Abbildungen der Seite




Aaron and the Priesthood, 42
Abernethy, selections from, 32
Acquirement of riches, on, 70
Action, necessity of determinate prin-

ciples of, 216
Adhesion and Cohesion, 55
Advice of a philosopher, 200
Age and Youth, 213.
Algebraic sigus, + and —, origin of, 15
Altars, various kinds of, 197
Americau lodian tradition, 160
American's opinion of the wealth and

power of Great Britain, 101
Anatomy. See Coryparative
Anderson, J. S. M., selections from, 134
Address, selections from, 176
Animals without feet, motion of, 136

powers of detence and offence
possessed by, 104

on the feeling of, 142

larguage of, 1., 22--11., 27
Animal life, wonders of, 70
Arabians, navigation of the, 161
Arpott, extracts from, 239
An of gilding, 96
Arts and sciences, progress of, 246
Astronomy. Popular, Part II., 33–

II., 121-IV., 201
Attraction, on Capillary, 84, 156
Babylon, ruins of ancient, 2
Bacon, Lord, selections from, 136,

200, 212
Ballal, 2, 235
Barton, lines by, 231, 235
Beauty, different ideas concerning, 3

- interest felt in the preserva-

tion of, 120
Belief of a future state, 19
Bell, present object of the passing, 190

lining of ihe Kremlin, 235
Bell, extracts from, 3
Berkeley, Bishop, selections from, 104
Bible illustrated from monuments of

antiquity, XV., 12-XVI., 42-
XVII, 107-XVIII., 148–XIX.,

Black Rat, acconnt of the, 216
Blair, selections from, 143, 184, 247, 248
Blessings, Christianity the greatest

of, 16
Blind School, Philadelphia, 187
Bodies, law of falling, 181
Body and Soul, 159

and Spirit, dialogue between, 159
Boleyn, coronation of Lady Anne, 72
Bolingbroke, selections from, 224
Botany, incentive to the study of, 87
Bounty of God, lines on, 88
Bowles, lines by, 250
Bray, Mrs., selections from, 88
Brevity of life, 143
Brief history of Navigation, 161, 249
British sailor's praise of the sea, 183
Buckland, selection from, 70
Buffalo, Tradition of the, 160
Building of the Tabernacle, 107
Barleigh, Lord, selection from, 189
Butterfly, organs of digestion in the,


Cleanliness in nature, principles of, 195
Clifford Castle, ruins of, 19
Coal-field, the great Northern, I., 209

--II., 225-111., 241
Cohesion and Adhesion, 55
Coleridge, selections from, 13, 16, 24,

28, 30, 216, 247
Colton, selection from, 136
Combats, Judicial, 170
Comb-cutting engine, 224
Companions, necessity of care in

choosing. 191
Comparative Anatomy, Facts in, III.,

28-IV., 104-V., 136-VI., 240
Compassion, an emotion never to be

ashamed of, 184
Conscieuce, value of a good, 232
Conder, lines by. 3
Conductors and non-conductors of

Electricity, 151
Cousolations of Religion, 11
Construction of the violin, 199
Coronations, Chapters on, Ill., The

Regalia, 4-IV., Coronation Vest.
ments, 20-V. Great Oficers of
State, 44-VI., Services performed
at the Coronation by tenure of
grand sergeantry.

The Court
of Claims, 59--VII., 94
Coronation Anecdotes, III., 14-IV.,

29—V., 51-VI., 71-VII., 102
Cottage gardening, I., 84-II., 109
Cowper, selections from, 83
Creation, wonders of the, 70
Cultivation of the Manioc plant, 57

Dahlia, 11
Cumberland, selection from, 200
Dahlia, cultivation of the, ul
Dartmoor, description of, 113
Davy, Sir H., selections from, 150, 246
Day and night, how produced, 204
Deer, horns of, 93
Defence, powers of, possessed by ani.

mals, 104
Definition of Prose and Poetry, 30
Dependance of man upon his Creator, 3
Description of Tintern Abbey, 65
Desmond, Earl, fate of, 107
Dialogue between body and spirit, 159
Difficulties, resignation under, 70
Doum-tree of the Thebaid, 64
Dramatic writings of the Chinese, 153
Drink, excess in, to be avoided, 192
Drunkenuess, evils of, 141
Earth, its appearance to the moon, 120

replenishment of, by plants, 191
Earthenware, remarks on, 13
Eclipses, solar and lunar, causes of, 127
Education, the use of a proper, 104
Effects of religious feelings, 15
Electrical experiments, 228
Electricity,-1., General Principles of,

111-II., Conductors and Non
conductors, 151-111., Electrical

Machines, 172-IV., 212–V., 228
Elephant, various species of the, 160
Elizabeth, coronation of queen, 83
Ely Chapel, Holborn, 129, 185
Engine, comb-cutting, 224
Euglish, navigation of, during the mid-

dle ages, 165
Envy, effects of, 68
Erdman, Mr., his description of phos.

