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THE TRUFFLE, (Tuber cibarium).
CORONATION ANECDOTES. No. IV. The Truffle is a species of the fungous or mush
EDWARD III. room tribe, well known as an article of luxury, when On the deposition of Edward II., his
Prince employed in the preparation of made-dishes. The Edward, was brought to a general assembly of the Truffle grows beneath the surface of the earth, and
nobles and clergy in the abbey church of Westminster, has no appearance of a root; its form is that of an
on the 20th of January, 1327, and Walter Raynold, irregular globe, covered with small rounded promi- taking for his text the old aphorism,“ Vox populi, vox nences ;
its substance varies in colour from white to grayish, marbled, and brown ; its smell is powerful exhorted all present to choose the young prince for
Dei, (The voice of the people is the voice of God,) and pleasant, and it is considered a great delicacy. Truffles are found in most of the temperate climates
their sovereign. All assented; but the prince himself of the Old World, and also in North America. In had been voluntarily resigned by his father. The con
declared that he would not accept the crown until it Piedmont, and in some parts of France, they are met with in great abundance. In France they are
sent of the deposed monarch was easily obtained, and chiefly found in forests among oak and chestnut- Edward, having been previously knighted by the Earltrees. In England Truffles are found chiefly in the of Lancaster, assisted by the Count of Hainault, chalky districts of Sussex, Hampshire and Wilt- received the crown from the hands of the archbishop sbire.
of Canterbury, on the following feast of the PurificaThe search after Truffles takes place from the tion of the Blessed Virgin. The only remarkable month of October to January, when they are in the circumstance, connected with this coronation, was the greatest perfection. Dogs are usually trained for this detestable hypocrisy of the queen dowager, Isabelle, purpose, but in France it seems pigs are often em- who, though she had been the principal cause of the ployed, the fondness of these animals for this fungus late king's deposition, affected to weep during the rendering them good judges of its locality; but in entire ceremony. this case great vigilance is necessary on the part of A remarkable coronation medal was struck on this the Truffle-hunter, for the pig, in its cagerness to occasion; on one side the young prince was repreobtain the Truffle, is apt to crush it, and render it sented crowned, laying his sceptre on a heap of hearts,
unfit for market ; on this account the dog is best, with the motto, POPULO DAT JURA VOLENTES," (He not being so much more docile.
gives laws to a willing people,) and on the other was a The soil in which the Truffles are found, is loose, hand held out to save a falling crown, with the motto, moist, gravelly earth, where they grow as near as
“NON RAPIT SED RECIPIT,” (He seizes not, but receives.) three or four inches beneath the surface; the ground
Philippa, queen of Edward III., was crowned on above them is generally bare, and returns a dull or hollow sound when struck. 'It has been remarked Quinquagesima Sunday, February 18, 1330; but no as a singular fact, that the more numerous the Truf particulars are recorded. files are in any place, the larger they are. When
RICHARD II. Truffles have reached maturity they split in all direc- The coronation of this king was more magnificent tions and fall to pieces, forming a soft moist mass, than any of the preceding, and we have in Prynne a from which the young Truffles spring.
perfect copy of the ritual used upon the occasion. It Many agriculturists have endeavoured to form also affords us the first record of the Court of Claims, artificial Truffle-beds, but the experiment has met
which was holden by John of Gaunt, duke of Lanwith such indifferent success, that it is said only one
caster. The following extract from the record in experiment proved even the possibility of the thing.
Speed's Chronicle will show the nature of the proThe Truffle is cooked in various ways, being broiled on the coals, cut up into
salad, used like the ceedings : “John, the king's eldest uncle, under the
style of John, king of Castile and Leon, and duke of mushroom, as seasoning, and stewed in wine, &c.
