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To the east of the dock-yard is the royal arsenal. tion, near an artificial fortification constructed of It contains within its boundaries 100 acres of ground, earth. On the left hand as you enter the grounds, the together with a canal which occupies the extent of method of loading and firing the larger kind of forty-two acres. Nearly opposite the entrance is a ordnance, used in fortified places, is taught with all handsome row of houses, for the accommodation of the attention to minutiæ which would be practised in the officers connected with the establishment. The the case of a siege. enclosure includes immense ranges of store-houses, The ground near this spot is beautifully diversified containing warlike stores of every description, in such and irregular in its surface, and interspersed with quantities as to astonish even those accustomed to several pieces of water ; this condition of the ground sights of this description. Beyond the guard-house, affords excellent practice to the men, in dragging the which is a handsome building, is the royal brass- guns up steep acclivities, or lowering them down foundry, where brass guns only are cast; to the east rapid descents, forming pontoon bridges to transport of the foundry are workshops for engraving and them over water, and imitating all the operations of boring the cannon. All the ordnance used by the actual war. Round the entrance to the building East India Company, and in the merchant service, is many curious specimens of brass ordnance are seen; sent here to be proved before it is taken into use. among them, two with three barrels each captured at Adjoining these buildings are the workshops for the the battle of Malplaquet, a village in the north of manufacturing of gun-carriages and military wagons France. of every description, with machinery, worked by The Rotunda was originally erected in the gardens steam-engines, employed in planing, sawing, and of Carlton House, by order of the Prince Regent, turning wood or inetal. Rather to the north of the for the entertainment of the allied sovereigns during foundry is the laboratory, in which blank and ball their visit to England, in 1814; it is a circular apartcartridges, of every description, are manufactured; ment, one hundred and fifteen feet in diameter, with and grape, canister, and other destructive ammunition, low walls, in which the windows that admit the light of various kinds, are prepared : here, also, are to be are placed. The roof, which is like the awning of a seen, machines for proving the strength of gunpowder, tent, is supported in the centre by a stately Doric and samples of the varieties used by different nations, column of freestone, the pedestal of which is decowith models of fire-ships, fireworks, muskets, and rated with various pieces of armour, and half way up many other objects of the same description. In the the shaft, a complete suit of inlayed steel armour open air, or under sheds, surrounded by the immense is placed. From the summit of the pillars strong storehouses we have described, are iron ordnance of gilded cords proceed to the circumference, and supvarious calibres, arranged in double rows, extending port the canvas roof, to the painting and repair of for several hundreds of yards in length, together with which, the most scrupulous attention is paid to pregun-carriages, piles of shot, iron water-tanks, &c., in serve it against the effects of the weather. The stone great profusion.
column we have described was not in the original The canal, which is thirty-five feet in breadth, has construction at Carlton House, Round the base are along its banks ranges of wooden buildings, in which four collections of fire-arms, in the form of trophies, Congreve-rockets are manufactured. Near this spot showing the gradual improvement of small arms is a saw-mill, in which large timber is sawn, by during the last hundred years or more ; among them means of perpendicular saws, worked by steam. The is a carbine with seven barrels, and a French musket same engine also gives motion to circular saws of furnished with a percussion and a flint lock, either of various sizes, lathes for turning, &c.
which can be used at pleasure. The models of difThe barracks for the sappers and miners is a short ferent fortifications which are placed in the area of distance from the arsenal, and nearer to Woolwich the room, are exceedingly beautiful, consisting of the Common; near to this is a grand depôt of field train principal British dockyards, and their means of artillery, ready to be embarked at a minute's notice, defence. The town of Quebec, in America, the rock and furnished with ammunition and material of every and batteries of Gibraltar, and other celebrated kind.
places. Round these larger models, others of a The barracks of the artillery form a splendid range smaller size are arranged, consisting principally of of buildings, facing Woolwich Common ; on the various inventions in naval architecture, such as the parade, in front of this building are several large construction of a bomb-ship, the arrangements of a and curious pieces of brass ordnance.