phorescent lichens, 220
Euphrates expedition, account of, i
Europe, comparative tables of the

weights, measures, and monies of,

Evils of drunkenness, 141
Excess in drink to be avoided, 199
Facts in Comparative Anatomy, III.,

28-IV., 104–V., 136-VI., 240
Falling bodies, on, 179
Feeding of animals, on the, 142
Filial piety of the Chinese, 89
Filtration of Thames water, 54
Fishermen of France, 169
Flatterers, danger of encouraging, 159
Florence and the Florentines, I., 138

-II., 177
Flower garden, beauties of the, 147
Forest-trees, notes on, XXV., The

Hazel, 116
France, oyster fisheries in, 133

fishermen of, 169
Prancis, selection from, 173
Friendship, instability of, 240

necessity of care in the
formation of, 247

Future state, on a, 119
Gaming, remarks on, 239
Gardening, remarks on cottage, 83—

II., 109.
Gecko, foot of the, 240
Genitis and virtue, lines on, 32
Gerdil, selections from, 223
Gilding, art of, 96
Gillman, Mrs., extract from, 187
Gisborne, lines by, 191
God, omnipotence and omnipresence

of, 173
God, lines on the bounty of, 88'
God's overruling providence, 134
Gold-leaf beating, 248
Goldsmith, selections from, 11
Good conscience, value of a, 232
Goodrich Castle, Monmouthshire, 97
Gravity, centre of, 189, 220
Great Britain, an American's opinion

of the wealth and power of, 101
Great buffalo, Indian tradition of, 160
Grub, organs of digestion in the, 104
Hale, Sir M., selections from, 141, 191
Hamley, Rev. E., lines by, 144
Happiness the reward of a virtuous

Tife, 19
Harvest-time, hymn in, 200

lines on, 70
Hazel, the, 116
Health, lines on, 144
Herschel, selections from, 220
Hogg, selections from, 159
Home, what is, 3
Hope. Collins's ode to, extract from,

Horns of deer, 93
Hospitality, moderation in, to be prac.

tised, 189
Hour-glass, philosophy of the, 158
Howitt, Mary, lives by, 19
Humphrey, Rev. Dr., extract from, 101
Hurdis, lines by, 15, 30, 70, 88
Hydraulic ram, description of, 211
Hymu in harvest time, 200
Idria, quicksilver mines of, 155
Ill-temper, evil attending, 248
Imitation, propensity of children to, 33
Incentive to the study of botany, 87
Indian ink, how prepared, 174
Indian tradition of the buffalo, 160
Inks, mode of preparing various, 174
Inkstands, 236
Inorganic substances, uses of some of,

to man, 119
Insects, on the transformation of, 150
Intellectual labour, aversion of man.

kind to, 3
Intemperance, lines on, 119
Jewish master, story of a, 150
Johnson, selections from, 3, 195, 231,

Judicial combats, 170
Kentucky, racoon hunt in, 53
Kilmallock, Ireland, description of, 105
King's champion, duties of, 94
Knox, selection from, 232
Kremlin bell, lifting of the, 235
La Fontaine, selection from, 147
Land measures of area, table of, 63
Language of animals, I., 22-11., 27
Latitude and longitude, what meant by

the terms, 208
Lavater, selections from, 221, 239
Leadhills, Lanarkshire, village of, 230
Learning not knowledge, 213
Leaves of plants, on the, 67
Leech, the medicinal, 231
"Let us go to the woods," 152
Liberality, what meant by, 134
Liberty conducive to happiness, 224
Lichens, phosphorescent, in the Dres.

den coal-mines, 220
Life, shortness of, 3
Light of the marine animals, 237
Lighting public street, custom of, 140
Lincoln Lunatic Asylum, 45
Lines on Childhood, 64
Liquids, level surfaces of, 7
Locke, selections from, 19, 70
Lookiug.glasses and mirrors, 144
Lore and friendship, 147
Love of the world, 157
Lucas, selections from, 8
Macculloch, extracts from, 92, 37, 119,

136, 142, 152, 191, 237

Macdonald, Alexander, anecdote of, 51
Machine, description of the electrical,

172, 212
Machine, description of the profile, 192
Malevolence, effects of, 113
Man a formidable animal, 104

dependance of, upon his Creator,

- uses of some of the inorganic sub-

stances to, 119

evidence of the ignorance of, 239
Manioc plant, cultivation of, 57
Mant, Bishop, selection from, 134
Manufacture of writing paper, 117
Marine animals, on the light of the, 237
Marking-iuk, how prepared, 175
Maund, extracts from, 111, 147, 239
Measures of length, 62
Medicinal leech, 231
Mental diseases, treatment of, 45
Microscope, account of, IV., 16
Mirrors, mode of silvering, 144
Monday's expenses, 215
Monies of accompt, table of, 63
Monmouth, account of, 194
Montague, Lady Mary W., selection

from, 19
Monuments of antiquity, illustrations

of the Bible from, XV., 12–XVI.,
42-XVII., 107-XVIII., 148–

XIX., 196
Moon, phases of the, 125
Moral courage of women, 215
Morning. lines on a summer, 223
Motion of animals without feet, 136
Motion, on perpetual, 99
Moth, dwelling or a species of, 88
Mutual forbearance, 32
Myxine, glutinous hag, or borer, 184
National morality, its dependence on

religion, 15
Natural Philosophy, Recreations in,

II., 7-111., 55—IV., 84–V., 99 —
VI., 156–VII., 179-VIII., 188

IX., 220.
Natural phenomena, wonders of, 70
Nature, principles of cleanliness in, 195
Naval and military establishments,