Lancaster, by humble petition to the king, claimed to be now steward of England, in right of his earldome of Leicester; and, as he was duke of Lancaster, to beare the king's chief sword, called Curtana ; and, as earle of Lincolne, to cut and carve before the king. His petitions being found just were confirmed to him, and to his assigns, the two earles of Derby and Stafford, the first to beare the sword, while the duke should be busied about other offices as steward, and the other to cut and
The duke then, in great estate, held this, the king's high court of stewardship, in the Whitehall of the king's pallace at Westminster, neere to the chappell of the said palace, upon the Thursday before the coronation, which was also upon a Thursday. Then Thomas of Woodstocke, the king's uncle, was admitted to exercise the office of constable of England, in right of his
wife, one of the daughters and heirs of Humfrey de The mode in which the Trume increases is rather singular. Fig. 1 represents this fungus in a perfect land. Henry de Percy was, by the king's consent and
Bohun, late earle of Hereford, and constable of Engstate; if allowed to become ripe, and then cut open, 1 section of its substance will show the young Trutles writ, authorized to exercise the place of Marshall of in the interior, as seen in fig: 2. If it is not gathered right, for that by reason of the time's shortnesse, the
England for that time, saving to every one their own when ripe, the whole mass falls to pieces, the young claime which Margaret, daughter and heire to Thomas plants are at liberty, and for a time gather nourishment from the remains of their progenitor, and then,
of Brotherton, late earle of Norfolk and marshall of in their turn, increase, ripen, and decay.
England, laid thereunto, could not be discussed."
The procession of the king from the Tower to West
minster, on the day preceding the coronation, is thus In the name of God, Amen. We, John bishop of St. Asaph, described by Holinshed: “ The citie was adorned John abbot of Glastenbuire, Thomas earle of Glocester, Thomas
Lord Berkelie, William Thirning, justice, Thomas Erpingham, in all sorts most richlie. The water conduits ran with and Thomas Graie, knights, chosen and deputed special com. wine for the space of three hours together. In the missaries by the three states of this present parlement, repre. upper end of Cheape, was a certeine castell, made with senting the whole of the bodie of the realm, for all such matters foure towers, out of the which castell, on two sides of considering the manifold crimes, hurts, and harmes, done by
by the said estates to be committed : We, understanding and it, ran forth wine abundantly. In the towers were Richard king of England, and misgovernance of the same by a placed foure beautifull virgins, of stature and age like long time, to the great decaie of the said land, and utter ruine ui
the same shortlie to have beene, had not the speciall grace of our to the king, apparelled in white vestures, in every God thereunto put the sooner' remedie: and also furthermore tower one, the which blew in the king's face, at his adverting that the said Richard, by acknowledging luis owne approaching neere to them, leaves of gold; and as he insufficiencie, hath of his owne meere voluntie and free will approched also, they threw on him and his horsse, land, with all rights and honours unto the same belonging, and counterfeit florens of gold. When he was come before utterlie for his merits hath judged himselfe not unwortbilie to be the castell, they tooke cups of gold, and, filling them deposed of all kinglie maiestie and estate royall
. We, the with wine at the spouts of the castell
, presented the premisses well considering, by good and diligent deliberation, by
the power, name, and authoritie, to us (as is above said) com. same to the king and to his nobles. On the top of the mitted, pronounce, decerne, and declare, the same King Richard, castell, betwixt the foure towers, stood a golden angell, before this to have beene and to be, unprofitable, unable, insufi. holding a crowne in his hands, which was so contrived cient, and unworthic of the rule and governance of the foresaid
realms and lordships, and of all rights and other the appurte. that when the king came, he bowed downe, and offered nances to the same belonging. And for the same causes, we to him the crowne. But to spcake of all the pageants deprive him of all kinglie dignitie and worship, and of any and shewes, which the citizens had caused to be made, kinglie worship in himselfe. And we depose him by our sentence
definitive, forbidding expresselie to all archbishops and bishops, and set forth in honour of their new king, it were and all other prelates, dukes, marquesses, erles, barons, and superfluous, everie one in their quarters striving to knights, and all other men of the foresaid kingdome and lordships, surmount other; and so with great triumphing of citi- subjectes and lieges, whatsoever they be, that none of them from
this daie forward, to the foresaid Richard, as king and lord of zens, and joy of the lords and noblemen, he was con
the foresaid realmes and lordships, be neither obedient ne veied unto his palace at Westminster, where he rested attendant. for that night.”
