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know that the work is executed by the deputation of turbid, from the quantity of matter it holds in solutwo or three individuals out of this convention. tion; this, by degrees, settles to the bottom of the
Not only the necessity, but the certainty of com- vessel, and the clear liquor is drawn off. The mass munication in the gregarious insects has been shown: that remains is then passed repeatedly through shallow especially in bees and ants. Huber has thought that dishes of metal perforated with numerous small he could prove a language of signals, through the holes; this is continued until it is sufficiently dry to antennæ. Some insects can produce sounds, inde prevent the grains into which it is formed by the pendently of the vibration of their wings, by friction process, from again becoming united. The reddish If these are audible to us, there may also be similar tinge which is observed in the Sago of commerce, inaudible ones, sufficient possibly for many purposes : arises from the effect of the heat to which it is subwhile it is not impossible that one or more of their mitted to render it perfectly dry. tracheæ may be provided with the means of sound. In the Moluccas and the Philippine Islands, the [Abridged from Maccullocu's Proofs and Illustrations of the soft paste of the sago, before it is dried, is formed Attributes of God.]
into cakes about six inches square and of the thick. ness of the finger. These are strung together in bunches of ten and twenty and exposed for sale ; it is also employed in the making of puddings, gruel
, THE SAGO PALM, (Sagus raphia.)
and for the same culinary purposes to which wheaten The Sago of commerce is the product of a species flour is applied in this country. of palm which grows naturally in various parts of The Sago Palm is a tree of moderate height, selIndia and Africa. It is one of the most common, dom attaining to twenty feet. The fruit, which is a and at the same time one of the most useful of the dry oval cone covered with small scales, grows in vegetable productions of the countries in which it is clusters, forming a large oval tuft or bunch. found. The central vein or rib of its ample leaves There is a palm-tree closely allied to the Sago is used by the natives of Africa for various useful Palm, which grows in great abundance in South purposes; they form it into weapons of offence, and America, in the neighbourhood of the Oronoko ; to they employ it for the purpose of capturing fish: for this tree a native tribe, the Guarinis, are indebted for this purpose a species of fish-hook, resembling the nearly the whole of their subsistence; and thus, says barb of a harpoon, is fixed to one end, to the other a Humboldt, "we find in the lowest stage of human line is fastened, which is afterwards passed round the civilization, the existence of a people depending en. body of the sportsman. Thus armed, he wanders tirely on a single species of tree, in the same manalong the sea-shore, and on the banks of the river, and ner as some insects are confined to certain parts of a whenever he perceives a fish, throws his dart, and flower.” The Guarinis also form their habitations, if generally with success. His prey is allowed to re- they deserve that name, from the leaves of this tree, main for some time, without an attempt on his part they make mats from the fibres of its leaves, and to draw it out of the water, until it is sufficiently ex- during the rainy season, when their country is under hausted by its efforts and by loss of blood.
water, they live on the summit of the trees. The Of the perfect leaves the Indians form fences to mats they form are suspended from tree to tree, and their fields, coverings to their houses, and when pro- covered on the upper side with clay. On these moist perly fastened together by means of branches of couches the women light the fires necessary for their trees, the dwellings themselves; these habitations cookery, and the traveller, who during the night is are much more durable than could be expected, on floating down the stream of the river, sees lights, as account of the great strength and thickness of these it were, suspended in the air at a considerable eleva. bundles of leaves.
tion. The natives of Africa obtain a liquor from this In addition to the noutree, which much resembles palm wine, but is cishment derived from stronger and of a deeper colour. They have two me- the pith of this tree, a thods of extracting this liquor; the first consists in wholesome repast is furcollecting the sap in calabashes, from incisions made aished by the kernels of
A Kernd, in the fleshy substance of the summit of the tree the fruit when ripe.
Cone of the Fruit. from which the new leaves proceed. The second
FRUIT &C., OF THE SAGO PALM. plan is to collect a quantity of the fruit, to strip it of its rind, and steeping the kernels in the sap already noticed, diluted with water, to allow the whole to ferment. This second kind of wine is still higher coloured, and more intoxicating; it sparkles like champagne, and can be kept a considerable time.
The production for which this tree is best known in Europe is sago, although other trees of the palm tribe also yield it in greater or less quantities. The sago is principally extracted from the pith which fills the trunk of the palm, and is of a more delicate colour and nature in the young than in the old trees.