Woolwich, 233
Navigation, brief history of, Part III.,

161-Navigation of the middlo
ages - the Arabians, 161 - The
English, 165-IV. The Venetians,
249— The Portuguese and Span.

iards, 251
Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 209, 225, 241
Night-guards, establishment of, 214
Notes on forest trees, XXV. The hazel,

Nothing in nature lost, 240
Offeuce, powers of, possessed by ani.

mals, 104
Officers of state, duties of, 44
Old English sumptuary laws, 157
Omnipotence and omnipresence of

God, 173
Ordeal, trials by, 170
Organs of digestion in the caterpillar,

grub, and butterfly, 104
Origin of the signs + and -15
Oyster and oyster-fishery, 132
Painting, definition of, 28
Palaces of Rome, account of, 74
Paley, selections from. 32
Paper, history of writing, 68

manufacture of writing, 117
Parchment, preparation of, 194
Passing bell, the, 182, 190
Passions, government of the, 70
Pastor and village church, 130
Patrick, Bishop, selections from, 150,

Parements introduced, 219
Perpetual motion, on, 99
Peterhoff, great fête at, 222
Petrarch's inkstand, lines on, 236
Philadelphia, blind school at, 187,
Phillips, extract from, 244
Philosopher, advice of a, 200

character of, 229,
Philosophy of the hour-glass, 158
Phosphorescent lichens, 220
Piazze, or squares of Rome, 79
Piety, filial, of the Chinese, 89
Planets, popular account of, 33
Plunts, on the leaves of, 67

- replenishment of the earth by.
- perfume of, 147

Capillary Attraction, 84, 156
Carelessness productive of poverty, 88
Ca iter, selections from, 223
Ca saubon, selections from, 171
Ca suerba, selection from, 83
Ca terpillar, organs of digestion in the,

Ca thedral Churches, on the destruc.
tion of, 88

of Florence, 177
Centre of gravity, 188, 220
Chain-links of various forms, 176
Character of a true philosopher, 229
Chelsea water-works, mode of filtra-

tion adopted at, 54
Chemist, the young. XII., 91
Chest explorer, account of, 226
Chief Butler, duties of, at corona-

tions, 59
Childhood, lines on, 64
Children, their propensity to imita-
tiun, 32

of Israel, murmurings of, 12
China, No. IX., 89-X., 153
Chinese, filial piety of the, 89

domestic manners of the, 153
Christianity, the greatest of blessings,
Civet cat, the, 189
Civilized life, 239
Clarendon, selection from, 157


Plasterer, the, 32
Plumber, the, 31
Plus and minus, origin of the signs of,

Poison fangs in serpents, 61
Polyanthos, account of the, 244
Poor, sinfulness of oppressing the, 173
Pope, selections from, 212, 223
Popular Astronomy. Part II., 33-

Compuative sizes of the planets,
33—'The Sun, 34-Mercury, 37-
Venus, 39--111., 121- The Earth,
121-The Moon, 122-Phases of,
125 -- Eclipses, 126 - Solar and
lunar eclipses, 127-IV., 201--The
seasons, 201-Day and night, 204
-Refraction, 20%-Tides, 206

Latitude and longitude, 207
Porter, selection from, 220
Portuguese and Spaniards, navigation

ot, 251

Primrose, the common, 244
Printer's ink, what composed of, 175
Prize-fighting, on, 143
Profile machine, description of, 192
Progress of the arts and sciences, 246
Progress and public processions of

Queen Elizabeth, VII., 9-VIII.,

46-IX., 81
Prose and poetry, definitions of, 30
Public streets, custom of lighting, 140

introduction of stone
pavements in, 219
Queen Elizabeth, her progresses and

public processions, VII.,I–VIII.,

Quicksilver mines of Idria, 135
Racoon, natural history of, 53
Ragland castle, Monmouthshire, 145
Raleigh, Sir W., selections from, 159,

173, 200
Ram, description of the hydraulic, 211
Rats, method of taking, 216
Reading, cheap entertainment, 19

correct mode of, 247
Reason, advantages of, 8
Rebellion in 1745, anecdote of, 51
Recreations in Natural Philosophy,

11., 7-111., 55-IV., 84-Y., 99

VI., 156–VII., 179-VIII., 1884

IX., 220
Regalia, account of the, 4
Regularity, evils attending the neglect

of, 110
Reid, selection from, 220
Religion, consolations of, 11
Religious feelings, effects of, 15
Replenishment of the earth by plants,