This sentence having been solemnly read, was acThe ceremony of the coronation was so fatiguing, cepted by the parliament, and ordered to be entered on that Richard was obliged to be borne back to the palace the records of the realm. The same commissioners on knights' shoulders, where he rested awhile, and
were then appointed to wait upon the king the next took some slight refreshment. He then created four morning, and in the name of the three estates renounce earls and nine knights. Of the coronation-feast, Ho- their homage and fealty. When the sentence was thus
“ To show what roiall service was at this ratified, the duke of Lancaster arose, and read the feast, it passeth our understanding to describe; but to following challenge or claim to the crown, which was conclude, the fare was exceeding sumptuous, and the ordered to be recorded in the rolls of parliament: furniture princelie in all things, that if the same should
In the name of the Father, and of the Sonne, and of the be rehearsed, the reader would doubt the truth thereof. Holie Ghost. I, Henrie of Lancaster, claime the realme of In the midst of the king's pallace was a marble pillar, England, and the crowne with all the appurtenances
, as I that raised hollow upon steps, on the top whereof was a
am descended by right line of the blood, comming from that good
lord, King Henrie the Third ; and through the right that God of great gilt eagle placed, under whose feet in the chapiter his grace hath sent me, with the helpe of my kin and of my of the pillar, divers kinds of wine came gushing forth freends, to recover the same, which was in point to be undoone, for at foure several places all the daie long, neither was
default of good governance, and due justice. anie forbidden to receive the same, were he never so
To this claim the lords gave a tacit but unanimous poor or abiest.”
assent. The archbishop of Canterbury then stood up Anne, queen of Richard II., was crowned at West- and asked the commons, who then sat in the same minster by Archbishop Courtney, January 22nd, 1382, chamber with the peers, whether they also assented to as Holinshed says,
" with all the glorie and honour the duke's claim? He was answered by a shout of that might be devised.” He adds, “There were also approbation ; upon which he went to the duke, and holden, for the more honour of the same marriage, taking him by the right hand, led him, supported by solemn justes for certeyne daies togethir, in which as
the archbishop of York, to the throne. The archwell the Englishmen, as the new queene's countriemen, bishop of Canterbury then preached a sermon to the shewed proofe of their manhood and valiancie, whereby assembly, taking for his text 1 Samuel ix. 17, Vir praise and commendation of knightlie prowesse was dominabitur in populo: “This man shall rule over my achieved, not without damage of both the parties."
people." Thus splendidly began a reign, destinod to have a On Wednesday the 1st of October, the commisvery sad termination. In the 23rd year of his reig
sioners above named went to the Tower, and declared Richard was taken prisoner by his cousin the duke of to Richard that he had been deposed, and Henry Lancaster, and brought to London, where he was com- placed upon the throne. Then Justice Thirning, in mitted to the Tower, or else he would have been torn
the name of the rest, and for all the estates of the to pieces by those very citizens who had hailed his realm, renounced homage and fealty to Richard in coronation with such enthusiastic joy. Articles of solemn form. The unfortunate monarch wept bitterly impeachment were exhibited against him in parlia- while this degrading ceremony was performed, and ment, and commissioners appointed to examine the could not avoid reverting to the enthusiasm with which king on those charges. Richard prevented the neces- his coronation had been celebrated by all classes of his sity of a formal trial by a resignation, which, however,
subjects. could scarcely be called voluntary, and this being communicated to the parliament, commissioners were appointed to prepare and publish the sentence of the definitions of prose and poetry : that is, prose words in
I wish our clever young poets would remember my homely king's deposition. This very remarkable instrument is their best order; poetry = the best words in the best order. so little known, that we shall insert it.