transport for the conveyance of horses, &c. Round On the other side of the common, that is, opposite the room, an enclosed space contains a vast series of the barracks, is the Royal Military Academy, which models of various descriptions; among these are the was formerly established for instruction in the ord. | different instruments and contrivances for firing the nance department, but is now used for the preparation Congreve-rocket; these are accompanied by speciof cadets for the East India service,
mens of this rocket of various sizes. A piece of Looking westward from the parade in front of the wood fifteen inches square is shown, pierced by one barracks, the eye of the spectator is attracted by a curiously shaped building, in the form of a huge tent; this is the Rotunda or Repository, and contains numerous objects of curiosity and interest relating to the defence of the kingdom. The space surrounding this building is tastefully laid out in gravel walks and parterres, and contains within its enclosure, all the requisites for the instruction of the artillery in the practice of their formidable mode of warfare. There are model rooms containing drawings and models of implements of war, workshops in which experiments are made and new models constructed, and in the open air different kinds of fortifications are erected by the students, and all the details of the management of
tu artillery are put in practice for the purpose of instruc
EXPECT OF A CONO REVE ROCKET.
of these terrible instruments of war, as a proof of
A BALLAD. the great force with which they are driven.
SIR EUSTACE sate, at midnight's hour,
Within his tent alone,
And the spell of memory's silent power that it deserves a more particular description.
Was o'er his spirit thrown :
It bore him from Salem's leaguered wall The case of the Congreve-rocket is formed of iron
To her he had left in his castle-hall, instead of paper, and many advantages arise from
For Ermengarde, his only child, this circumstance; the resistance of the air to its
The beautiful and young, passage is less, on account of the combination of a Had often at that hour beguiled greater weight, with a smaller diameter, so that the
His spirit as she sung; range of the missile is extended ; the hard pointed
Bidding her father's heart rejoice end of the rocket also enables it to penetrate solid
With the magic sound of her silver voice. substances. The case of the rocket is formed of a
And on his harp he used to play
To her in that old hall; cylinder of very soft iron, which is dovetailed together He had brought his harp with him away, and soldered ; if it is three inches in diameter, the
But now 'twas silent all; thickness of iron requisite is but the fifteenth of an It hung in bis tent by the cresset's lignt, inch, and so in proportion. The inside of the case is And his eyes as he viewed it with tears were bright. lined with cartridge paper, pasted in. The pointed That cresset's light grew pale and dim, conical head is also of iron, but much thicker, and,
On his ear a sound there stole, according to the service it has to perform, is armed
The echo of a dirge like hymn
Poured for a parted soul: with books or otherwise.
And the strings of that harp, which in silence slept, The uses to which these rockets have been applied,
As if by a spirit's hand, were swept. are various; if they are intended to set fire to build
He shed no tear, he heaved no sigh, ings, they carry with them a case containing highly
And not a word he said ; combustible substances, which can be ignited after He knew, from that mystic melody, the lapse of any space of time, by means of a slow
Her soul from earth was fled : match; in other cases they are loaded with shells or
So he threw by his lance, and sword, and shield,
And at break of day left the tented field. grape shot, which, when they explode, commit dread.
He reached once more his castle hall, ful havoc.
He entered the chapel fair ; The distance to which a rocket will reach, of course A marble tablet hung on its wall, depends on its weight and the charge with which it is
And a withered rose was there : loaded ; it may be stated at from two to three thousand He knelt him down, and in silence prayed, five hundred yards. In discharging the Congreve
And died a monk in the cloister's shade. - BARTOY. rocket, metal tubes, fixed in a frame, are used : these tubes are of sufficient size to allow the rocket free
LIFTING OF THE KREMLIN BELL. motion. The inclination at which the tubes are placed In the month of July, 1836, a successful attempt was made directs the course of the missile; for these rockets to raise the enormous bell which had been so long buried are not fired perpendicularly, but in a slanting direc- in the earth, in the Kremlin, at Moscow. This bell", one tion, according to the distance they are intended to of the wonders of Moscow, was cast in 1733, at the comreach.
mand of the Empress Anne, by a Russian founder, Michael Specimens of the different kinds of shot are found Motorine. It is, according to Clarke, 21 feet 44 inches near these last: as canister-shot, consisting of a tin high; at two feet from the bottom its circumference mea
sures 67 feet 4 inches; its diameter at that height is consecase, filled with a number of bullets or small round quently about 21 feet 6 inches. Its thickness, at the part shot. Grape-shot, nine or more small round shot intended to be struck by the hammer, 23 inches. The tied up in a canvas bag and corded round;
Russians estimate the weight at 12,000 poods, which is ber of the balls being generally odd, gives the mass
nearly 200 English tons. The reputed elegance of its form, something the appearance of a bunch of grapes.
the style of its bas-reliefs, and the richness of its metal, composed of gold, silver, and copper, contributed to make it remarkable as a specimen of the advanced state of the art of casting in Russia, at the epoch of its execution.
