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SCEPTRE WITH DOVE.

CHAPTERS ON CORONATIONS.

Two sceptres, weighing 1802., 601.
No. III.

Two sceptres, one sett with pearles and stones, the upper

end gould, the lower end silver. The other silvar gilt, with THE REGALIA, 2.

a dove, formerly thought gould, 651. 16s. 10d. There is some reason to believe that King Alfred's crown was preserved in England until the time of the Commonwealth, for in the inventory of “ that part of the Regalia which are now removed from Westminster to the Tower Jewel House," we find the following The sceptre is placed in the king's right hand, and entry : “King Alfred's crowne, of gould wyerworke, in his left, during the ceremony of investiture, he sett with slight stones, and two little bells, p. oz. 79}, takes the VIRGE, or rod, which is carried before him at 31. per ounce, 2481. 10s. Od.” The purpose of such in the concluding procession. The distinction bestrange appendages as the bells is a matter not very tween the sceptre and the rod is that the former is easy to discover, and the conclusion of the inventory surmounted by a cross, and the latter by a dore. puts an end to all conjecture, for, after enumerating This distinction is of very ancient date, and we find the various antique regalia, and reciting their value, that it was observed in the ceremonial of the corowe find the Vandal record : “ All these, according to nation of Richard the First. The virge of the Eng. order of parliament, are broken and defaced.” lish sovereign is of gold, richly adorned with precious

The other crowns destroyed at this time are thus stones; at the top is a globe and cross, surmounted enumerated in the inventory :

with a dove enamelled white, and the globe is surThe imperiall crowne of massy gold, weighing 7lb. 6oz., rounded with a circle of rose diamonds. valued at 1,1101. Os. Od.

The queen-consort's virge is made of irory, garThe queen's crowne of massy gold, weighing 3lb. 100z., nished with gold, and surmounted by a dove enamvalued at 3381. 35. 4d.

elled white; it is rather more than a yard in length. A small crowne found in an iron chest, formerly in the Lord Cottington's charge, [it was the crown of Edward the Sixth,] of the which the gold, 731. 165. 8d. And the diamonds, rubies, &c., 3551. Os. Od.

QUEEN'S VIRGE, on ivory ROD. Queen Edith's crowne, formerly thought to be of massy

In the year 1814 another virge was found at the gould, but upon triall found to be of silver gilt, enriched

Jewel Office in the Tower, covered with dust, and with garnetts, foule pearle, saphires, and some odd stones,

bidden on a back-shelf. It was supposed to have p. oz. 504, valued at 161. 08. Od.

been used at the coronation of William and Mary, when both the king and queen were invested with

sovereign power. KING'S SCEPTRE, WITH CROSS. The SCEPTRE Royal, which the sovereign bears in the right hand, is made of gold, and is two feet nine inches in length : it is richly adorned with precious

ST. EDWARD'S STAFF. stones, and the top rises into a fleur de lis of six St. EDWARD'S STAFF, which is carried before the leaves, three of which are erect and three pendent; sovereign in the procession which precedes the coruout of this flower arises a mound formed of a large nation, is a staff or sceptre of gold, four feet eleven amethyst, garnished with precious stones, and upon inches in length, having a foot of steel about four the mound is a cross pattée of jewels, with a large inches in length, with a mound and cross at the top; diamond in the midst.

the ornaments are of gold, and the diameter of it is The sceptre is a more ancient emblem of royal upwards of three-quarters of an inch. dignity than the crown itself. Homer makes it the The following is an account of the virges or rods only cognizance of the Grecian kings; and the his- destroyed, with the rest of the Regalia, in the time torian Justin declares that the ancient kings of Rome of the Commonwealth :used no other ensign of royalty.

The Greek poets A long rodd of silver gilt, ilb 5oz., 41. 10s. 8d. describe the gods as bearing sceptres to indicate their One staff of black and white ivory, with a dove on the empire, and declares that an oath taken on the sceptre top, with binding and foote of gould, 41. 108. Od. was the most solemn that could be sworn. In Jacob's

A large staff, with a dove on ye top, formerly thought to remarkable prediction of the Messiah, we find the wood within, and silver gilt without, weighing in all 27

be all gould; but upon triall found to be the lower part sceptre specifically mentioned as the emblem of regal ounces, valued at 351. os. Öd. power : “ the sceptre shall not depart from Judah, One small staff, with a floure de luce on the topp, tornor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh merly thought to be all of gould, but upon triall found to come.” Justin tells us that among the Romans the

be iron within and silver gilt without, 21. 10s. Od. sceptre was originally a spear; but the sceptres

A dove of gould, sett with stones and pearles, p. oz. 84 described by Homer were simply long walking-staves,

ounces, in a box sett with studds of silver gilt, 261. Gs. Od. designed to show that the monarchs ruled by acknow.