THE USEFUL ARTS. No. XXXVIII. the metal between large iron rollers, turned by a steam-
engine. These rollers are set closer and closer together,
till the lead is reduced by rolling to the requisite degree of The slate used for roofing constitutes extensive strata thinness. By this process the lead is rendered more dense, among the primary rocks of the crust of the globe, and is and more equally so, than it ever is by simply casting; termed clay-slate. Its structure, scientifically called Schis. milled lead, consequently is more durable than the latter. tose, admits of its being split into thin laminæ, by means of It should be here noticed that lead, when it is used for wooden wedges. These laminæ are roughly squared by roofing, or for lining cisterns and gutters, is always laid on means of a pick, or hammer, at the quarry: they are then an uniform boarded surface, and not on battens or laths, sorted, according to their size and quality, and are brought like slate and tiles. to market under the quaint names of Imperial slates, Lead pipe is either formed by bending thin sheet lead Duchesses
, Countesses, &c., the former being the largest round a cylindrical mould, and soldering the joint, or when The principal British slate-quarries are situated in North the pipe is less than four or five inches in diameter, the Wales, and the best roofing-slates come from the cele- pipe is formed by casting a thick cylinder of lead with a brated vale of Festiniog.
small bore, and about five or six feet long. A long smooth Slates are laid on battens, or thin narrow deal boards, iron rod, a little larger than the bore of the cylinder, is which are nailed horizontally on the common rafters of the forced into this, and then the cylinder is gradually drawn roof
, at equal distances apart, which distance is governed by through a succession of circular holes, decreasing in diathe sized slate to be employed. An entire board is nailed meter, in a steel plate, by means of a powerful draw-mill, along the lowest edge of the roof to receive the lead of the worked by a steam-engine. The lead is by this process gutters
, which are first laid, and then the lowest course of extended out over the iron rod, which keeps the bore of the slates are nailed and pinned down to the lowermost batten; pipe of an equal diameter, and when the pipe is sufficiently so that two-thirds the length of the slate, at least, should lie reduced in thickness, the rod, or triblet, is forcibly drawn over the lead. The next course of slates is then fixed, so that out, and the pipe left with a smooth bore, ready for use. every slate shall overlap two-thirds the depth of the course When a roof is to be covered, or a cistern lined, with lead, below it, every slate being also laid over the joint, between the sheet of the metal is unrolled on a level floor, and two slates of th at undercourse. By this construction the made free from creases and undulations by beating them rain that runs through the joint between any two slates, is down with a heavy wooden flogger, like a roller with one kept from penetrating into the roof by being received on the flattened side, and a handle to it. The plumber then draws surface of the slate beneath that joint; and the bottom on the lead the form into which it must be cut to fit the course of slates is double, to continue the same principle surface it is intended to cover, and afterwards cuts through down to the lead gutter.
the lines described with a sharp strong knife. The piece is then rolled up again for facility of carriage, and raised by tackle into its intended situation, it being placed there so that when again unrolled, it may lie in the proper situation and position on the boarding. The sheet is then again beat out that by the flogger.
The next sheet being put into its place, and so that the edges of the two may overlap about one and a half or two inches, the workman proceeds to make the joint, or to solder the two sheets, together. The first step for this purpose is to scrape the two edges or borders of the sheets ihat are to come in contact quite clean and bright, with a tool constructed for this purpose, consisting of a small triangular bit of steel ground sharp at its edges,
and fastened at right angles on an iron sock i, fixed in a handle. When these borders of the lead are quite clean, they are painted over with black lead-paint, prevent their tarnishing, or oxidising again, as the solder will only adhere to a clean pure
metallic surface. The paint also serves as a flux to cause The slates are fixed to the battens by two copper nails and the solder and lead to melt together, and thus make a close
joint. a wooden pin when the work is well executed; holes being
Plumbers' solder is made of lead and tin melted together, picked through each slate for the nails to pass through.
in the proportions of two parts of the former to one of the
latter metal. This alloy is fusible at a lower temperature THE PLUMBER.
