at the age of nineteen, espoused the cause of the Americans, and determined upon joining them in person. He communicated his intention to the American commissioners at Paris, who failed not to encourage it, justly concluding that the eclat of his departure would be serviceable to their cause. Events however immediately occurred, which would have deterred from this undertaking a person less detere mined than the marquis. News arrived in France, that the rema nant of the American army, reduced to 2000 insurgents as they were called, had fled toward Philadelphia through the Jerseys, before an army of 30,000 regulars. This news so effectually ex-. tinguished the little credit which America had in Europe, that their commissioners could not procure a vessel to forward this nobleman's project. Under these circumstances they thought it but honest to discourage his prosecuting the enterprize, till.a. change in affairs should render it less hazardous or more pro.. mising. It was in vain howeyer that they acted so candid a part

The

The Hame which the American sons of liberty had kindled in his breast, could not be interrupted by their misfortunes. "Hir therto (said he, in the true spirit of heroisım) I have only clierëshed your cause; now I am going to serve it. The lower it is in the opinion of the people, the greater effect my departure.will have, and since you cannot get a vessel, I shall purchase and fit out one to carry your dispatches to congress, and me to Amesica.?" He accordingly fitted out a vessel, and in the mean while Riades a visit to Great-Britain, that the part he was going to act miglit be rendered the more conspicuous. - As step so extraordinary, a patron of so much importance, did not fail to engage universal attention, The French court, what. ever were their good wishes toward America, could not at that time overlook his elopement. He was overtaken by an order forbidding his proceeding to America, and vessels were dispatched to the West-Indies; to have him confined in case he was found in that quarter. He acknowledged the receipt of the order, but did Tot: obey it; and keeping clear of the West-Indies, arrived in Charleston. Congress could not hesitate a moment about payIng. a due attention to so remarkable a character, when intelli, gence of the same was communicated. The marquis had left a pregñant consort, and the most endearing connections. Independent of the risks he has now subjected himself to, in coni. mon with the leaders of the American revolution, he has exposed himself to the loss of every thing at home, in conse quence of the laws of France, after hazarding a long confinement without the chance of being acknowledged by any nation, had he fallen into British lands on his passage to America. * He received the congress's mark of approbation with great condescension; and yet not without exacting two conditions, which displayed the dignity of his spirit--the one, that he should be permitted to serve at his own expence--the other, that he should begin his services as a volunteer. After joining the army; he lived with the commander in chief, and was happy in his friendship and affection..

Now to resume the narration of what was done in the great Council of the United States. * Congress directed general Washington to order such general officer as he should think proper, to repair immediately to the northern department, to relieve general Scuyler in his command there; but upon his wishing to be excused, they resolved, (August 4.] to proceed to the election of one ; when the ballots being taken, it appeared that general Gates was elected by the vote of eleven states...

Congress

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