Portion of the Pith. Small piece of the Pith, highly magnified. The trunk of the tree being split in the direction of its length, the operator removes the pith which JEREMY TAYLOR is an excellent author for a young man he breaks in pieces, and throws into a vessel made to study, for the purpose of imbibing noble principles, and from the bark of a tree, and placed over a horse-hair at the same time of learning to exercise caution and thought sieve; he then pours water over the mass and the in detecting his numerous errors.--COLERIDGE. finer parts of the pith pass through the sieve, and are received in pots which are provided for the pur
LONDON : pose; the fibrous portions of the pith are retained JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. by the sieve.
PUBLISHED IN WEEKLY NUMBERS, PRICE ONE Pewny, and in MONTELY PASSA The liquid thus obtained is, in the first instance,
Sold by all Booksellers and Nowsvenders in the Kingdom
SACRED to the Memory of the Reverend John PETER ROTTLER, P.D., Missionary, who fell asleep in Jesus,
On Sunday morning, January 24th, 1836, aged eighty-six years, and seven months.
Laboured as a devoted Missionary in India for above sixty years,
Formerly in the service of the Royal Danish Mission at Tranquebar,
He was also for several years Chaplain to the Madras Female Orphan Asylum.
THIS TABLET IS ERECTED,
forth labourers into his harvest.—Matt. ix. 37, 38.
accompanies the plate; but the brief sketch of this The subject itself, of a Protestant clergyman un
* The words in Tamil, on the left page of the book, signify, The folding the pages of the Gospel to an uninformed | New TESTAMENT. VOL. XIII.
good man's life, which is here given in simple and voted. Rottler was twenty-two years a labourer in appropriate language, has induced us to inquire the same vineyard with Swartz, and survived him further into the particulars of his history. Bishop thirty-eight years.
For the last twenty years he Heber speaks of him in his Journal in terms of bore a prominent part in all the measures adopted affection and respect, as good old Dr. Rottler;" for the improvement of the mission in Southern and writing to Mrs. Heber in 1826, he says, “I am India, first under the Society for Promoting Christian greatly impressed with reverence for the worthy old Knowledge, and afterwards, on its transfer to the missionary, Dr. Rottler.” At a later period, (February, superintendence of the Society for the Propagation 1835,) in a charge delivered by the present Bishop of the Gospel in Foreign Parts. In his latter days, he of Calcutta, to the reverend Missionaries at Vepery, witnessed the erection of the new mission church at his lordship alludes to Rottler, as “one of the three Vepery t, (the chief station in the neighbourhood of honoured Missionaries who have laboured for fifty Madras,) the enlargement of the school, and the years or more in the fields where Ziegenbalg and establishment of a seminary for training native youth Swartz, Gerické and Pohlé, Jænické and Haubroe, to the duties of Catechists, and eventually for the had laboured before them, and who still survive to sacred office of Missionaries. In all these works he bless us with their advice and their prayers.”
zealously co-operated with the local committees, and This excellent and learned person was born at with his brother missionaries ; giving them the benefit Strasburg, in June, 1749, where he received his early of his counsels and experience, when his infirmities education, which was continued at Copenhagen : he had diminished the powers of bodily exertion. was admitted a candidate for ordination from the Among the most essential benefits he conferred latter place, by the bishop of Zealand, in 1775. He on the mission in his private hours, were a revision embarked for India when ordained, arrived early in of Fabricius's Translation of the Old Testament, and the year 1776, in the service of the Royal Danish the preparation of a Tamil version of the Liturgy of Mission *, at Tranquebar, and there laboured faithfully the Church of England, now in general use throughfor many years. In the year 1803, he was nominated out the congregations in union with the Church of by the brethren at Tranquebar, to assist in the super- England in Southern India, and also, it is believed, intendence of the Vepery mission, in consequence in those holding communion with the Wesleyan of an application made to them on the removal to Methodists: he was likewise engaged to the last days Calcutta of Mr. Pæzold, and the death of Gerické, of his valuable life in compiling a Tamil and English which had left the station without a missionary. Dictionary, now in the press, to which he had devoted
The connexion thus formed did not extend beyond a certain portion of his time for twenty years. the year 1807; Mr. Pæzold having resumed his In the earlier seasons of his residence in India, labours at Vepery: and Dr. Rottler remained at he pursued in his leisure hours the study of Botany: Madras, as Secretary and Chaplain to the Female in which science he attained to great eminence. Orphan Asylum, the duties of which appointment Having been in communication with the most eminent he conscientiously discharged for many years. The botanists in Europe," he received in acknowledgment death of Mr. Pozold brought him once more, towards of his high attainments, the diploma of a doctor of the close of 1817, into the service of the Society physical sciences, from the University of Vienna. FOR PROMOTING Christian KNOWLEDGE, and from He bequeathed to the Vepery mission his valuable that time until the day of his death, he continued Herbarium I, his books and manuscripts, together a missionary in its employ at Vepery, frequently with the contingent reversion of some other property. preaching in Tamil to the native congregations, and In his public and private character no one could be giving satisfactory proof of his ministerial zeal and more deservedly loved and respected. During a long usefulness. In 1833, the SOCIETY, in consideration period, he persevered in his holy calling, while heavily of his valuable services, and also of his advanced afflicted with sickness. For the last ten years of bis age, allowed him a pension to the full amount of his life in India he was a constant sufferer, seeking his stipend. He died on the 24th of January, 1836, recreation in the most becoming and innocent purin his eighty-seventh year. The Rev. C. Calthrop suits, and in the end was brought to his heavenly wrote as follows:-
rest in peace.