than the tin or lead separately. The solder is cast into The comparative cheapness of lead, its admirable qualities, triangular bars, weighing from thirty to fifty pounds each. and the facility with which it can be cast and rolled into thin The solder is melted in an iron ladle, on a rude temporary sheets, and drawn into pipes, cause it to be extensively fire-place, built as near the spot where the solder is wanting used in building. The most productive mines of this as possible. The plumber having turned back the edge of metal in our own country, are situated in Derbyshire, the upper sheet at the joint, an assistant carefully pours the Devonshire, Cornwall, in Wales, and in the North. In solder on the lower edge. The workman then spreads it short, the ore from which lead is generally obtained, called evenly along the joint, by means of soldering-irons, which Galena, or Sulphuret of Lead, is found in all countries are irregular-shaped iron bars, swelling at their ends into where the primary rocks appear at the surface. The ore rounded forms of different sizes and shapes, according to greatly resembles the pure metal in brilliance; but it is the particular purpose for which they are intended. These brittle and not so easily fused. It frequently contains a irons are heated red-hot when they are to be used to keep sufficient quantity of silver to make it worth while to adopt the solder inelting while it is being spread. a peculiar process in the reduction of it, in order to separate As soon as the workman has spread the solder, he presses
this more valuable metal. The ore is first broken into and hammers down the upper edge on the lower, spreading 3 small pieces, and is then roasted in a reverberatory furnace, the solder forced out of the joint, by so doing, along the
to drive off the sulphur. When this object is attained, the seam. The outermost edge of the lead covering is nailed heat is increased, till the metal is fused, and then it is down to the boarding or cistern-frame by nails, with their drawn off into moulds, which give it the form of blocks or heads leaded over, to prevent the corrosion of the metal, slabs, called Sows and Pigs.
by the chemical or voltaic action that takes place when two Sheet Lead is made by pouring the melted lead on a metals are in contact exposed to moisture. The situation of large table, covered over with an even surface of fine sand, the soldered joints depends on the size and form of the and baving a ledge of an equal height above the sand all surface to be covered over ; and a good workman coneiders round it. When the melting metal is poured on the sand, well how he can cut out the lead so as to have the fewest two men, holding each end of a stiff wooden rule, called a joints, and these in the most favourable situations. If it strike, draw it along the table, resting on each side ledge, is a cistern he has to line, he will cover the bottom in one the liquid lead is pushed onwards by the strike, till it covers piece, cutting the lead large enough to admit of its turning the whole surface of an even thickness, which of course is up for an inch or two, at two of the sides, the oint consegoverned by the depth of the ledge round the table. quently being made at these angles.
Milled Sheet Lead is formed by rolling a cast plate of When a large roof, like that of a church, is covered with lead, this is laid on in parallel bands as wile as the sheet to serve as a foundation for the mouldings. By this mieans will admit of, the edge of one sheet being turned over the necessity for a heavy mass of plaster, to get the requisite a wooden roller or fillet, nailed down on the boarding to projection in the cornice is avoided ; which mass would be receive it, while the edge of the next sheet is turned over unwieldy to manage, and liable to fall down by its weight. the former lead again ; the double thickness being well Foliage and ornamental work in plaster is made by flogged down to render the joint water-tight: and in this modelling the ornaments by hand, in a proper kind of clay, case no solder is used.
worked by steel or wooden tools, resembling small spatulas The edges of lead gutters that turn up against the inside in form. To do this requires a taste and skill in drawing of the parapet are either laid as flat against the brick-work or designing in the workman, which raises him to the rank as possible, and secured so by iron holdfasts, so as to of an artist. When the model is finished and dry, the prevent rain from getting in, or are else, to effect the same surface of it is covered with a thin coat of oil, and a mould object in all the better kind of buildings turned into a joint, of fine plaster is taken from it in separate pieces. To allos in the brickwork, between two courses.
of the plaster mould being taken off the model, the edges When the plumber has to join two lengths of lead-pipe of these separate pieces of the mould are made smooth, into one, he opens out the end of one length into a funnel- so as to fit accurately together. From this mould any shaped aperture, by gently driving a wooden cone into number of casts may be taken by pouring fluid plaster into it, so as to avoid splitting the pipe. The end of the other the mould when it is put together; and as soon as each cast length is then scraped down a little by the triangular tool has set, or become hard, the mould is taken off it, to be put before mentioned, not only to obtain a clean surface for together again for a new cast. soldering, but to allow of the end fitting into the funnel. Old plaster ceilings, walls, &c., are cleaned by being shaped aperture alluded to. The two pipes being thus put whitewashed. The plaster is first washed over with clean together, the workman holds a thick wadding of old woollen water, by means of broad flat brushes, to remove the dirt
. cloth, well greased, under the joint, while a labourer gently All cracks and defects in the plaster are then stopped by pours melted solder over the joint, which the plumber filling them up with new plaster, and it is frequently necessmooths and shapes down by his soldering-iron and the sary to cut away the plaster in such places to obtain a clean cloth, into a regular smooth rounded swelling, all round the new surface to enable the new plaster to adhere. When the joint, making this perfectly close and water-tight.