M. Montferrand, a gentleman greatly distinguished in Petersburgh by the numerous works he has executed, was intrusted with the direction of the operations. As the bell was lying in a cavity in the ground, and more than thirty feet below the surface, a large excavation was made to clear it. Over this was constructed a strong and lofty scaffold for the attachment of the blocks, and for the temporary suspension of the bell at a proper height. At half-past five in the morning, the authorities of Moscow, and a large number of spectators being assembled on the spot, prayers were offered up for the success of the attempt, and the operations commenced
on a signal given by M. Montferrand. Six hundred soldiers Chain-shot consists of two round shots linked together instantaneously set-to at a large number of capstans. The by a jointed bar of iron. Bar-shot, connected by a enormous weight was mastered, and the bell was soon seen solid bar of iron, instead of one jointed. The two
to rise slowly in the pit. Forty-two minutes elapsed during last are used for the purpose of dividing the masts
its elevation to the necessary height. No accident occurred.
The first operation being finished, the next was to build a and spars of an enemy, besides others of various platform beneath the suspended bell
. This was completed forms and sizes contrived for the destruction of life. in eight hours, and the hell luwered upon it. On the folThere are models, also, of several large cannon, one lowing day it was placed on a sledge, and drawn by means taken at Agra that weighed sixteen tons, and another of an inclined plane, up to the pedestal intended to support at Beejapoor weighing forty tons. The models of gun it, and there finally left
, on the 26th of the same month. carriages are very numerous, from the rudest to the Its use as a bell is impossible, from a fracture, about seven
This colossal work of art is, after all, but a mere curiosity. most perfect. Those representing the Russian artil
feet high and two feet wide, in the lower part, where it is lery are accompanied by models of the horses by 23 inches thick. The cause of this gigantic injury rests which they are drawn, and of the mode of harnessing entirely upon conjecture.—Magazine of Popular Science, them,
• See Saturday Magasine, Vol. III., p. 117.
estimated her rare talents, which were also employed
And send the false one baffled from thy sight.
Fig. 2 represents a double Inkstand, formed of two cylinders joined together; the one intended for black and the other for red ink : each cylinder is furnished with a cover. Near this stand lies the calamus or reed, cut to a point, which served the purpose of a pen.
PETRARCH'S INKSTAND. The above sketch will convey a tolerably correct idea of the beautiful Inkstand of Petrarch, whose genius and classical purity of mind diffused a lustre around hin, which contributed greatly to promote the revival of learning, and the love of the arts and the ele
Fig. 3. gancies of life, in the fourteenth century. We can fancy him composing some of his immortal poetry, sided form, with a ring at the side to pass the finger
Fig. 3 is a single Inkstand of a hexagonal or sixor transcribing some of the manuscript works of minds congenial with his own, with the above Ink- through in carrying. Upor this is a sort of pen, but stand before him: thinking of the golden age of from the absence of knots or joints, it is probably a Augustus, of Horace, Virgil, and Ovid : thinking as
stylus. they thought; imbibing a full draught from the same
Fig. 4 is a double Inkstand, with the calamus or Pierian spring; enjoying similar honours, (for Rome reed-pen. crowned him with laurel and with myrtle,) and enduring similar pains.
I delight, (says Petrarch,) in my pictures; I take great pleasure also in images; they come in show more near unto nature than pictures, for they do but appear; but these are felt to be substantial, and their bodies are more durable. Amongst the Grecians, the art of painting was esteemed above all handicrafts, and the chief of all the liberal arts. How great the dignity hath been of statues, and how fervently the study and desire of men have reposed in such pleasures, emperors and kings, and other noble personages, nay, even persons of inferior degree, have shown, in their industrious keeping of them when obtained.