The ORB, Mound, or Globe, which is put into ledged right, and not by force. Le Gendre tells us

the sovereign's hand immediately that in the first race of the French kings the sceptre before the crown is placed upon was a golden rod, almost always of the same height his head, and is borne in the as the king who bore it, and crooked at one end, like left hand during the subsequent a crosier or pastoral staff.

procession, is a ball of gold, of The queen-consort's sceptre in England is formed six inches diameter, encompassed like the king's, but it is shorter.

with a band of the same, embel-
lished with roses of diamonds,
encircling other precious stones,

and edged about with pearl. On
QUEEN'S SCEPTRE.

the top is a very large amethyst, In the inventory of the Regalia destroyed in the of a violet and purple colour, near time of the Commonwealth, we find the following an inch and a half in height, of entries of sceptres :

an oval form, and being encom

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passed with four silver wires, becomes the pedestal 2. CURTANA, or the pointless Sword of Mercy, is of a splendid cross of gold, of three inches and a the principal in dignity of the three swords which quarter in height, and three inches in breadth, set are borne naked before the sovereign at the coronavery close with diamonds, having in the middle, a tion. Mr. Arthur Taylor, in his “Glory of Regality," sapphire on one side, and an emerald on the other. derives its name from that wielded by Ogier the It is also embellished with four large pearls in the Dane, in the romances of chivalry; however that angles of the cross, near the centre, and three more may be, it is certain that a sword named Curtana, or at the end of it. The whole height of the orb and Curtein, formed a part of the English Regalia from cross is cleven inches. There is another globe among very ancient times, for Matthew Paris informs us the crown jewels, which was made for the coronation that a sword of that name was carried at the coroof William and Mary, but it is not now used at the nation of Henry the Third, by the Earl of Chester. coronation of queens consort.

(A. D. 1236.) In the same way, a sword called The orb or globe was assumed as a cognizance by Joyeuse, supposed to have belonged to the Emperor the Emperor Augustus ; it was sometimes called an Charleniagne, was always displayed at the coronation apple, and sometimes a hill, but in all cases it was regarded as the symbol of universal dominion. The cross was added to the globe by Constantine, the first Christian emperor. Suidas, describing the statue of the Emperor Justinian, says, “ In his left hand he held a globe in which a cross was fixed, which showed of the kings of France. Curtana is a broad bright that by faith in the cross he was emperor of the sword, the length of the blade is about thirty-two earth. For the globe denotes the earth, which is of inches, and the breadth almost two inches; the like form, and the cross denotes faith, because God handle, which is covered with fine gold wire, is four in the flesh was nailed to it."

inches long, and the pommel, an inch and threeThe globe and cross were first introduced as en

quarters; which, with the cross, is plain and steel signs of imperial authority in western Europe by gilt: the length of the cross is eight inches nearly. Pope Benedict the Eighth, who gave them to the The scabbard belonging to it is covered with a rich Emperor Henry the Second. The combined orna

brocaded cloth of tissue, and studded with gilt ment was called, “ The Imperial Apple," and at the

ornaments. coronation of the emperors of Germany, it was borne

3. The Sword OF SPIRITUAL Justice is pointed, on the right hand of the emperor, by the Count but somewhat obtuse; the length of the blade is Palatine of the Rhine.

THE CURTANA.

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forty inches, and the breadth an inch and a half. The pommel, handle, cross, and scabbard, are precisely similar to those of Curtana.

4. The SWORD OF JUSTICE OF THE TEMPORALITY is sharp-pointed; the length of the handle is four

SWORD OF THE TEMPORALITY

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CREAT SEAL OF ENIY TIE FIRST

inches, the pommel an inch and three-quarters, and the cross seven inches and a half. The scabbard is in all respects similar to that of Curtana.