surface is dry, the whitewash, made of whiting, mixed up Within the last twenty years the metal zinc has been in water, is laid on with the same form of brushes, and two much used instead of lead for all the purposes of the latter, or three times gone over, effectually to cover all stains and and many others beside, for which the admirable qualities marks on the surface. Instead of being whitewashed, of zinc particularly qualify it. This metal is lighter than walls are frequently coloured by mixing ochre, of the proper lead, and equally durable in the open air. It bears water tint, in the water along with the whiting. nearly equally well ; but it is not so flexible or manageable, The outside of walls of houses, &c., are now frequently being neither so fusible nor malleable. Zinc only admits of covered with stucco, a kind of plaster made with a lime being rolled or hammered when it is heated to about two that resists the action of water, when set. and which, if well hundred and twenty degrees of Fahrenheit. When cold it managed, causes the wall to look as if built of stone. The is too brittle to bear much bending; nevertheless pipes, mode of stuccoing walls is exactly the same as that of gutters, cisterns, chimney-pots, &c., are made out of sheet covering them with common plaster. zinc, and roofs, &c., covered with it.
We here conclude our account of the Useful Arts con
nected with house-building. THE PLASTERER. The business of this workman is to cover over the rough walls and ceilings of a building with plaster, a better kind
And what's the Poet if the man be naught?
Genius and wit of mortar, made of lime only; and when this plaster is of the coarser kind for the under or first coating, cow-hair is
May flourish for a day, and snatch the wreath mixed with it to make it bind better. When it is a plain
From awkward probity; but soon shall fade brick-wall which is to be plastered, the surface is at once
The ready laurels of a vicious muse, covered with the plaster, this adhering readily to the rough
While amaranthine honours crown the brow brick-work: but for ceilings or partitions, a groundwork of
Of unpoetic virtue.
HURDIS. laths is required to receive the first coating.
Laths are of different sizes and qualities according to the Ir the peculiarities of our feelings and faculties be the various work for which they are intended. Those used by cffect of variety of excitement through a diversity of orgathe plasterer are termed single, and are about from two tonization, it should tend to produce in us mutual forbearthree feet long, an inch broad, and a quarter of an inch
ance and toleration. We should perceive how nearly imthick. They are split out of a coarse kind of deal. Double possible it is that persons should feel and think exactly laths are considerably longer and thicker, and are sawn alike upon any subject. We should not arrogantly pride out: they are therefore regular in their size. They are ourselves upon our virtues and knowledge, nor condemn used for better work in plastering, but chiefly by tilers or
the errors and weakness of others, since they may depend slaters.
upon causes which we can neither produce nor easily The single laths are nailed up to the joists of the ceiling, counteract. No one, judging from his own feelings and or to the quartering of partitions, with but a small interval powers, can be aware of the kind or degree of temptation between each, and entirely to cover the surface. The or terror, or the seeming incapacity to resist them, which workmen then proceed to cover the lathing with coarse may induce others to deviate. --ABERNETHY. plaster, a labourer supplying them with a small quantity at a time on a square board, held in the plasterer's left hand by Amongst the causes assigned for the continuance and difmeans of a short thick handle stuck upright into the back fusion of the same moral sentiments amongst mankind
, of the board. The man uses a rectangular tlat wooden may be mentioned imitation. The efficacy of this principle trowel, with a bridge-shaped handle, to transfer the stuff is most observable in children ; indeed, if there be anything from the board to the wall, and to spread it evenly over the in them which deserves the name of an instinct, it is their surface. When the room of which the walls are being propensity to imitation. plastered is of a better description, the work is floated, that Children imitate, or apply more readily, than expressions of
Now there is nothing which is, a regular surface is obtained by drawing a long straight- affection and aversion, of approbation, hatred, resentment, edge orer the wet plaster, so as to scrape off the inequalities and the like ; and when these passions and expressions and reduce the whole to a plane surface. A thinner coating of finer plaster is spread over the first ciation which unites words with their ideas, the passion
once connected, which they soon will be by the same assoto finish the plastering, and this is again floated in drawing will follow the expression, and attach upon the objectele rooms, and so on.