A worthy associate of Swartz and His venerable remains (attended by the Archdeacon and Gerické! the last but one or two of those holy men, clergy at Madras, and a great number of Europeans, East who were the privileged few, in early years, to hare Indians, and natives), were interred in the Vepery Mission had committed to them amongst the heathen, in a churchyard, on Sunday evening, the 31st of January; 1 land of darkness, the ministry of reconciliation reading our solemn funeral service in English, and my brother Missionary, Mr. Cæmmerer, in Tamil. Through
through Christ. the kind offer of the Rev. Mr. Cubitt, I addressed the
The project for erecting this tablet originated with English congregation in the evening, from 2 Kings ii. the Madras Diocesan Committee of the Society for 11th and part of 12th verses. May God own and bless Promoting Christian Knowledge, they having comwhat was prepared in much haste and confusion, and deli-municated with the reverend Missionaries on the vered in much weakness and sorrow! Such a funeral 1 subject, and appointed a Committee in England, who never before witnessed, --so solemn and affecting. From exerted themselves in procuring additional subscripthe feelings and tears which were manifested, I trust it may be long, yea, ever remembered by us.
tions. It was also proposed to apply the surplus, The loss of this truly primitive Christian minister Vepery Mission School
, to be designated “Rottler's
had there been any, to founding scholarships in the seems to mark an epoch in the history of the Scholarships." This latter object, however, we una Protestant Mission in the south of India : for the derstand, has not been attained, the amount collected long period of his faithful labours connect him with proving sufficient only for carrying the original design the earliest days of Christian knowledge in that of a tablet into effect. country, and with the planting of many churches by the apostolic Swartz, and his contemporaries, under + “At Vepery is the finest Gothic church, and the best establishthe blessing of Him to whose glory they were de
ment of native schools, both male and female, which I have yet seen in India."-Bissop Heber's Journal in India.
The Herbarium has been sent to England by the executors of As early as the year 1710, the Society for Promoting Christian knowledge assisted in the support and enlargement of the Protestant pagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, who have deposited it in
Dr. Rottler, and placed at the disposal of the Society for the ProMission, then maintained by the King of Denmark at Tranquebar, the Museum of King's College, London. It is said to be rich in for the conversion of the heathen.
fine and rare specimens of Eastern plants.
ON THE LANGUAGE OF ANIMALS. chance to say this in our own terms, under the same No. II.