The sovereign's CoronATION Ring, called by some Almost all the English kings from Edward the

ancient writers, “ The wedding-ring of England," is Confessor, have the globe in their left hand on their colour, on which a plain cross, or cross of St. George,

of pure gold, with a large table ruby, of a violet coins or seals, as shown in the above engraving is beautifully enchased. and it seems also to have been frequently so placed

The coronation ring of the when sovereigns lay in state after their decease.

Four Swords are used at the coronation of a British sovereign. 1. THE SWORD OF STATE, which is a large two-banded sword, having a splendid scabbard of crimson velvet, decorated with gold plates of the royal badges in the following order. At the

KING'S RINGS.

QUEEN'S RING. point is the orb or mound, then the royal crest of a lion standing on an imperial crown ; lower down are queen consort is likewise gold, with a large table a portcullis, harp, thistle, fleur de lis, and rose ; ruby set therein, and sixteen other small rubies set nearer the bilt the portcullis is repeated; next are round about the ring; of which those next to the the royal arms and supporters; and lastly, the harp, setting are the largest, the rest diminishing in prothistle, &c., over again. The handle and pommel of portion. Investiture by the ring, was the most anthe sword are embossed with similar devices in silver cient form of conferring dignity; it was by this gilt, and the cross is formed of the royal supporters, ceremony that Pharaoh created Joseph his viceroy the lion and the unicorn, having a rose within a over Egypt; it was also a Persian custom, as we laurel between them on one side, and a fleur de lis have already noticed, and we find many traces of it similarly encircled on the other.

in the history of the Anglo-Saxons.

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The legend of the Coronation Ring is not less sin- THE TURNIP-FLY, (Athalia centifolia.) gular than that of the Ampulla. It is said that King The following is a more detailed description of the Edward the Confessor was met by an old man who little insect already noticed *. Mr. Yarrell has asked him for alms, and the charitable monarch, being described the hymenopterous insect, shown in the at the moment destitute of money, gave the suppliant engraving, as having proved equally injurious. The his ring. Soon afterwards, two English pilgrims in substance of the following account is extracted from Palestine having lost their way, were met at the ap. his valuable paper in the Transactions of the Zoolo proach of night by this same old man, who led them gical Society of London. After noticing the beetle into a certain magnificent city, which appears to have we have already described, he continues, been the New Jerusalem, the present existence of But the destroyer of a very large proportion of the which was a popular article of faith in the middle ages. turnip-crop, on the light and chalky soils of this country, The old man entertained them most hospitably, and during the last dry Summer, (1834,) is an insect of a gave them lodgings for the night.

In the morning

different kind, and one that happily does not make its he informed them that he was St. John the Evange

appearance in great numbers, except at wide intervals, and

during those seasons that are remarkable for the almost list, of whom it was believed by many of the ancient

total absence of rain. The first public notice I am fathers, that he was appointed to tarry on earth until

acquainted with on the subject of this particular insecta the second coming of the Lord Jesus. St. John told and the extent of the injury it inflicts, is in the Transacthe pilgrims, that it was to him in person that the tions of the Royal Society for 1783, in which W. Marshall

, Confessor had given the ring, and he sent it back by Esq., an agriculturist in Norfolk, details at some length the them to the king, with a promise that divine grace

particulars of the appearance of the turnip-fly during 1782. should encircle every British sovereign who was in- In that year many thousands of acres were vested with this ring at the coronation. The sacred ploughed up, and the season was too far advanced ring was long preserved at the shrine of St. Edward, to attempt the growth of a second crop. and only brought out at the time of a coronation. It It was observed (says Mr. Marshall,) in the canker-year deserves to be remarked, that legends of the appear- above mentioned, that prior to the appearance of the caterance of St. John continued to be told so late as the pillars, great numbers of yellow flies were seen busy among reign of Henry the Eighth ; his last visitation was the turnip-plants, and it was then suspected that the canker to the King of Scotland, James the Fourth : the

was the caterpillar state of the yellow-tly. Since that time

it has been remarked, that cankers have regularly followed appearance of the evangelist is thus described by

the appearance of these flies. From their more frequently Pitscottie, whose language we have slightly mo. appearing on the sea-coast, and from the vast quantities dernized.