Resignation under dificulties, 70
Riches, on the acquirement of, 70

the baggage of virtue, 200
Road measures of length, table of, 63
Rome, some account of the city of,

Part IX., 73-Palaces, 74 The
Vatican,75–The Sistine chapel, 75
-Loggie and Camere of Raphael,
76—Streets of Modern Rome, 784
Fountains, 78—Piazze or squares

of Rome, 79– Modern Romans, 79
Rothschild, anecdote of Joseph, 58
Rottler, J. P., account of, 25
Ruins of Tintern Abbey, 65
Rural sounds, 152
Russia, scene in, 222

Smith, Adam, selection from, 19

Useful Arts, No. XXXVIII., 31
Snake and the viper, 140

Useful knowledge, ardour in the pa
Sorrow, effects of, 147

suit of to be cherished, 145
Soul and body, 159

Vatican, account of the, 75
Sounds, rural, 152

Velocity of the wind, 192
South, selection from, 223

Venetians, uavigation of the, 249
Stebbing, extract from, 159

Verses addressed to Queen Elizabes,
Steele, selection from, 213

9, 10, 47, 48, 83
Sterne, selection from, 143

Vestments, coronation, account of, 99
Stethoscope, or chest-explorer, 226 Village church and pastor, 130
Stone pavements in streets, 219

Violin, history of the, 181
Story, Robert, lines by, 183

construction of, 199
Strafford, Lord, selection from, 192 Viper and the snake, 140
Streets, lighting, 140

Virtuous life, happiness the reward el,
Struve, selection from, 212

Study of Truth, advantages of, 83 Visit to the quicksilver mines of idna,
Botany, incentive to the, 87

Summer Morning, lines on, 223

blind school at Philade!
lines on, 19

plia, 187
Sumptuary laws, old English, 157

Washington, selections from, 15
Tabernacle, building of the, 107

Watchmen, the establishment of. 814
Taylor, Jeremy, Coleridge s opinion Wayland, selections from, 70, **
of, 24

Wealth, how arquired, 88
Bishop, selection from, 234 Wealth and power of Great Britsa,
Telford, extract from the life of, 62

Temple, Sir W., selection from, 223 Weights of Europe, table of, 69
Templeton, selection from, 96

Wilberforce, selections from, 56
Thames water, filtration of, 54

Willmott, selection from, 240
Thebaid, Doum tree of the, 64

Wind, velocity of the, 192
Thinking not an easy employment, 247 Women, sensibility of, 159
Thompson, lines by, 200

- moral courage of, 915
Thoughts of the moment, value of, 136 Woodpecker, tongue of the, 28
Tides, operation of the sun, moon, and Woolwich, naval and military este.
earth in producing, 206

blishments at, 233
Tillotson, selections from, 136, 221 World, love of, 157,
Time, value of, 231

World, what the most sublime spet-
Tiutern Abbey, Monmouthshire, 65

tacle in, 136
Tolling of the passing.bell, reflections Writing materials, IV. - History of

writing paper, 68—V. Mana'a icra
Transformation of insects typical of the of writing paper, 117–4], (un
human being, 150

parchment, 133-VII. On ink, il
Trench, Mrs., selections from, 15

-VIII., 236
Trials by ordeal, and judicial combats, Wye and Monmouthshire, IL 17-

II., 43—IV., 97-1., 193-11,
Trusle, description of the, 29

Truth, on the study of, 83

the foundation of kuowledge, Young Chemist, XII., 91

Youth and age, 213
Tongue of the woodpecker, 28
Turnip-fly, account of, 6

Sacrifice, universality of, 148
Sago Palm, description of the, 24
St. Swithin, 15
San Lorenzo, Florence, church of, 138
Sanford, Mrs. J., selections from, 150,

Say, J. B., anecdote by, 110
Scene in Russia, 222
Sea, British sailor's praise of the, 183

shell, lines on, 231
Seasons, successions of the, 201
Sell-instruction, advantages afforded

for, 240
Sensibility of women, 159
Sensitive mind, advantages ci a, 150
Serpents, poison fangs in, 61
Shakspeare, selections from, 147
Shortness of life, 3
Simpson, extract from, 54
Sin, deceitfulness of the pleasures of,

Sistine chapel, Rome, account of, 75
Slater, the, 31
Smith, selection from, 3 .

on, 183

Electricity, illustrajoins of, 112
Elephant, heads of various species of,

Ely Chapel, Holborn, 129

Palace, 185
English war.boat, early, 166

vessel, early, 253
Falling bodies, diagrams illustrative

of, 180, 181
Florence, general view of, 137

fountain of the wild boar
at, 177
Foot of the Gecko, under side of, 240
Fourteenth century, war-ship of, 249
French fishing port, 170
Fruit of the Doum Palm, 64
Furnace of the gilder, 96