expectation, we should scarcely deny that it under
stood the meaning of the words. Yet the parrot In the cage-singing birds, there is often a language does the same daily, when it presents its head to our which is not found in the natural state; directed to finger, under the appropriate phrase, or when, under ourselves, and proportioned to their domestication or
the want of food, or drink, it asks, specifically, for our familiarity to them. They who are attentive or those, or calls, separately, and under the equally interested, will easily learn to distinguish those new appropriate names, or cries, the persons, or the sounds, in their applications: the morning salute, or domestic animals, with which it is associated. There the welcome home, the demand for food, disapproba. are endless well known cases to prove that these tion under mistakes respecting this, remonstrance, or animals attach definite ideas to the words and phrases satisfaction, and much more. And when associated, which they use; and, as far as can be expected from in numbers, or with offspring, we hear and see what the limitation of their faculties, what those mean. must be the expression of their ideas to each other, Yet it is denied that the parrot understands the in various ways which cannot fail to be well known meaning of its acquired language; it is said to be to persons attached to those animals, but would not
merely imitating sounds. It is in vain to argue be understood, and possibly, not believed, by others. against prejudices: but whoever admits the intelliAnd if, universally, an educated bird uses many gence in this case, must equally admit it in that of sounds which it does not possess in the natural state, the animals first named, using sounds of their own, the same is true of our dogs and cats, the only other instead of our language, and of which we know animals in which it is easy to make these observations. therefore only the general, not the precise meaning. The more familiar those are with us, the more does In the parrot, there is an acquisition of new ideas, the variety of their sounds, or their language, in- attended by the appropriate language which we crease; while we find that these are used for specific, | happen to understand: had it made noises of its and often remarkable purposes. Were we unpre. own, it would have been expressing what it now judiced, we should believe that they had invented does, like the canary bird demanding food, or sugar; new terms or phrases to express their new ideas, while they who admit its intelligence at present, consistently with the general organization of their might have denied it in the other case, as well as in natural language; and, that in all such cases, there the domesticated quadrupeds. The present concluwas that attempt at intercourse with us, which has sion must be that no animal could acquire a language become necessary to their new condition. It is the did it not possess the principles of language; and same in some measure with hogs; and would pro. that if we do not understand, ourselves, more or less bably be found more widely, were we equally familiar definitely, their acquired ones, the result of their with other animals. If any of the sounds of animals education among us, so are they using language in have a meaning, it is likely that the new ones express their communications with each other, when we conthe new ideas, as the others do those belonging to jecture the meaning but generally or imperfectly, or the state of nature, or are attempts to converse with when we cannot discover it at all. us; while we are at least sure that they do acquire There are, however, difficulties which may be new ideas through our education; as it may also slightly stated. There are animals with very limited confirm this opinion to remark, that in any one kind, sounds, like the ox and the sheep; or with awkward it is the individual which displays the most intelli- ones, like the horse, as there are some which, like the gence, or is the most ambitious of our intimacy, that rabbit, seldom use any. It is possible that in many possesses the most intonations, and makes the largest of these cases, there are expressive intonations which use of them. And if there be any truth in this, we cannot distinguish; even in the horse, we know they not only possess a natural language, but are, that there are such, as we also know of some in the like ourselves, partially empowered to be inventors, sheep. It is equally possible that the dulness of the under restrictions easily understood.
ox, social as it is, may render language little necesIf an animal can learn the meaning of a language sary; and that the rabbit and others can gain their which is not its own, it would be a very extraordinary limited ends by a pantomimic language. On nothing conclusion that its natural sounds were without one. of this nature have we any right to decide, under And if to act definitely through certain sounds, is our imperfect knowledge of the moral history of not to connect ideas with sounds, or to understand animals; and far less are we entitled to produce language, there is no meaning in this term. Or, this such cases in answer to the others. And if the acquisition implies an accurate ear: since the sounds whole subject demands that investigation which it in question are difficult, because they are not musical, has never yet received, let us not forget that it is and because not related to those used by the animal our perpetual error to judge of everything, even of itself. And it would be to reason very inconsistently, the Almighty, by ourselves; as our vanity also knows to admit that a given animal discriminated and un- not how to concede that any animal can approximate derstood the language of another, and not its own. in faculties to man, or even that there is anything To do this further, without previously possessing the created but with reference to him, to his understandprinciples of language, would be as great a miracle as ing ana his enjoyments. that a dog should speak in a human voice: while the The case of fishes offers the greatest difficulty of possession of it is equivalent to a proof of the exist- all. They can have no voice, as far as we can conence and use of a natural language.
jecture; and their other powers in producing sounds Dogs learn many of our words, and act upon them are very limited. Yet a very obvious question imregularly and consistently. How much they can mediately arises.