which have I believe been observed, at different times, on He was a man, clad in a blue gown, and belted about the beach washed up by the tide, it has been a received him in a roll of linen cloth; a pair of buskins on his feet, opinion among the farmers, that they are not natives of this to the great of his legs, with all other hose and clothes con

country but come across the ocean, and observations this form thereto; but he had nothing on his head save hair of year greatly corroborate the idea. Fishermen upon the a reddish yellow behind, and the same on his cheeks, which

eastern coast declare, that they actually saw them alight in went down to his shoulders ; but his forehead was bald

cloud-like flights; and from the testimony of many, it and bare. He seemed to be a man about fifty-two years

seems to be an indisputable fact, that they first make their old, and he carried a great pikestaff in his hand.

appearance upon the eastern coast, and moreorer, that, on their first being observed, they lie upon and near the cliffs

, so thick and so languid, that they might be collected into heaps, lying, it is said, in some places two inches thick; from thence they proceeded into the country, and even at the distance of three or four miles from the coast they were seen in multitudes resembling a swarm of bees.

From whatever source these insects first reached this country, there is little doubt of their being at the present time naturalized.

Early in July, 1835, the yellow fly was again seen in abundance upon the young turnips, and it was recollected by some that this was the fly which prevailed also in the year 1818, and which was followed by the caterpillar, which ihey knew by the name of the blacks. Another observer

said, “It is of no use hoeing these turnips, for I perceive The Spurs, called the great golden spurs, are

this year a lly which is the fore-runner of the nigger elaborately wrought, both round the outer edge, and caterpillar. at the buckle and fastenings. They have no rowels,

These predictions were soon verified. The female but end in an ornamented point, being of that kind fly, by means of a delicately serrated instrument which are denominated prick spurs. It is sufliciently under the tail, is enabled to make a small aperture notorious, that putting on the gilded spurs, was the on the under-surface of the leaf of the turnip, in ancient investiture of knighthood, just as the hacking which she deposits a single egg, and each female prothem off was the legitimate form of degradation. duces and deposits in different places about twenty of

The ARMILLÆ, or bracelets, are of solid gold, and these eggs. In eight or ten days the eggs are open by a hinge for the purpose of being placed upon hatched, and the dark-coloured caterpillars crawl the wrist. They are an inch and a half in breadth, forth, and commence the work of destruction, by and two inches in diameter, and are adorned with feeding voraciously on the soft part of the leaf of chasings of the rose, thistle, harp, and fleur de lis, the turnip, leaving the fibres untouched; after a few emblematical of England, Scotland, Ireland, and days they cast their black skins, and then assume France; the edges are also garnished with pearls. one of a more slaty or gray appearance; they still These ornaments are not now employed in the coro- continue, however, to feed on the leaves, passing nation, and we shall see in a subsequent chapter, that from one to another. The destruction is complete; the service appropriated to the bracelets, has been by a whole field, in a very short time, presenting only au some strange blunder, transferred to the Armil, or assemblage of skeleton-like leaves, and this too even Stole.

when the turnip has attained a considerable size. The

See Saturday Magazine, Vol. VII., p. 181.

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caterpillar having passed through this feeding-stage the water were three or four inches higher near one of its existence, buries itself in the ground, where it end of the cistern than near the other : there would forms for itself a strong oval cocoon. Some of the be a larger amount of water, a greater number of early broods very rapidly enter their last stage of particles pressing on the bottom of the cistern at the existence, and appear as the little fly, represented in former part than at the latter. Each particle presses the engraving.

on that which is beneath it; and as there would be a loftier column of particles at one part of the cistern than at another, those particles which are near the bottom of the heavier column would press on those that surround them, and force them upwards ; in order, in fact, to allow room for themselves to escape from some of the pressure which they experience. There continues to be this pressure until the surface is level in every part, when, as all parts of the liquid

near the bottom are equally pressed, no one can The fly itself is about a quarter of an inch in yield to another, and they all remain in equilibrium,

(a word which means equal-balanced). length, the breadth of the wings extended, about twothirds of an inch; the larva, or caterpillar, is from

It appears, therefore, that as soon as the surface of half an inch to five-eighths in length.