Manioc flour, preparation of, 57
Mantle, imperial, 20
Medicinal leech, 232
Microscopic animals found in stagnant

water, 136
Microscopic Hlustrations, 16
Misericordia, brother of the, 184
Monkeys gathering fruit, 12
Monument to J, P. Rottler, 25
Moon, the, 124

probable appearance of the
Earth to, 121

phases of the, 125
Mosaic, old, 168

Neap.tide, diagram to illustrate, 208
Newcastle, views of, 209, 225

river view of, 241
New Weir, ou the Wye, 193
Norman ship, 165

vessel, 253

ADHESION and cohesion, illustrations

of, 56
Altars on high places, 196

Roman, and sacrifice, 197

marked with symbols, 198
Ancient print, copy of an, representing

a royal progress through the

Strand, 81
Anglo-Saxon sailor's hammock, 164

ship, 165
Animal sacritice, Egyptian, 149
Annular eclipse, 127
Armilla, the, 20
Astrolabe, or quadrant, 252
Bar-shot, 235
Black rat, 216
Brother of the Misericordia, 184
Bullock, the sacred young, 13
Buskins, coronation, 21
Capillary attraction, illustrations of,

84-86, 156, 157
Caracole, a, 161
Caterpillar of the turnip-fly, 7

organs of digestion in, 104
Centre of gravity, figures illustrative

of, 188, 189, 220, 221
Chain-shot, 235
Cheapside, procession through, 48
Chinese lady, child, and attendant, 89

drama, scene in a, 153
Civet Cat, 189
Clifford Castle, on the Wye, 17
Cocoon of the turnip-fly, 7
Colobinm Sindonis, 21
Comb-cutting engine. 224
Congreve rocket, effect of a, 234
Cornhill, ancient view of, 9
Cup of Tantalus, 7
Dartmoor, Gray Wethers at, 113
Digestion, organs of, in the caterpil.

lar, 104
Doumn Palm, fruit of the, 64
Drawing from an old mosaic, 168

Offerings of the Egyptians, 148
Opposition and conjunction, illustra.

tion of, 38
Orb, the, 4
Oyster, organs of breathing of, 132

Gecko's foot, under side of the, 240
General view of Florence, 137
Gilder's furnace, 96
Glutinous hag-fish, 184
Gold-leaf beating, figures illustrative

of, 248
Gondola, Venetian, 250
Goodrich Castle, ruins of, 97
Grand butler and carver at a royal

feast, 60
Gray Wethers, Dartmoor, 113
Great seal of Henry I., 5
Grey-street, Newcastle, 225, the gintinous, 184
Hammock, Anglo-Saxon sailor's, 164
Hazel, the, 116

leaves, catkins and fruit of, 116
Hebrew lady in her pleasure-house,

Hillah, present town of, i
Holly, leaves of the, 68
Horns of red aud fallow deer, 93
Hydraulic ram, 212
Hydrostatic paradox, 8

Pall of state, 20
Parallax, illustrations of, 40
Perpetual motion, illustrations of,

Petrarch's inkstand, 236
Phases of the Moon, 125

Venus, 39
Planets, comparative sizes of the, 33

nodes of a, 124
Profile machine, 192

Sago-palm, fruit, &c, of, 24
Sail-maker, from a French priut, 164
St. Paul's Cross, Cheapside, 48
St. Nicholas

ch, Newcastle, 909
Sandals, coronation, 21
Scene in a Chinese drama, 153
Sceptre, king and queeu's, with cross, 4

with dore, 4
Seal, great, of Henry the First, 5
Seasons, the, 201
Serpeuts, poiscu fangs of, 61
Ship, Anglo-Saxon and Noraian, 10
Silvering table. 144
Slating, diagram illustrative of. 31
Snake ant viper, heads of, 140
Solstice, Suminer and Winter, 904
Spivning, ancient Egyptian method ele

Spring-tides, new and full moon, 247
Spurs, the coronation, 6
Staff of Lord High Constable and

Earl Marshal, 44
Staff, St. Edward's, 4
Strand, royal progress through the el
Sun, Summer and Winter, aliitudes es

in the vicinity of Loudou, 243
spots on the, 34

comparative dimensions of a
as seen from the different planeth,

Super-tunica, or surcoat, 20
Swords of Mercy, Justice, and Tes

porality, 5
Symbols, altar marked with, 198
Tantalus, cup of, 7
Tides, spring, new and full mioon, 297
Tintern Abbey, ruins of, 65
Transformations, inseci, 88
Truffle, the, 29
Turnip-fly, 7
Venetian gondola, 250
Venus, phases of, 39
Viper and suake, heads of, 140
Virge, queen's, or ivory rou, s
War-boat, early English, 166
War-ship of the 14th century, 319
Westmuister, water processiou fron, to

the Tower, 72
Wild boar, lountain of ibe, Florence,

Wilton Castle, 49
Woodpecker, tongue and skull of the

Woolwich, Rotunda or Repository &

Wye, New Weir on the, 193

neap, 208

Quadrant, or astrolabe, 252
Queen Elizabeth, procession of, thro'

Corghill, 9

Earl Marshal's staff. 45
Early English vessel, 253
Earthi, probable appearance of, to the
Eclipse, total, 126

annular, 127

lunar, 125
moon, 121
Egyptian king Rameses offering in.