How much they can mediately arises. If they are utterly dumb, why learn is well known; and the case is the same with are they provided with organs or powers of hearing, the horse, the mule, and many more. A dog or a and those of great acuteness, even in the shell fishes, cat asks that the door may be opened, in some pecu. as is well known to fishermen? We can scarcely liar sound which it has invented; and it is confident conceive the purpose of such a provision, but for the
It has therefore the definite meaning in sake of internal communication; since none have question, connected with the peculiar sound which it much connexion with the sounds of the terrestrial uses; and this is language. If a dog should ever world, and many can have none whatever. It would
be that useless and operose superfluity, of which with the tongue, and these muscles (E E, fig. 1,) passing creation furnishes no parallel example. But there is backwards, are wound in a most singular manner also direct evidence to the same end, in the fact that a fish which has felt the hook and escaped, often renders the fisherman's further attempts useless, by warning its companions of a danger which can scarcely be described without some power of communication equivalent to language. Whether the very distant warnings which the alarmed whale gives to its fraternity, are effected by nothing more than the stroke of the tail, is not as yet proved. We ought to conclude, from the wisdom of the Deity, furnishing the means of hearing, and from His goodness, providing for the wants of all His creation, that the marine tribes do possess the means of communication through sounds; but what those can be, we are as yet unable to conjecture.
Universally, these attributes are implicated in the grant of language to animals, adapted to their wants, and of course, fitted to their several capacities, while limited by those. We have never yet found that He has neglected anything of which we could infer the
Fig. 1. utility or the necessity; and I doubt not that we shall yet fully prove, that He has not neglected this, round the windpipe D. By this means a very but that all the animals which he has appointed have strong purchase is obtained, and the tongue, if thrust been endowed with language, or means of communi- into the hole in which the insect is concealed, can be cation, adequate to their uses and subservient to their quickly withdrawn. The two short muscles BB, happiness.
which are fastened to the underside of the lower [Abridged from Macculloch's Proofs and Illustrations of the mandible and to the forepart of the windpipe, draw Attributes of God.]
the tongue forward, and direct it into the cleft in the
tree. The end of the tongue is provided with barbs FACTS IN COMPARATIVE ANATOMY.
or bristles for the purpose of entangling the insect
prey of the woodpecker ; but this contrivance would. No. III.
of itself have been hardly sufficient for the intended THE TONGUE OF THE WOODPECKER.
purpose, if other means had not been prepared. The food of the woodpecker consists of beetles, ants, and other insects, which are found concealed in the crevices of the wood or beneath the decayed bark of trees. To enable the creature to obtain its concealed prey, it is furnished with a strong beak, flattened on the sides, and sharpened at the extremity like a chisel; with this powerful instrument it strips off the bark with great rapidity, or removes the rotten wood that protects the insects of which it is in search. An American species of this bird, on account of its habits, has been called the Carpenter of the Woods ; in some places it is considered injurious to plantations, but this idea is erroneous, for it never
Fig. 2. attacks any but decayed trees, and its operations are productive of good instead of harm, by destroying
Fig. 2 is the side view of the head of a woodthe insects before they have time to attack the other pecker deprived of its skin and feathers. At the and more healthy trees of the plantation.
hinder and lower parts, immediately below the eye, a Although the beak of the woodpecker is of essential large substance may be perceived; this is a gland service to its owner in discovering its prey and placing for the purpose of secreting a glutinous fluid. The it within its reach, it is but ill adapted for the purpose | Huid it secretes is poured into the hollow of the of securing it; on this account it is furnished with a singularly-constructed tongue, having a muscular lower jaw; the end of the tongue every time it is apparatus of an extraordinary nature.
returned into the mouth is dipped into this liquid, as itself
, A, as seen in the engraving, is long and slender, a camel-hair pencil might be into gum water, and with a number of small bristles at the tip ; this tongue being charged is thrust into the hole in which the the bird is enabled to thrust out to a great extent and
insects are found; these adhering to the tongue are again withdraw with rapidity. To effect this it has a
drawn back into the mouth of the bird.
And here most singular arrangement of muscles attached to again another contrivance is to be found; a number the os hyoides, or bone of the tongue; the two pieces of hairs are fixed at the back part of the mouth,
the insects of which this bone is formed, are curved, united at which, acting like a brush, take off c, and fixed at their other extremity to each side of which have been brought in, and enable the bird to the tongue.
swallow them without loss of time, for the woodAfter extending backwards for some distance they pecker being rather a large bird, and its prey but are suddenly bent upwards and then forwards, passing small, it is a matter of necessity that it should be over the back of the head, (see fig. 2,) and uniting
quick at its meals, themselves at last in one of the nostrils at a, in which they are fixed. A strong pair of muscles are attached Painting is the intermediate something between a thought to those portions of these bones which are in contact and a thing.-COLERIDGE.