a liquid becomes, from any cause, out of the level Although this insect only attacks the leaf, the turnip place, and does not cease until the level is again

direction, a commotion and a kind of struggle takes itself becomes pithy, and of comparatively little value. attained. There is a very pretty experiment which

of the degree of success which attended the various shows this tendency of liquids to maintain a perfect remedial measures adopted, I possess but little precise information. On a former visitation of this insect in the level, and to descend whenever an opportunity offers county of Kent, some farmers it is stated, saved those fields for so doing. Fig. 1 represents in which the injury had scarcely begun by turning in the section of a vessel or basin, Fig. 1. hundreds of ducks, a boy going before them with a long which exhibits the paradoxical pole, brushing the caterpillars off the leaves of the plants; property of never becoming full, and it is added, it was an amusing sight to observe the however much water may be ducks waddling after their courier, and devouring the insects with avidity, eyeing both sides of every leaf, lest poured into it. The vessel looks they should miss such palatable morsels. A heavy roller neither like a sieve nor a cullenpassed over the ground in the evening, when the cater- der: no holes can be seen in it, pillars were at their feed, was another remedy resorted to. and no water is seen to flow from But that which was considered the most effectual, was the it. A little inspection of its construction will, howstrewing of quick-lime by broad-cast over the ground, and

ever, enable us to solve this riddle. It may be seen renewing it when dispersed by the wind; by this means I was told one field of turnips, near Dover, was saved, though that the vessel is sufficiently thick to have a groove surrounded by others which suffered severely, where no

or channel cut in it. At the bottom of the vessel at such preventative was employed.

a, there is a small opening, which leads into a chan nel ascending to the point b, and from thence

descending to the point c, where it is enclosed in the RECREATIONS IN NATURAL PHILOSOPHY. | foot or stand of the vessel, which is hollow. Now No. II.

when water is poured into this vessel, some of it

enters the little channel at a, and ascends as fast THE LEVEL SURFACES OF LIQUIDS.

as more water is poured into the vessel. Just before There is not presented to us in the whole range of the vessel is quite full, the water ascends to that part our experience, any instance of a level surface more of the channel which begins to turn downwards, perfect than the general surface of a liquid. A still and immediately on attaining that level, the water lake or pond, or the water in our cisterns and water-flows down the outer channel as fast as it is poured jugs, are all equally level at the surface. They into the vessel, provided that it be not done too require none of man's agency to make them so, for quickly. There is a conveyance for carrying off the they become so whether he wills it or not. We take water from the lower cistern at c, by a concealed pipe, advantage of this property to assist us in determining not shown in the figure. the level of a piece of ground in surveying. A Here then we have an instance of the tendency of bubble of air is enclosed in a tube, containing a water to keep a constant level, whether it branch out liquid ; and the surveyor places the tube horizontally, into two or three streams, or remain in one body. and knows when it is quite level by observing that the water ascends in the narrow channel just as fast the bubble of air is in the middle of the length of the as in the broad open part of the vessel ; and when it tube. The liquid has then no tendency to drive the arrives at the level of the bend in the channel, instead air-bubble in one direction more than another, and of rising still higher in the vessel, it turns into the therefore the bubble remains in the middle, from descending part of the channel, and so flows out. which circumstance the surveyor knows that any piece This property has been made the ground-work of of wood or other surface, on which the tube is resting an amusing experiment. Fig. 2 is a philosophical is level. This tube he calls a spirit-level. The liquid toy, called the Cup of Tantalus. A

Fig. 2. employed in the tube is usually coloured spirit, be little figure of a man or boy is sitcause pure spirit, or alcohol, is never frozen, however ting in the cup, and his face is great the cold may be to which it is exposed.

made to express great anxiety to The reason of this perfect level, to which the sur- obtain something to drink, but face of a liquid attains, is, that liquids, like every that he can never obtain.

If we other body, tend towards the centre of the earth ; and pour water into the cup, it will that as the particles of water move freely among rise just to the level of his chin, themselves, any unequal pressure is soon communi- but no higher, and the little marcated to surrounding parts. Suppose now that we tyr to thirst is obliged to keep his had a large cistern of water, and that the surface of lips dry whether he will or no.

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The mystery is ingenious, and is very similar to the If the tube be half an inch in diameter, whatever experiment which we last described. A double tube weight of water there may be in the tube, as many passes through the body of the figure, having an times that pressure will be exerted on the inner surascending part, whose mouth is within the cup, and face of the upper board of the bellows, as there are communicating with the water, and a descending part, circular half inches in the surface of that board; it whose mouth, M, is concealed in the hollow, Dc, of is on this account that such a small quantity of the vessel. When the water is poured into the vessel, water in the tube will exert such an enormous presit ascends the tube in the interior of the figure ; but sure within the bellows. But we have now to menas the tube bends downwards, when it reaches the tion a very remarkable extension of this law. If the level of the chin of the figure, no sooner does the tube contain air instead of water, and if that air can water in the vessel reach that level than it begins to be made to press with more than its usual force on descend the tube to m, and so escapes; leaving the the water beneath, the water will be forced up against head of the figure quite un

the upper board, and will raise it, just the same as if touched by the water. The tube