ceuse and oblations, 41
Egyptian nethod of spinning, 108

offerings of the, 148
Electrical experiments, diagrams to

illustrate, 228, 229
Electrical machines, 172, 173

Illustrations, microscopic. of the pro-

cesses of vegetation, 16
Inkstands, ancient. 236
Insect transformations, 88
Kasr, or palace, ruins of Babylon, re-

mains of, 3
Kilmallock, town of, 105
Latitude and longitude, diagram illus-

trative of, 208
Leech, medicinal, 232
Letter-writer, Roman, 73
Link-chains, various models of, 176
Llandogo, on the W ye, 217
Lunar eclipse, 128

Racoon, the, 53
Ragland Castle, ruins of, 145
Rameses offering incense and obla-

tions, 41
Rat, the black, 216
Red and fallow deer, horns of, 93
Refiaction, diagrams illustrative of,

Rings, king and queen's, 5
River view or Newcastle-upon-Tyne,

Roebuck, horns of, 94
Roman letter writer, 73

altar and sacrifice, 197
Rottler, J.P., monument to, 25
Rotunda, or Repository. Woolwich, 233
Royal progress through the Strand, 81

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Tae Euphrates Expedition, undertaken for the pur- of the accomplished Surgeon and Naturalist of the pose of ascertaining the navigability of that river, Expedition, Mr. Ainsworth *, (to whom we are also must be considered one of the most useful and in- indebted for the sketch, taken on the spot by teresting journeys recently made. Useful, not only Lieutenant' Fitzjames, R.N., from which our enbecause of proving practicable a much shorter and graving is made,) we are enabled to lay before our more convenient route from hence to India; but also readers some curious and novel facts concerning the as opening out new sources of commercial enterprise “ city of cities," Babylon the Great. with a people with whom we have as yet had little The modern town of Hillah is situated upon the intercourse; and whom, it appears, Europeans have river Euphrates, where once stood a considerable suhitherto much misunderstood.

burb of Babylon. Its present population, which may But the usefulness resulting from such an expedi- average from six to seven thousand souls, consists tion even yields to the interest it must awaken in the chiefly of Arabs, who have their own Sheik, but the mind of the Biblical or classical antiquarian. The Mutsellim, or governor of the place, is under the river Euphrates, whose banks have been styled “the pacha of Baghdad, and resides in a fortress within the cradle of the world,” whose margins bore the proud town. There are bazaars and markets on both sides weight of the greatest cities of antiquity; and whose of the river. The shopkeepers are chiefly Armenians, bosom was ploughed by the ships of the princely Turks, and Jews. A most important fact connected merchants of Babylon, concerning which so many with these traders is, that Manchester and Glasgow prophecies of Holy Writ were recorded and terribly goods that were taken out by the Expedition as fulfilled,—the theatre of war of the Ten Thousand samples, were eagerly bought by them, at a profit Greeks and the army of Alexander,—the early seat

Mr. Ainsworth's work, Researches in Babylonia, Assyria, and of Christianity,-offers a mine of material for the Chaldæa, is now published, and the Author has departed on a poet, the philosopher, and the historian.

journey to the Syrian Christians, under the auspices of the Society Having been kindly granted access to the Notes for Promoting

Chefstian Knowledge, and the Royal Geographical VOL. XIII,


to the sellers of 100 per cent*. There is much trade | could trace on the plains of Hillah the extent of carried on in the town both by camels from the in- ancient Babylon ; but their data are frequently few, terior, and by boats laden with rice, dates, tobacco, and in reality deceptive. The lines drawn on maps are and other articles most in demand among the desert often only used to divide distant mounds of ruin. tribes.

Accumulations of pottery and brickwork are met with In connexion with this town, and the immense ex occasionally over a great tract, but the connexion tent and magnificence usually ascribed to the city of supposed between these and the corn-fields and Babylon, Mr. Ainsworth makes the following ob- gardens, within the common precincts of a wall, is servations:

gratuitous in the extreme. Imagine London and The great question which has occupied historians in con- Paris to be levelled, and the inhabitant of some nexion with Babylon is, whether the account given of its future city to visit their ruins, as those of then size and magnificence by the ancient profane writers, in remote antiquity; if in the one instance Sèvres, some cases supposed to have been eye-witnesses of its

Mont Rouge, and Vincennes, or in the other Greenglory and splendour, are not exaggerated. There has been wich, Stratford-le-Bow, Tottenham, Highgate, Hamthe customary abuse of the standard of, measurement mersmith, Richmond, and Clapham, be taken in as amongst classical authors, and the same difficulty of reconciliation left to the modernst.

boundaries, or identified respectively as the ruins of But in this question, a great elementary principle those cities gain in the eyes of futurity!