The fine arts and literature constituted the charm of his life. In reference to his books, many of which were transcribed by himself, the admirable art of
Fig 6. printing not being then invented, he says,—"Great is The above instruments, and others of their kind, my delight in beholding such a treasure. * * * * are made of silver, lead, horn, wood, and other I have great plenty of books : where such scarcity materials. In the twelfth century, and for a conhas been lamented, this is no small possession : 1 siderable time afterwards, the usual form of Inkstands have an inestimable many of books."
was an inverted truncated cone. Rich stand-dishes However much we should desire to linger on the have frequently been found among the relics of past character of Petrarch, we must forbear, and return ages. For several centuries horn was a favourite to the subject of the present article. The possessor article in the manufacture of Inkstands; hence the of the Inkstand of Petrarch, is Miss Edgeworth, a term inkhorn, so common among old writers. worthy owner of so great a treasure. It was pre- We come now to notice the Inkstands of our owu sented to her many years ago, by one who justly time.
When good ink is once provided, it may appear to One of the best forms of portable Inkstands is the most persons to be a matter of indifference what subject of Messrs. Horsley and Cooper's patent, description of vessel is employed to contain it, so as which affords a convenient and air-tight stand, and to answer the daily occasions of the writer. An not liable to corrosion, as most portable Inkstands Inkstand is, however, an important article among This object is effected by bringing into contact writing materials, since its office is, or ought to be, two circular disks of glass, the flat surfaces of which not only to hold the ink, but to preserve it from are perfectly plane. These are fixed at the centre to dust, and in such a state of limpidity as to allow of a bar of metal, placed across the mouth of the stand. an easy flow from the pen, and to produce written Each plate has a hole large enough to admit the pen, characters of a uniform degree of blackness.
and the stand is opened by sliding the upper plate If dust be allowed access to ink, thickness is pro- upon the under one, so as to make the two holes duced, a quality which never belongs to good ink. coincide ; and this coincidence is ensured by means of Thickness is also produced by exposure to the air, two studs fixed to the upper plate. The aperture is from another source, which is evaporation. The closed by sliding the unperforated part of the upper latter process depends for amount upon temperature ; plate over the hole of the lower plate, and in this the liquid portion of the ink passing off in the form state the stand may be carried about in the pocket, of vapour, in quantities proportionate to the heat of or packed with linen and books, without any fear of the room and the extent of liquid surface exposed. leakage. The simplicity of this invention, and the Now, as evaporation affects only the aqueous portion ease with which it is opened and closed, justly entitle of the ink, and the solid colouring particles are it to the highest praise that can be bestowed upon a suspended in a liquid medium which is constantly portable Inkstand. decreasing, a thickening of the ink, as it is called, is a necessary result. By continued evaporation the whole of the water will pass off, and the colouring matter will alone remain in the Inkstand, as a hard
LIGHT OF THE MARINE ANIMALS. dry mass. This circumstance is pleasantly, but not Light diminishes rapidly in passing through water. quite correctly, alluded to by Cowper, in his Ode to At a certain depth, the sun itself would be invisible, Apollo, on an Inkglass dried in the Sun.
as if a plate of iron had been interposed. ExperiAh why, since oceans, rivers, streams,
ments have been made to ascertain what thickness of That water all the nations,
water excludes all light; but as yet without success. Pay tribute to thy glorious beams
But while these estimates refer to the full light of the In constant exhalations
sun, and as the light of a cloudy day, of twilight, and Why, stooping at the noon of day, Too covetous of drink,
of night, are successively far inferior, there must be Apollo, hast thou stol'n away,
many and long periods in which darkness reigns at A Poet's drop of ink ?