Fig. 3.

the tube contained water. This truth is shown in a in the figure being very small,

striking manner. A man stands upon the upper its course cannot well be traced ;

board of the bellows, and applying his mouth to the but the subjoined figure (fig. 3,)

top of the tube, blows down through it; and as he will show the principle more

does so, the board on which he stands rises gradually clearly. The shorter leg of the

upward, lifting him at the same time. It has a very bent tube is open to the water,

uncommon effect to see a man raise himself by blowand when the latter ascends to

ing through a tube. The explanation is this : by the level of the bend in the tube,

blowing forcibly into the tube, he adds to the air it flows over that bend, and escapes at the exterior already existing in the tube an additional quantity mouth of the tube.

from his own lungs, so that a large quantity of air is The strong tendency of water to maintain a con. confined in a small space, Whenever this occurs, stant level at different parts of its surface is strikingly the air exerts a powerful pressure; and in this inshown in a piece of mechanism, called the Hydrostatic stance the pressure is felt by the water beneath, Bellows. The experiment is sometimes called the which is forced up against the upper board of the Hydrostatic Paradox, from the strange result at bellows, in the same manner as when the tube conwhich we arrive. Fig. 4 represents

tained water instead of air. Fig. 4.

This power of raising a two boards, connected by edges of

great weight by a small pressure, has caused this exleather, which admit of the boards

periment to be called the hydrostatic parador : the being separated more or less from each

term hydrostatic being applied to anything which other, much in the some manner as

relates to the pressure and equilibrium of liquids. the two boards of a pair of bellows.

If a water-butt with a tight-fitting cover be comThe leather sides are perfectly water

pletely full of water, and a tall tube be fixed in the tight at their connexion with the

top of the butt, and the pipe be filled with water so boards. A small hole is made in the

as to form a communication with the water in the upper board, and into this a pipe is

butt, the butt will burst asunder with great violence fixed, which ascends to some height.

by the pressure of the water contained in the pipe. When the apparatus contains nothing

When water confined in one vessel can communibut air, the upper board almost rests

cate with water confined in another vessel, a pressure upon the lower, as the leather sides

exerted upon any part of the water is transmitted form into a number of folds. When

throughout the whole of the liquid. water is poured down the tube it en

Thus in fig. 5, the vessel n contains ters between the boards, and gradually

another vessel K within it, the bottom lifts up the upper one, notwithstanding

of which, v v, is not fixed, but simply the large surface of the board com

suspended. If into the neck of the pared with the small diameter of the

outer vessel we attach firmly a tube pipe. Suppose, for instance, that the

N', and pour water into it so as to fill tube becomes half-full of water, while

N and K, and a portion of the tube a portion also is situated in the bel

above i, considerable pressure will be lows; the surface of the water in the tube is at a exerted upon the water in the two higher level than the surface of that in the bellows; vessels, but it will be equal in both, and thus arises that pressure and forcible straining and so equally distributed, that if the after equality of position, to which we lately alluded. bottom y v of the inner vessel be supBut so long as the upper board remains in one posi

ported only by slight threads or horse-hair, it will not tion, that adjustment cannot take place; accordingly, be detached from K; the reason is, that the down. the water in the tube, by pressing on the water in ward pressure is counteracted by the upward pressure the bellows, makes the latter press upward against the and these two forces destroy each other. upper board, and urges it up with great force, insomuch that a few ounces of water in the tube will raise, not only the upper board of the bellows, but several heavy weights placed upon it. If the pipe Without reason, as on a tempestuous sca, we are the were half an inch in diameter, and the boards of the sport of every wind and wave, and know not, till the bellows were two feet square, and if half a pint of event hath determined it, how the next billow will dispose

of us; whether it will dash us against a rock, or drive us water were poured into the tube, the water would

into a quiet harbour. — LUCAS. raise the upper board with upwards of a thousand pounds weight pressing upon it. It is true that the distance through which this enormous weight would

LONDON: be lifted is not above a thirty-sixth part of an inch ; JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. but the fact, that it will be raised even that small PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLY PARTH amount, is sufficiently remarkable,

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