Paris and London, what a prodigious extent would has been hitherto entirely lost sight of. The cities of the earliest races of mankind were not, as in

Like other great cities in the East, the great Babel modern times, vast and crowded congregations of was, in the lapse of time, known by different names, houses, built side by side in compact and extensive

and, ultimately, subdivided into various parts. masses, but each dwelling had its garden, pasture, been separated from the mother-city, if indeed it

The first quarter of Babylon that appears to have and tillage-lands surrounding it, the whole being was not originally distinct, was that on the west enclosed by a wall. This fact at once reduces the wonder often evinced at the vast space occupied by The word “ Birs," as applied to this mound or ruin,

side of the river, and contains the Birs Nimrood. many ancient cities of the East. In the centre of

cannot be satisfactorily explained in Arabic, as a the vast enclosure, or in some conspicuous part, were

derivative of that language ; and it would appex, the residences of the authorities, the chief of whom was already called king; here also was the temple Chaldaic tongues have failed, as they are founded on

that all attempts to deduce it from the Hebrew or of their god, or the house of their captives, as at

a change of the radical letters. Babylon. There are abundant evidences that this was the fact in the two great cities of antiquity,–

It was from Birs, or Bursif, that the produce of the Babylon and Nineveh; of the former it is stated by The almost only remnant of Borsippa, probably the

Birsean looms--the cloth of Birs-derived its name. Curtius, that the intervals which separated the houses were sown and cultivated, to provide subsistence in temple of a national worship performed in high were sown and cultivated, to provide subsistence in places, one of which belonged to each Babylonian case of siege. A consideration of these circumstances does not, city, and to each quarter of Babylon itself, still pre

serves its ancient name. Birs Nimrood has been therefore, allow of any comparison between the population of a city of Assyria or Babylonia with the generally looked upon as the remnant of the great population of a modern city of equal extent. This pile of Babel, but it will appear much more probable is an element in all the pompous records of the past Borsippa, and one of the quarters of the Babylon of

to have belonged to the city of Birs, Bursif, or grandeur of Babel, which must not be lost sight of.

Herodotus. And even in reference to its boasted magnificence, the poetical character of Eastern writings, and the the capital of Aferadun, and one of the “ climates" of

Marudi, in his Universal History, mentions Babil

, remote periods to which they refer, must not be for the earth, so named from the name proper to one gotten in the overwhelming interest of the subject of its towns. This town is situated on both banks “The greatest cities of Europe," it has been said, of the canal, derived from the Frat in the province

give but a faint idea of the grandeur which all of Irak, one hour's journey from the city called Jisr historians unanimously ascribe to the famous city of Babil and the canal of Al Birs. Babylon;" and this opinion has been echoed by every lover of hoary antiquity. Then came the fulfilment its name, and to have received that of Nil. The

The quarter of Babel itself appears to have changed of its predicted destruction, and the glory of God mounds of Babel and the Mujaleba are nearly surappears to be enhanced in the eyes of man, by the rounded by two canals which bear that name in the magnitude of the object against which his anger was directed; but a knowledge of the real state and cir- the Frat as flowing to the city of Nil, and giving off

present day. Abulfeda described the main stream of cumstances of the great Eastern mart of iniquity, the canal of Nil, after which it is called the Nahr would probably show that mercý predominated over

Sirat. D'Anville also notices a town called Nilus, punishment. Some modern authorities have thought that they without having a definite idea of its position.

The square superficies of the mound of Babel is * It would be curious if, in the progress of commerce and civili- | 49,000 feet; its elevation at the south-east corner, zation, the neighbourhood of Babylon should again become the scene of princely mercantile traffic; it is described in the Revelations

64 feet. To the south of it is the Mujaleba, having as having once been (xviii. 12, 13), “ The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and only 28; beyond this again, the Amram ebn Ali


a square superficies of 120,000 feet, and a height of of vessels of ivory, and all manner of vessels of most precious wood, having an area of 104,000 feet, and an elevation of and of brass, and iron, and marble, and cinnamon, and odours, 23 feet. The Mujaleva has been read as if it were Maand ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine four, kalbid, from Kalba, “the overturned, or overthrown,"

+ Herodotus gives the extent of the walls of Babylon at 1:20 stades whereas a much nearer aslinity exists to Mujaleba, on each side, or 480 stades in circumference ; Diodorus 360 stades in plural of Jalib, the “ home of the captives," and not Curtius states it at 368 ; and Strabo at 385 stades. The general improbably the residence of the Israelites who mes approximation of these measurements would lead us to suppose that mained in Babylon. This version is favoured by the the same stade was used by the different reporters, and if this was the Greek Itinerary stade, we inay estimate the chrcumference of the

name of Heroot and Maroot also given to the mouny great city at twenty-five British miles,

by the natives, from a tradition that near the foot of

the ruin there is an invisible pit, where D'Herbelot DEPENDANCE OF MAN UPON HIS CREATOR.' relates that the rebellious people were hung with For the continuance of life a thousand provisions are made. their heels upward, "until the day of judgment. If the vital actions of a man's frame were directed by his The Kasr, or palace, is a mound of about 700 yards will, they are necessarily so minute and complicated, that in length and breadth. Its moulded bricks, orna- they would immediately fall into confusion. He cannot

draw a breath without the exercise of sensibilities as well mented with inscriptions, and its glazed and coloured

ordered as those of the eye or ear. A tracery of nervous tiles, added to the sculptures that have been found

cords unites many organs in sympathy, of which, if one thcre, speak of its importance, and have led to its

filament were broken, pain, and spasm, and suffocation, being generally looked upon as the eastern and the would ensue. The action of his heart, and the circulation largest of the palaces of the Babylonian monarch, of his blood, and all the vital functions, are governed through renowned for its sloping gardens.