which the child has been accustomed to apply the epithet The mouldings of cornices in rooms are formed by a
-Paley. wooden mould drawn along a straight-edge to guide the mould, acting like the carpenter's plane, when forming
LONDON: analogous mouldings in wood. When such cornices are of sufficient size and depth to require it, wooden brackets,
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. shaped something like the profile of the cornice, are fixed
POBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE PENNY, AND IN MONTHLT PARTY, up against the wall, and laths are nailed on these brackets, Sold by all Booksellers and Newsvepders in the Kingdom.
But yonder comes the powerful King of Day,
10,860 Illumed with fluid gold, his near approach
9,987 Betoken glad. Lo! now, apparent all,
4,332 Aslant the dew-bright earth, and coloured air,
0,517 High gleaming from afar.
0,273 Taus does Thomson, the philosophic poet of the Seasons,
0,265 speak of the approach and vivifying influence of that
0,180 splendid body,—the Sun, -whose daily return brings with it
0,130 so much that renders pleasure and benefit to man.
0,030 In our first article, we gave a general view of the relation existing between the different heavenly bodies. The ap- The last four must be considered as approximations to pearances which are presented to the eye of an observer, the true proportions; as the diameters of those small an enumeration of the classes into which, for the sake of planets have not yet been defined with so much precision convenience, the heavenly bodies may be divided, and a as those of the other planets. In astronomical works, these short exposition of the mode in which the theory of gravi- heavenly bodies are frequently expressed by symbols aptation is brought to assist us in the comprehension of their propriated to them. Before the name of each we have motions, were the subjects which then occupied us. We placed the symbol, which distinguishes it among astroproceed now to consider each of the planets separately, by nomers. which means we shall be able to collect the principal facts The names of the heavenly bodies, before mentioned, and circumstances connected with each planet, so far as are derived from the heathen gods, who also gave their that can be done without the aid of mathematics, which names to such of the metals as were known to the ancients, must not form a prominent feature in our plan.
and likewise to the days of the week. Before proceeding to the consideration of the heavenly The planets Uranus, Pallas, Juno, Ceres, and Vesta, bodies separately, it will be convenient to consider the re- were not known before the last sixty years. They have all lation which exists between them all, as regards dimension. been generally named from the relationship of one deity to Our frontispiece represents the comparative sizes of the the other; the moderns having called the planet discovered Moon and planets. By this we shall, of course, be understood by Herschel Uranus, who, in the heathen mythology, was to mean, that the twelve circles represented above, bear the the father of Saturn, who was the parent of Jupiter, of same proportion one to another, as the diameters of the whom Mars was the son. The Moon, called Luna, was planets bear to one another, respectively. The Sun is so said to be the daughter of Terra, the Earth. The cha. very much larger than any of the planets, that we could racteristics of the planets were also indicated by the known not introduce into our figure a circle, which would indicate qualities of the deities whose names they respectively his comparative diameter. This will be rendered evident assumed. The Earth, being considered as the parent of by the consideration that a circle showing correctly the all created nature, was designated from the goddess whom comparative size of the Sun, must be one hundred and the ancients invoked to dispense all natural blessings. It eleven times as large in diameter as the circle representing founded the centre of their astronomical system, as we the Earth.
showed in the former paper. The planet Mercury, seldom The diameter of the Earth, as we shall hereafter have to seen, and then but for a short time, resembled " the fleet show more fully, is about 7920 miles. If now, for the messenger of the gods." Venus, the most beautiful of all sake of fixing our ideas, we call that quantity 1, then the the planets, was the type of the charming goddess of this diameters of the other bodies will be represented by the name. Mars, with its red appearance, showed the wrathful following numbers :
countenance of the god of war. Jupiter, the largest of Vol. XIII.