very small depths, since the quantity transmitted is A very simple and efficient form of Inkstand is proportioned to the intensity. shown in fig. 5, in which ink may be preserved for It is also familiar, that many fishes reside in the several months without thickening. It consists of a deeper parts of the sea, as is true of the Ling among glass bottle open only at s, where there is a small others, and on the bottom, as occurs in the flat fishes; mouth large enough to receive the pen. This bottle while, moreover, many are nocturnal, sleeping in the is filled by inclining the closed part, A B, downwards, day, and seeking their food in the night. On the and pouring in the ink at s: the ink will displace a land, absolute darkness is a very rare occurrence, portion of air in the bottle equal to its own bulk, and while the nocturnal animals have a peculiar provision will not overflow at s, on account of the atmospheric for discovering their prey, in a large pupil and highly pressure balancing the liquid column in the bottle. sensible nerve. But under the entire want of light, In this example, evaporation is small, because the that must often exist in the sea, no such power could surface at s is small, and a very minute portion of be a compensation ; while in minor cases, the great the ink being exposed to dust, no thickening occurs. velocity of these tribes, and the frequent consequent Bird-cage fountains are constructed on similar prin- distances between the pursuer and the pursued, must ciples.
also be an obstacle to distinct vision. Under any A few improved Inkstands have, of late years, view, it must have been impossible to prey at night; been made the subject of patents. One of these, since our own least visible light must be pure darkby Mr. Edwards, is a useful and elegant invention. ness, even near the surface. It consists of an external cylinder of bronze, con- Here then is a world without light, the habitation taining a cylinder of glass, in which an accurately of myriads of the most active and rapacious animals fitting glass piston moves by a very ready adjust- of creation : often social, performing various funcment: below this piston is the ink, imbibed by a tions, moving over great distances with the rapidity quantity of loose hair or wool. From the lower of birds, and, above all, provided with organs of part of the stand proceeds a tube and a conical cup, vision. Did naturalists never reflect on such a world, which is filled with ink by slightly depressing the or ask themselves how such pursuits were carried on piston, and thus the pan is supplied. When not in in utter darkness? They had not thought on the use, this cup can be emptied in an instant, by giving darkness alone of that world : and when they knew a slight upward motion to the piston, and the wool it, and did not inquire how the inconvenience to its being relieved from pressure, re-absorbs the ink. | inhabitants was remedied, is it not because they too Should any of the ink flow over the conical cup, it is often forget to view creation as they ought, to inquire received into a saucer below, and can be returned of intentions and final causes, to look higher, and into the reservoir.
think more deeply of Him who has neglected nothing Mr. Doughty, the inventor of pens with ruby nibs, essential to the good of his creatures ? He who sees has contrived an Inkstand which is lined with India- God, wise, beneficient, and governing, will find a clue rubber, to prevent the nibs of his pens being injured to his studies, and the solution of his difficulties. by striking against the glass of common Inkstands. A remedy for the interception of the sun and the For a description of his peculiar pens we must refer absence of light, was wanted : day could not be to our article on-steel-pens.
brought into the depths of the ocean, for the laws of
light forbade it : yet, to at least the mutual pursuit | This fact is familiar in our larders; and though comof its inhabitants, that was indispensable. It remained monly attributed to putrefaction, it commences long for Him who created the difficulty, to invent the before this process, and even ceases as that is estaremedy. I do not say that man might not have sug-blished. And if the purpose of this second contrigested it, though he seldom recollects that he knows vance is plain, so ought it always to have been. The nothing but what creation and its Creator have dead animal, in this condition, is still food : by putretaught him,-often also apparently teaching him as faction it would be wasted, and might be injurious, specially as the insect, on whose instinct he looks as such matters are, in the atmosphere : it comes down with contempt, while priding himself on his an object of attraction under this new expedient, as superiority of reason. But even if he could have ima- it had ceased to be, in losing its former powers of gined the remedy, it was boundless power alone that producing light with the loss of its life. And the wiscould have furnished it. And the Creator has done dom is not less shown in conferring this new property this by means, the nature of which we cannot com- anterior to putrefaction : since it is then more valuprehend; yet not more ignorant here than in all other able as food. Here, again, we see the utility of final cases of that local production of light, independently causes in the discovery of truth : since naturalists of the sun and of combustion, to which the vague had always considered this as a mere result of putreterm phosphorescence is applied.