means and by laws which are not dependant on his will, Between the Kasr and the Amram there is every

and to which the powers of his mind are altogether inadeprobability the Euphrates once flowed, where the

quate. For, had ihey been under the influence of his will,

a doubt, a moment's pause of irresolution, a forgetfulness subaquatic tunnel of Semiramis may have existed,

of a single action at its appointed time, would have termiand where quays lined the banks at the time Alex

nated his existence ander was carried over during his last illness.

Now when man sees that his vital operations could not The Amram ebn Ali (so called from a son of Ali,) be directed by reason, that they are constant, and far too has been more generally, and with probably a greater

important to be exposed to all the changes incident to his degree of plausibility, identified with the western

mind, and that they are given up to the direction of other palace. It is surrounded by ridges or mounds of

sources of motion than the will, he acquires a full sense of

his dependance. If man be fretful and wayward, and subramparts which were the defence of this large space,

ject to inordinate passion, we perceive the benevolent deand of all the establishments it contained.

sign in withdrawing the vital motions from the influence The fourth quarter of Babel is marked in its cen. of such capricious sources of action, so that they may neitral space by the mound of Al Heimar or Hámir, an ther be disturbed like his moral actions, nor lost in a moisolated eminence once having a superficies of 16,000

ment of despair. feet, and an elevation of 44 feet, with a ruin on the

When man thus perceives that in respect to all these

vital operations he is more helpless than the infant, and summit eight feet high. Its modern name is derivable

that his boasted reason can neither give them order nor profrom the Arabic root hamarú,to be, or become red,” tection, is not his insensibility to the Giver of these secret denoting the red mass or ruin on the summit: endowments worse than ingratitude ? In a rational creaAlhambra, one of the four wards of Grenada, was ture, ignorance of his condition becomes a species of ingraalso so called from the red colour of the materials of

titude: it dulls his sense of benefits, and hardens him into its buildings.

a temper of mind with which it is impossible to reason, and from which no improvement can be expected. — BELL.



That is not home, where day by day
I wear the busy hours away;
That is not liome, where lonely night
Prepares me for the toils of light;
'Tis hope, and joy, and memory, give
A home in which the heart can live:
These walls no lingering hopes endear,
No fond remembrance chains me here.
Cheerless I heave the lonely sigh-
Eliza, canst thou tell me why?
'Tis where thou art, is home to me,
And home without thee cannot be.
There are who strangely love to roam,
And find in wildest haunts their home;
And some in halls of lordly state,
Who yet are homeless, desolate.
The sailor's home is on the main,
The warrior's, on the tented plain,
The maiden's, in her bower of rest,
The infant's, on his mother's breast;
But where thou art, is home to me,
And home without thee cannot be.
There is no home in halls of pride,
They are too high, and cold, and wide.
No home is by the wanderer found ;
'Tis not in place; it hath no bound,
It is a circling atmosphere
Investing all the heart holds dear;
A law of strange attractive force,
That holds the feelings in their course.
It is a presence undefined,
O'er-shadowing the conscious mind,
Where love and duty sweetly blend
To consecrate the name of friend;
Where'er thou art, is home to me,
And home without thee cannot be.-CONDER.

What different ideas are formed in different nations con-
cerning the beauty of the human shape and countenance !
A fair complexion is a shocking deformity on the coast of
Guinea ; thick lips and a flat nose are a beauty. In some
nations, long ears that hang down upon the shoulders, are
the objects of universal admiration. In China, if a lady's foot
is so large as to be fit to walk upon, she is regarded as a
monster of ugliness. Some of the savage nations in North
America tie four boards round the heads of their children,
and thus squeeze them, while the bones are tender and
gristly, into a form that is almost perfeetly square. Euro-
peans are astonished at the absurd barbarity of this prac-
tiee, to which some missionaries have imputed the singular
stupidity of those nations among whom it prevails; but
when they condemn those savages, they do not reflect that
the ladies in England had, till within these very few years,
been endeavouring, for near a century past, to squeeze the
heautiful roundness of their natural shapes into a square
form of the same kind.-Smith.
MANKIND have a great aversion to intellectual labour, but
eren supposing knowledge to be easily attainable, more
people would be content to be ignorant than would take
even a little trouble to acquire it. —JOHNSON.

Though we seem grieved at the shortness of life in general, we are wishing every period of it at an end. The minor longs to be of age, then to be a man of business, then to make up an estate, then to arrive at honours, then to retire. —Spectator


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