faction, and thus given a false view of a fact in nature, The never-failing wisdom and power of the Creator from neglecting its Author. have established an independent source of light be- Of the living lights we are even more ignorant than neath the ocean; and it has been disposed in the of the dead; since we cannot detach the luminous precise manner required to answer the intended pur-substance, if there be one, nor discover the organs by poses. The animal itself was to be seen amid utter which it is produced. In the larger fishes, it seems darkness; and it is rendered luminous, or becomes, to exist over the entire surface, as it is evidently the itself, a source of light. Nor can we doubt the design temporary produce of an act of volition; though it is and the purpose here, when we find the provision not easy to judge correctly of the facts, as it is posuniversal and the purpose necessary, and when we sible that the light around them may, partly at least, also can conjecture of no other mode in which it could be produced by the disturbance of minute animals in have been attained. The great pursuit of all animals contact with them. This, however, will not of itself is food, and the food has here been rendered luminous, explain the appearances: since, in that case, it should that it might be discovered. But for this provision, attend every movement, whereas it is but occasional, the deep-residing fishes could not have found the and is excited, among other things, by a noise or an means of existing at the bottom of the sea, and the alarm. And that the luminous property does not night-preying ones would have been for ever helpless: belong to the water itself, we are assured, by finding while my own investigations have shown, that there that it never exists unless animals are present; while are predatory kinds immoveably fixed to the bottom, if the crowds of the nearly microscopic ones are the at depths of 6000 feet, where darkness is eternal. cause of that general light which seems to have given
The truth of this view is confirmed by the effect of rise to this error, so does it require an equally minute luminous bodies on fishes. Even in ordinary day- | investigation to detect those hitherto almost unsusfishing, it is a brilliant object, not a definite form, or pected myriads. Seamen, knowing the difference a fish, which is the subject of pursuit, and it is so between blue and green water, know also that the especially, as might be expected, among the swift former very rarely contains such animals, and is as fishes. It is the bright silvery skin of the bait which rarely luminous. With some noted exceptions in the is the attraction, and familiarly so in the mackerel, ocean, it is on the shores chiefly, that we find highly equally ready to seize a shining piece of metal or a luminous water prevailing. brilliant feather. Thence, also, the use and effect of I believe the power of producing light to be an nocturnal lights in fishing : well known to our remote universal property in the marine tribes; and that belief predecessors among the ancients, to the inhabitants is confirmed by the fact, that I have never found a of the Mediterranean, and even to savage nations; species, however microscopic, in which it did not all profiting by that knowledge which we disdain or exist. I except the shell-fishes, however; and if there neglect. If adopted in the fraudulent salmon fishery, are obvious reasons why the display should there be and there only, no one seems aware that the light, difficult, so must I plead ignorance of what is of no supposed to aid ourselves in seeing the fish, is in easy investigation. Yet the Pholades are known to reality its bait. It is the object of pursuit, because it be luminous, and the places of others are generally is the expected prey.
marked out by luminous parasites. But in all others But this is not all of the Divine contrivance on this of the marine animals which are not fishes, from the subject : while, if the object is the same,-the dis- largest Medusa or Holothuria, down to the most micovery of prey by the means of light, the mode of nute Beroe, Cyclops, Vorticella, or Vibrio, there seems attaining that end is different, as there is some dif- a particular point, or organ, adapted for this purpose, ference also in the nature of the prey itself. How which, however, we cannot discover, as the light far the chemical sources of the light might coincide which is our only guide for it, disappears in that or differ, we do not know: but the one at least be- which is necessary for its examination ; as also we longs to vital action, while the other is engaged with cannot find any organs in many of these, beyond the dead matter.
stomach and ovaria, and the tentacula or other appen. In all the living marine animals, the light is bril-dages. And the reason for this conclusion is, that liant, often of different colours, commonly confined to in Medusæ of a foot in diameter, the light will somea certain portion, or organ; or, at farthest, to the times not exceed a pea in size, though in others, as surface, under the command of the will, and depen in the Cyclops very often, its brilliancy causes it to dent on life, since it disappears at the death or cap- appear larger than the whole body. The colour of ture of the subject, as the interior parts also show no the light varies; it is sometimes snow white, or else signs of it. But shortly after death, the whole body of the electric blue, or of a greenish tinge, or reddish, becomes luminous, displaying a pale uniform light; or yellow, or even scarlet. and the luminous matter can be detached and dif- Such then is the true source of those often brilliant, fused through water, while the living light cannot. I sometimes terrific appearances, so frequently observed